Abstract

We present, to the best of our knowledge, a new method to retrieve tropospheric ozone (O3) profiles from ground-based ultraviolet spectroscopic measurements. This method utilizes radiance spectra in the Huggins bands (i .e .,300340  nm) measured at three off-axis angles (e.g., 45°,75°,  and   85°) normalized to direct-Sun irradiances or zenith-sky radiances with the total column O3 derived from direct-Sun or zenith-sky measurements as a constraint. The vertical resolution of the retrieved O3 values ranges from 3  km near the surface to 12  km   at   20  km altitude. This method can be used to measure diurnal variation of tropospheric O3 profiles and is complementary to the Umkehr method that mainly measures ozone profiles in the stratosphere.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Ozone profile retrieval from backscattered ultraviolet radiances: the inverse problem solved by regularization," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 8077-8088 (2001).
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  6. R. J. van der A, R. F. van Oss, A. J. M. Piters, J. P. F. Fortuin, Y. J. Meijer, and H. M. Kelder, "Ozone profile retrieval from recalibrated GOME data," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4239, doi:10.1029/2001JD000696 (2002).
  7. X. Liu, K. Chance, C. E. Sioris, R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, R. V. Martin, and M. J. Newchurch, "Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from global ozone monitoring experiment: algorithm description and validation," J. Geophys. Res.110, D20307, doi:10.1029/2005JD006240 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Schofield, K. Kreher, B. J. Connor, P. V. Johnston, A. Thomas, D. Shooter, M. P. Chipperfield, C. D. Rodgers, andG. H. Mount, "Retrieved tropospheric and stratospheric BrO columns over Lauder, New Zealand," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004463 (2004).
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  23. M. Bruns, S. A. Buehler, J. P. Burrows, K.-P. Heue, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, T. Wagner, and P. Wang, "Retrieval of profile information from airborne multiaxis UV/visible skylight absorption measurements," Appl. Opt. 43, 4415-4426 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. X. Liu, C. E. Sioris, K. Chance, T. P. Kurosu, M. J. Newchurch, R. V. Martin, and P. I. Palmer, "Mapping tropospheric ozone profiles from an airborne UV/visible spectrometer," Appl. Opt. 44, 3312-3319 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, S. P. Sander, and L. D. Travis, "Modeling of atmospheric radiative transfer with polarization and its application to the remote sensing of tropospheric ozone," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 84, 169-179 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Tropospheric ozone information from satellite-based polarization measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4326, doi:10.1029/2001JD001346 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  29. R. J. D. Spurr, "Simultaneous derivation of intensities and weighting functions in a general pseudo-spherical discrete ordinate radiative transfer treatment," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 75, 129-175 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, and L. D. Travis, "Errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for Rayleigh scattering atmospheres," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 491-510 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  31. F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd,G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, "Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7," AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air. Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1988).
  32. K. V. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, and W. Schneider, "Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone, from ultraviolet/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467-476 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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  35. S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, and R. W. Sanders, "On the interpertation of zenith sky absorption measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311-8319 (1987).
  36. H. De Backer and D. De Muer, "Intercomparison of total ozone data measured with Dobson and Brewer ozone spectrophotometers at Uccle (Belgium) from January 1984 to March 1991 including zenith sky observations," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20711-20719 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2005

2004

M. Bruns, S. A. Buehler, J. P. Burrows, K.-P. Heue, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, T. Wagner, and P. Wang, "Retrieval of profile information from airborne multiaxis UV/visible skylight absorption measurements," Appl. Opt. 43, 4415-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hönninger, C. von Friedeburg, and U. Platt, "Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 231-254 (2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

R. Schofield, B. J. Connor, K. Kreher, and P. V. Johnston, "The retrieval of profile and chemical information from ground-based UV-visible spectroscopic measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 115-131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, S. P. Sander, and L. D. Travis, "Modeling of atmospheric radiative transfer with polarization and its application to the remote sensing of tropospheric ozone," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 84, 169-179 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Tropospheric ozone information from satellite-based polarization measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4326, doi:10.1029/2001JD001346 (2002).

