Abstract

What we believe to be a novel procedure to correct the nonuniformity that is inherent in all matrix detectors has been developed and experimentally validated. This correction method, unlike other nonuniformity-correction algorithms, consists of two steps that separate two of the usual problems that affect characterization of matrix detectors, i.e., nonlinearity and the relative variation of the pixels' responsivity across the array. The correction of the nonlinear behavior remains valid for any illumination wavelength employed, as long as the nonlinearity is not due to power dependence of the internal quantum efficiency. This method of correction of nonuniformity permits the immediate calculation of the correction factor for any given power level and for any illuminant that has a known spectral content once the nonuniform behavior has been characterized for a sufficient number of wavelengths. This procedure has a significant advantage compared with other traditional calibration-based methods, which require that a full characterization be carried out for each spectral distribution pattern of the incident optical radiation. The experimental application of this novel method has achieved a 20-fold increase in the uniformity of a CCD array for response levels close to saturation.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. M. Mooney, "Effect of spatial noise on the minimum resolvable temperature of a staring sensor," Appl. Opt. 30, 3324-3332 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Campos, "Radiometric calibration of charge-coupled-device video cameras," Metrologia 37, 459-464 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, and M. R. Kruer, "Influence of nonuniformity on infrared focal plane array," Opt. Eng. 24, 855-862 (1985).
  4. M. Schulz and L. Caldwell, "Nonuniformity correction and correctability of infrared focal plane arrays," Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 763-777 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. L. Perry and E. L. Dereniak, "Linear theory of nonuniformity correction infrared staring sensors," Opt. Eng. 32, 1854-1859 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Zhou, R. Lai, S. Liu, and G. Jiang, "New improved correction for infrared focal plane arrays," Opt. Commun. 245, 49-53 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. C. Hardie, M. M. Hayat, E. Armstrong, and B. Yasuda, "Scene-based nonuniformity correction with video sequences and registration," Appl. Opt. 39, 1241-1250 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Kober, V. Saptzin, and T. S. Choi, "Adaptative nonuniformity compensation for infrared focal plane array sensors," presented at the ITS World Congress, Seoul, South Korea, 12-16 October 1998.
  9. S. N. Torres and M. M. Hayat, "Kalman filtering for adaptative nonuniformity correction in infrared focal-plane arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 470-480 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. M. Hayat, S. N. Torres, E. Armstrong, S. C. Cain, and B. Yasuda, "Statistical algorithm for nonuniformity correction in focal-plane arrays," Appl. Opt. 38, 772-780 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. M. Ratliff, M. M. Hayat, and R. C. Hardie, "Algebraic algorithm for nonuniformity correction in focal-plane arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1737-1747 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J R. Janesick, Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices (SPIE Press, 2001), pp. 489-604.
    [CrossRef]
  13. Ref. 12, p. 656.
  14. Ref. 12, pp. 516-519.
  15. R. M. Smith, "How linear are typical CCDs?" Exp. Astron. 8, 59-72 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Experimental results on integration time-irradiance non equivalence on a CCD Camera," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association (International Colour Association, 2005), pp. 1283-1286.
  17. A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Radiance source for CCD absolute radiometric calibration," in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on New Developments and Appliacitons in Optical Radiometry (World Radiation Center, 2005), pp. 113-114.
  18. S. Lowenthal and D. Joyeux, "Speckle removal by a slowly moving diffuser associated with a motionless difuser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 847-851 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Schröder, "Elimination of granulation in laser beam projections by means of moving diffusers," Opt. Commun. 3, 68-72 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Zhou, R. Lai, S. Liu, and G. Jiang, "New improved correction for infrared focal plane arrays," Opt. Commun. 245, 49-53 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

R. M. Smith, "How linear are typical CCDs?" Exp. Astron. 8, 59-72 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Schulz and L. Caldwell, "Nonuniformity correction and correctability of infrared focal plane arrays," Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 763-777 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. L. Perry and E. L. Dereniak, "Linear theory of nonuniformity correction infrared staring sensors," Opt. Eng. 32, 1854-1859 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1985 (1)

A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, and M. R. Kruer, "Influence of nonuniformity on infrared focal plane array," Opt. Eng. 24, 855-862 (1985).

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

E. Schröder, "Elimination of granulation in laser beam projections by means of moving diffusers," Opt. Commun. 3, 68-72 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, E.

Barone, F. R.

A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, and M. R. Kruer, "Influence of nonuniformity on infrared focal plane array," Opt. Eng. 24, 855-862 (1985).

Cain, S. C.

Caldwell, L.

M. Schulz and L. Caldwell, "Nonuniformity correction and correctability of infrared focal plane arrays," Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 763-777 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Campos, J.

J. Campos, "Radiometric calibration of charge-coupled-device video cameras," Metrologia 37, 459-464 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Experimental results on integration time-irradiance non equivalence on a CCD Camera," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association (International Colour Association, 2005), pp. 1283-1286.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Radiance source for CCD absolute radiometric calibration," in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on New Developments and Appliacitons in Optical Radiometry (World Radiation Center, 2005), pp. 113-114.

Choi, T. S.

V. Kober, V. Saptzin, and T. S. Choi, "Adaptative nonuniformity compensation for infrared focal plane array sensors," presented at the ITS World Congress, Seoul, South Korea, 12-16 October 1998.

Dereniak, E. L.

D. L. Perry and E. L. Dereniak, "Linear theory of nonuniformity correction infrared staring sensors," Opt. Eng. 32, 1854-1859 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ferrero, A.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Experimental results on integration time-irradiance non equivalence on a CCD Camera," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association (International Colour Association, 2005), pp. 1283-1286.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Radiance source for CCD absolute radiometric calibration," in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on New Developments and Appliacitons in Optical Radiometry (World Radiation Center, 2005), pp. 113-114.

