Abstract

A technique is described to eliminate polarization-induced fading in fiber-optic interferometers with two or three polarizers. Modeling and simulation show that two polarizers should be angularly spaced by 90° to alleviate polarization-induced fading. A test system is set up with two 6.5  km fiber coils to link the data. A bistate polarization diversity receiver is tested for reducing polarization-induced fading. The signal is demodulated using a digital phase-generated carrier and the system demonstrates self-noise up to 7.7  μrad/Hz(at   1   kHz).

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. D. Keysey, M.-J. Marrone, and A. Dandridge, "Experimental investigation of polarization-induced fading in interferometric fibre sensor arrays," Electron. Lett. 27, 562-563 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, and M. A. Davis, "Polarisation-insensitive fibre optic Michelson interferometer," Electron. Lett. 27, 518-520 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, and A. B. Tveten, "Technique for elimination of polarization fading in fibre interferometers," Electron. Lett. 20, 319-320 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. K. Kirkendall and A. Dandridge, "Polarization induced phase noise in fiber optic interferometers with polarizer based polarization diversity receivers," in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest (ofs2002) (IEEE Press, 2002), pp. 375-378.
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

A. D. Keysey, M.-J. Marrone, and A. Dandridge, "Experimental investigation of polarization-induced fading in interferometric fibre sensor arrays," Electron. Lett. 27, 562-563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, and M. A. Davis, "Polarisation-insensitive fibre optic Michelson interferometer," Electron. Lett. 27, 518-520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, and A. B. Tveten, "Technique for elimination of polarization fading in fibre interferometers," Electron. Lett. 20, 319-320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bautista, A.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cranch, G. A.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crickmore, R.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daley, K.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

A. D. Keysey, M.-J. Marrone, and A. Dandridge, "Experimental investigation of polarization-induced fading in interferometric fibre sensor arrays," Electron. Lett. 27, 562-563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, and A. B. Tveten, "Technique for elimination of polarization fading in fibre interferometers," Electron. Lett. 20, 319-320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Kirkendall and A. Dandridge, "Polarization induced phase noise in fiber optic interferometers with polarizer based polarization diversity receivers," in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest (ofs2002) (IEEE Press, 2002), pp. 375-378.
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, and M. A. Davis, "Polarisation-insensitive fibre optic Michelson interferometer," Electron. Lett. 27, 518-520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Frigo, N. J.

N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, and A. B. Tveten, "Technique for elimination of polarization fading in fibre interferometers," Electron. Lett. 20, 319-320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, and M. A. Davis, "Polarisation-insensitive fibre optic Michelson interferometer," Electron. Lett. 27, 518-520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Keysey, A. D.

A. D. Keysey, M.-J. Marrone, and A. Dandridge, "Experimental investigation of polarization-induced fading in interferometric fibre sensor arrays," Electron. Lett. 27, 562-563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kirkendall, C. K.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Kirkendall and A. Dandridge, "Polarization induced phase noise in fiber optic interferometers with polarizer based polarization diversity receivers," in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest (ofs2002) (IEEE Press, 2002), pp. 375-378.
[CrossRef]

Latchem, J.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marrone, M. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, and M. A. Davis, "Polarisation-insensitive fibre optic Michelson interferometer," Electron. Lett. 27, 518-520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marrone, M.-J.

A. D. Keysey, M.-J. Marrone, and A. Dandridge, "Experimental investigation of polarization-induced fading in interferometric fibre sensor arrays," Electron. Lett. 27, 562-563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Motley, S.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nash, P. J.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salzano, J.

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tveten, A. B.

N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, and A. B. Tveten, "Technique for elimination of polarization fading in fibre interferometers," Electron. Lett. 20, 319-320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

A. D. Keysey, M.-J. Marrone, and A. Dandridge, "Experimental investigation of polarization-induced fading in interferometric fibre sensor arrays," Electron. Lett. 27, 562-563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, and M. A. Davis, "Polarisation-insensitive fibre optic Michelson interferometer," Electron. Lett. 27, 518-520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Frigo, A. Dandridge, and A. B. Tveten, "Technique for elimination of polarization fading in fibre interferometers," Electron. Lett. 20, 319-320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

G. A. Cranch, R. Crickmore, C. K. Kirkendall, A. Bautista, K. Daley, S. Motley, J. Salzano, J. Latchem, and P. J. Nash, "Acoustic performance of a large-aperture, seabed, fiber-optic hydrophone array," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 2848-2858 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. K. Kirkendall and A. Dandridge, "Polarization induced phase noise in fiber optic interferometers with polarizer based polarization diversity receivers," in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest (ofs2002) (IEEE Press, 2002), pp. 375-378.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with a three-polarizer PDR.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Probability when visibility is smaller than V0 for no PDR, a bistate PDR, and a tristate PDR. (a) V0 changes from 0 to 1. (b) V0 changes from 0 to 0.1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Probability when visibility is smaller than V0 for bistate PDR angularly spaced by 30°, 60°, and 90°. (a) V0 changes from 0 to 1. (b) V0 changes from 0 to 0.1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of a fiber Michelson interferometer test system with a polarizer-based PDR. PZT, piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Visibility changes with the input SOP. (a) The input SOP is elliptically polarized. (b) The input SOP is linearly polarized. (c) Bistate PDR using detectors A and B when the input SOP is linearly polarized.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = I 1 + I 2 + I 1 I 2 [ cos ( θ s θ r ) + cos ( θ s + θ r 2 θ ) ] cos ϕ .
V = | cos ( θ s θ r ) + cos ( θ s + θ r 2 θ ) | / 2 .

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