A. Petritoli, F. Ravegnani, G. Giovanelli, D. Bortoli, U. Bonafe, I. Kostadinov, and A. Oulanovsky, "Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer," Appl. Opt. 41, 5593-5599 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. D. Spurr, "Simultaneous derivation of intensities and weighting functions in a general pseudo-spherical discrete ordinate radiative transfer treatment," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 75, 129-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, and K. V. Chance, "A linearized discrete ordinate radiative transfer model for atmospheric remote-sensing retrieval," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 689-735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Ozone profile retrieval from backscattered ultraviolet radiances: the inverse problem solved by regularization," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 8077-8088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. Hoogen, V. V. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "Ozone profiles from GOME satellite data: algorithm description and first validation," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8263-8280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. P. Brasseur, J. T. Kiehl, J.-F. Muller, T. Schneider, C. Granier, X. X. Tie, and D. Hauglustaine, "Past and future changes in global tropospheric ozone: impact on radiative forcing," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3807-3810 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Munro, R. Siddans, W. J. Reburn, and B. Kerridge, "Direct measurement of tropospheric ozone from space," Nature 392, 168-171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Preston, D. J. Fish, H. K. Roscoe, and R. L. Jones, "Accurate derivation of total and stratospheric vertical columns of NO2 from ground-based zenith-sky measurements,"J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 163-172 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, and S. P. Sander, "Detection of tropospheric ozone by remote sensing from the ground," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 811-818 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Preston, R. L. Jones, and H. K. Roscoe, "Retrieval of NO2 vertical profiles form ground-based UV-visible measurements: method and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19089-19097 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, and W. Schneider, "Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone, from ultraviolet/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467-476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, and L. D. Travis, "Errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for Rayleigh scattering atmospheres," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 491-510 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. L. Mateer and J. J. Deluisi, "A new Umkehr inversion algorithm," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 54, 537-556 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, and S. Solomon, "Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15499-15511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. De Backer and D. De Muer, "Intercomparison of total ozone data measured with Dobson and Brewer ozone spectrophotometers at Uccle (Belgium) from January 1984 to March 1991 including zenith sky observations," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20711-20719 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, and R. W. Sanders, "On the interpertation of zenith sky absorption measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311-8319 (1987).

1979

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, Jr., and R. S. Hyde, "Stratospheric NO2 1. Observation method and behavior at mid-latitude," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047-5065 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1965

C. L. Mateer, "On the information content of Umkehr observations," J. Atmos. Sci. 22, 370-381 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1934

F. W. P. Gotz, A. R. Meetham, and G. M. B. Dobson, "The vertical distribution of ozone in the atmosphere," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 145, 416-446 (1934).
[CrossRef]

1931

F. W. P. Gotz, "Zum Strahlungsklima des Spitzbergensommers. Strahlugns-und Ozonmessungen in der Konigsbucht 1929," Gerlands Beltr. 31, 119-154 (1931).

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd,G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, "Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7," AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air. Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1988).

Anderson, G. P.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd,G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, "Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7," AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air. Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1988).

Bhartia, P. K.

I. Petropavlovskikh, P. K. Bhartia, and J.DeLuisi, "An improved Umkehr algorithm," NOAA Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, 2004, http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/research/umkehr/append_umk_pdf.pdf

Bonafe, U.

Bortoli, D.

Brasseur, G. P.

G. P. Brasseur, J. T. Kiehl, J.-F. Muller, T. Schneider, C. Granier, X. X. Tie, and D. Hauglustaine, "Past and future changes in global tropospheric ozone: impact on radiative forcing," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3807-3810 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bruns, M.

M. Bruns, S. A. Buehler, J. P. Burrows, K.-P. Heue, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, T. Wagner, and P. Wang, "Retrieval of profile information from airborne multiaxis UV/visible skylight absorption measurements," Appl. Opt. 43, 4415-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, and P. Xie, "The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation," presented at the 15th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, Biarritz, France, May 28-31, 2001.

Buehler, S. A.

Burrows, J. P.

M. Bruns, S. A. Buehler, J. P. Burrows, K.-P. Heue, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, T. Wagner, and P. Wang, "Retrieval of profile information from airborne multiaxis UV/visible skylight absorption measurements," Appl. Opt. 43, 4415-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hoogen, V. V. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "Ozone profiles from GOME satellite data: algorithm description and first validation," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8263-8280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, and W. Schneider, "Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone, from ultraviolet/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467-476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, and P. Xie, "The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation," presented at the 15th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, Biarritz, France, May 28-31, 2001.