Hardie, R. C.

Hayat, M. M.

Janesick, J R.

J R. Janesick, Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices (SPIE Press, 2001), pp. 489-604.
[CrossRef]

Jiang, G.

H. Zhou, R. Lai, S. Liu, and G. Jiang, "New improved correction for infrared focal plane arrays," Opt. Commun. 245, 49-53 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joyeux, D.

Kober, V.

V. Kober, V. Saptzin, and T. S. Choi, "Adaptative nonuniformity compensation for infrared focal plane array sensors," presented at the ITS World Congress, Seoul, South Korea, 12-16 October 1998.

Kruer, M. R.

A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, and M. R. Kruer, "Influence of nonuniformity on infrared focal plane array," Opt. Eng. 24, 855-862 (1985).

Lai, R.

H. Zhou, R. Lai, S. Liu, and G. Jiang, "New improved correction for infrared focal plane arrays," Opt. Commun. 245, 49-53 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

H. Zhou, R. Lai, S. Liu, and G. Jiang, "New improved correction for infrared focal plane arrays," Opt. Commun. 245, 49-53 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lowenthal, S.

Milton, A. F.

A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, and M. R. Kruer, "Influence of nonuniformity on infrared focal plane array," Opt. Eng. 24, 855-862 (1985).

Mooney, L. M.

Perry, D. L.

D. L. Perry and E. L. Dereniak, "Linear theory of nonuniformity correction infrared staring sensors," Opt. Eng. 32, 1854-1859 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pons, A.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Experimental results on integration time-irradiance non equivalence on a CCD Camera," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association (International Colour Association, 2005), pp. 1283-1286.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Radiance source for CCD absolute radiometric calibration," in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on New Developments and Appliacitons in Optical Radiometry (World Radiation Center, 2005), pp. 113-114.

Ratliff, B. M.

Saptzin, V.

V. Kober, V. Saptzin, and T. S. Choi, "Adaptative nonuniformity compensation for infrared focal plane array sensors," presented at the ITS World Congress, Seoul, South Korea, 12-16 October 1998.

Schröder, E.

E. Schröder, "Elimination of granulation in laser beam projections by means of moving diffusers," Opt. Commun. 3, 68-72 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, M.

M. Schulz and L. Caldwell, "Nonuniformity correction and correctability of infrared focal plane arrays," Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 763-777 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. M.

R. M. Smith, "How linear are typical CCDs?" Exp. Astron. 8, 59-72 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Torres, S. N.

Yasuda, B.

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, R. Lai, S. Liu, and G. Jiang, "New improved correction for infrared focal plane arrays," Opt. Commun. 245, 49-53 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Exp. Astron. (1)

R. M. Smith, "How linear are typical CCDs?" Exp. Astron. 8, 59-72 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

M. Schulz and L. Caldwell, "Nonuniformity correction and correctability of infrared focal plane arrays," Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 763-777 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Metrologia (1)

J. Campos, "Radiometric calibration of charge-coupled-device video cameras," Metrologia 37, 459-464 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

H. Zhou, R. Lai, S. Liu, and G. Jiang, "New improved correction for infrared focal plane arrays," Opt. Commun. 245, 49-53 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Schröder, "Elimination of granulation in laser beam projections by means of moving diffusers," Opt. Commun. 3, 68-72 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, and M. R. Kruer, "Influence of nonuniformity on infrared focal plane array," Opt. Eng. 24, 855-862 (1985).

D. L. Perry and E. L. Dereniak, "Linear theory of nonuniformity correction infrared staring sensors," Opt. Eng. 32, 1854-1859 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

V. Kober, V. Saptzin, and T. S. Choi, "Adaptative nonuniformity compensation for infrared focal plane array sensors," presented at the ITS World Congress, Seoul, South Korea, 12-16 October 1998.

J R. Janesick, Scientific Charge-Coupled Devices (SPIE Press, 2001), pp. 489-604.
[CrossRef]

Ref. 12, p. 656.

Ref. 12, pp. 516-519.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Experimental results on integration time-irradiance non equivalence on a CCD Camera," in Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Colour Association (International Colour Association, 2005), pp. 1283-1286.

A. Ferrero, J. Campos, and A. Pons, "Radiance source for CCD absolute radiometric calibration," in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on New Developments and Appliacitons in Optical Radiometry (World Radiation Center, 2005), pp. 113-114.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nonlinearity-correction factor averaged across the array r i     LN ( N ) versus the number of counts N. Error bars show the standard deviation of r i     LN ( N ) .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the standard deviation of the fitting, the experimental temporal noise, and the standard deviation of nonlinearity correction factor r i     LN ( N ) across the whole CCD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized average responsivity R i     0 of the CCD, after nonlinearity correction, versus number of counts. Results are shown for several f-numbers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Standard deviation of the response of all the pixels as a function of wavelength after the nonlinearity correction has been applied to the pixel's response.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Improvement in PRNU after the correction algorithm (nonlinearity plus nonuniformity) has been applied.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N i N o , i = R i ( λ ) E ( λ ) t exp ,
N i N o , i = R i     0 ( λ ) r i     LN ( N ) E ( λ ) t exp ,
r i     LN ( N ) = N i N o , i R i     0 ( λ ) E ( λ ) t exp .
R i     0 ( λ ) = N i N o , i r i     LN ( N ) E ( λ ) t exp ,
r i     NU ( λ ) = N i N o , i r i     LN ( N ) R i     0 ( λ ) E ( λ ) t exp .
r i     NU ( λ ) = N i N o , i r i     LN ( N ) / N i N o , i r i     LN ( N ) ,
N i     c = N i N o , i r i     LN ( N ) r i     NU ( λ ) .

Metrics