Chance, K.

X. Liu, C. E. Sioris, K. Chance, T. P. Kurosu, M. J. Newchurch, R. V. Martin, and P. I. Palmer, "Mapping tropospheric ozone profiles from an airborne UV/visible spectrometer," Appl. Opt. 44, 3312-3319 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, K. Chance, C. E. Sioris, R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, R. V. Martin, and M. J. Newchurch, "Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from global ozone monitoring experiment: algorithm description and validation," J. Geophys. Res.110, D20307, doi:10.1029/2005JD006240 (2005).

Chance, K. V.

R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, and K. V. Chance, "A linearized discrete ordinate radiative transfer model for atmospheric remote-sensing retrieval," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 689-735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, and W. Schneider, "Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone, from ultraviolet/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467-476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd,G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, "Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7," AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air. Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1988).

Chipperfield, M. P.

R. Schofield, K. Kreher, B. J. Connor, P. V. Johnston, A. Thomas, D. Shooter, M. P. Chipperfield, C. D. Rodgers, andG. H. Mount, "Retrieved tropospheric and stratospheric BrO columns over Lauder, New Zealand," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004463 (2004).

Clough, S. A.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd,G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, "Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7," AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air. Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1988).

Connor, B. J.

R. Schofield, B. J. Connor, K. Kreher, and P. V. Johnston, "The retrieval of profile and chemical information from ground-based UV-visible spectroscopic measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 115-131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Schofield, K. Kreher, B. J. Connor, P. V. Johnston, A. Thomas, D. Shooter, M. P. Chipperfield, C. D. Rodgers, andG. H. Mount, "Retrieved tropospheric and stratospheric BrO columns over Lauder, New Zealand," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004463 (2004).

Crutzen, P. J.

P. J. Crutzen, "Tropospheric ozone: an overview," in Tropospheric Ozone, Regional, and Global Scale Interaction, NATO ASI Series, D.Reidel, ed. (Springer, 1988), pp. 3-32.

De Backer, H.

H. De Backer and D. De Muer, "Intercomparison of total ozone data measured with Dobson and Brewer ozone spectrophotometers at Uccle (Belgium) from January 1984 to March 1991 including zenith sky observations," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20711-20719 (1991).
[CrossRef]

De Muer, D.

H. De Backer and D. De Muer, "Intercomparison of total ozone data measured with Dobson and Brewer ozone spectrophotometers at Uccle (Belgium) from January 1984 to March 1991 including zenith sky observations," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20711-20719 (1991).
[CrossRef]

DeLuisi, J.

I. Petropavlovskikh, P. K. Bhartia, and J.DeLuisi, "An improved Umkehr algorithm," NOAA Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, 2004, http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/research/umkehr/append_umk_pdf.pdf

Deluisi, J. J.

C. L. Mateer and J. J. Deluisi, "A new Umkehr inversion algorithm," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 54, 537-556 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dobson, G. M. B.

F. W. P. Gotz, A. R. Meetham, and G. M. B. Dobson, "The vertical distribution of ozone in the atmosphere," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 145, 416-446 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Fietkau, S.

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, and P. Xie, "The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation," presented at the 15th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, Biarritz, France, May 28-31, 2001.

Finocchi, F.

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, and P. Xie, "The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation," presented at the 15th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, Biarritz, France, May 28-31, 2001.

Fish, D. J.

K. E. Preston, D. J. Fish, H. K. Roscoe, and R. L. Jones, "Accurate derivation of total and stratospheric vertical columns of NO2 from ground-based zenith-sky measurements,"J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 163-172 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fortuin, J. P. F.

R. J. van der A, R. F. van Oss, A. J. M. Piters, J. P. F. Fortuin, Y. J. Meijer, and H. M. Kelder, "Ozone profile retrieval from recalibrated GOME data," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4239, doi:10.1029/2001JD000696 (2002).

Friedeburg, C. v.

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, and P. Xie, "The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation," presented at the 15th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, Biarritz, France, May 28-31, 2001.

Gallery, W. O.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd,G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, "Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7," AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air. Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1988).

Giovanelli, G.

Gotz, F. W. P.

F. W. P. Gotz, A. R. Meetham, and G. M. B. Dobson, "The vertical distribution of ozone in the atmosphere," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 145, 416-446 (1934).
[CrossRef]

F. W. P. Gotz, "Zum Strahlungsklima des Spitzbergensommers. Strahlugns-und Ozonmessungen in der Konigsbucht 1929," Gerlands Beltr. 31, 119-154 (1931).

Granier, C.

G. P. Brasseur, J. T. Kiehl, J.-F. Muller, T. Schneider, C. Granier, X. X. Tie, and D. Hauglustaine, "Past and future changes in global tropospheric ozone: impact on radiative forcing," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3807-3810 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hasekamp, O. P.

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Tropospheric ozone information from satellite-based polarization measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4326, doi:10.1029/2001JD001346 (2002).

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Ozone profile retrieval from backscattered ultraviolet radiances: the inverse problem solved by regularization," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 8077-8088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hauglustaine, D.

G. P. Brasseur, J. T. Kiehl, J.-F. Muller, T. Schneider, C. Granier, X. X. Tie, and D. Hauglustaine, "Past and future changes in global tropospheric ozone: impact on radiative forcing," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3807-3810 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heue, K.-P.

M. Bruns, S. A. Buehler, J. P. Burrows, K.-P. Heue, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, T. Wagner, and P. Wang, "Retrieval of profile information from airborne multiaxis UV/visible skylight absorption measurements," Appl. Opt. 43, 4415-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, and P. Xie, "The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation," presented at the 15th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, Biarritz, France, May 28-31, 2001.

Honninger, G.

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, and P. Xie, "The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation," presented at the 15th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, Biarritz, France, May 28-31, 2001.

Hönninger, G.

G. Hönninger, C. von Friedeburg, and U. Platt, "Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 231-254 (2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Hoogen, R.

R. Hoogen, V. V. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "Ozone profiles from GOME satellite data: algorithm description and first validation," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8263-8280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, R. S.

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, Jr., and R. S. Hyde, "Stratospheric NO2 1. Observation method and behavior at mid-latitude," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047-5065 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, S. P. Sander, and L. D. Travis, "Modeling of atmospheric radiative transfer with polarization and its application to the remote sensing of tropospheric ozone," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 84, 169-179 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, and S. P. Sander, "Detection of tropospheric ozone by remote sensing from the ground," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 811-818 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, P. V.

R. Schofield, B. J. Connor, K. Kreher, and P. V. Johnston, "The retrieval of profile and chemical information from ground-based UV-visible spectroscopic measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 115-131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, and S. Solomon, "Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15499-15511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Schofield, K. Kreher, B. J. Connor, P. V. Johnston, A. Thomas, D. Shooter, M. P. Chipperfield, C. D. Rodgers, andG. H. Mount, "Retrieved tropospheric and stratospheric BrO columns over Lauder, New Zealand," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004463 (2004).

Jones, R. L.

K. E. Preston, D. J. Fish, H. K. Roscoe, and R. L. Jones, "Accurate derivation of total and stratospheric vertical columns of NO2 from ground-based zenith-sky measurements,"J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 163-172 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Preston, R. L. Jones, and H. K. Roscoe, "Retrieval of NO2 vertical profiles form ground-based UV-visible measurements: method and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19089-19097 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kelder, H. M.

R. J. van der A, R. F. van Oss, A. J. M. Piters, J. P. F. Fortuin, Y. J. Meijer, and H. M. Kelder, "Ozone profile retrieval from recalibrated GOME data," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4239, doi:10.1029/2001JD000696 (2002).

Kerr, J. B.

R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, and S. Solomon, "Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15499-15511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kerridge, B.

R. Munro, R. Siddans, W. J. Reburn, and B. Kerridge, "Direct measurement of tropospheric ozone from space," Nature 392, 168-171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kiehl, J. T.

G. P. Brasseur, J. T. Kiehl, J.-F. Muller, T. Schneider, C. Granier, X. X. Tie, and D. Hauglustaine, "Past and future changes in global tropospheric ozone: impact on radiative forcing," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3807-3810 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kneizys, F. X.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd,G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, "Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7," AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air. Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1988).

Kostadinov, I.

Kreher, K.

R. Schofield, B. J. Connor, K. Kreher, and P. V. Johnston, "The retrieval of profile and chemical information from ground-based UV-visible spectroscopic measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 115-131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Schofield, K. Kreher, B. J. Connor, P. V. Johnston, A. Thomas, D. Shooter, M. P. Chipperfield, C. D. Rodgers, andG. H. Mount, "Retrieved tropospheric and stratospheric BrO columns over Lauder, New Zealand," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004463 (2004).

Kurosu, T. P.

X. Liu, C. E. Sioris, K. Chance, T. P. Kurosu, M. J. Newchurch, R. V. Martin, and P. I. Palmer, "Mapping tropospheric ozone profiles from an airborne UV/visible spectrometer," Appl. Opt. 44, 3312-3319 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, and K. V. Chance, "A linearized discrete ordinate radiative transfer model for atmospheric remote-sensing retrieval," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 689-735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, K. Chance, C. E. Sioris, R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, R. V. Martin, and M. J. Newchurch, "Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from global ozone monitoring experiment: algorithm description and validation," J. Geophys. Res.110, D20307, doi:10.1029/2005JD006240 (2005).

Lacis, A. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, and L. D. Travis, "Errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for Rayleigh scattering atmospheres," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 491-510 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Landgraf, J.

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Tropospheric ozone information from satellite-based polarization measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4326, doi:10.1029/2001JD001346 (2002).

O. P. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, "Ozone profile retrieval from backscattered ultraviolet radiances: the inverse problem solved by regularization," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 8077-8088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, C. E. Sioris, K. Chance, T. P. Kurosu, M. J. Newchurch, R. V. Martin, and P. I. Palmer, "Mapping tropospheric ozone profiles from an airborne UV/visible spectrometer," Appl. Opt. 44, 3312-3319 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, K. Chance, C. E. Sioris, R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, R. V. Martin, and M. J. Newchurch, "Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from global ozone monitoring experiment: algorithm description and validation," J. Geophys. Res.110, D20307, doi:10.1029/2005JD006240 (2005).

Martin, R. V.

X. Liu, C. E. Sioris, K. Chance, T. P. Kurosu, M. J. Newchurch, R. V. Martin, and P. I. Palmer, "Mapping tropospheric ozone profiles from an airborne UV/visible spectrometer," Appl. Opt. 44, 3312-3319 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, K. Chance, C. E. Sioris, R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, R. V. Martin, and M. J. Newchurch, "Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from global ozone monitoring experiment: algorithm description and validation," J. Geophys. Res.110, D20307, doi:10.1029/2005JD006240 (2005).

Mateer, C. L.

C. L. Mateer and J. J. Deluisi, "A new Umkehr inversion algorithm," J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 54, 537-556 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Mateer, "On the information content of Umkehr observations," J. Atmos. Sci. 22, 370-381 (1965).
[CrossRef]

McElroy, C. T.

R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, and S. Solomon, "Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15499-15511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, R. L.

R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, and S. Solomon, "Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15499-15511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Meetham, A. R.

F. W. P. Gotz, A. R. Meetham, and G. M. B. Dobson, "The vertical distribution of ozone in the atmosphere," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 145, 416-446 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, Y. J.

R. J. van der A, R. F. van Oss, A. J. M. Piters, J. P. F. Fortuin, Y. J. Meijer, and H. M. Kelder, "Ozone profile retrieval from recalibrated GOME data," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4239, doi:10.1029/2001JD000696 (2002).

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, and L. D. Travis, "Errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for Rayleigh scattering atmospheres," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 491-510 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mount, G. H.

R. Schofield, K. Kreher, B. J. Connor, P. V. Johnston, A. Thomas, D. Shooter, M. P. Chipperfield, C. D. Rodgers, andG. H. Mount, "Retrieved tropospheric and stratospheric BrO columns over Lauder, New Zealand," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004463 (2004).

Muller, J.-F.

G. P. Brasseur, J. T. Kiehl, J.-F. Muller, T. Schneider, C. Granier, X. X. Tie, and D. Hauglustaine, "Past and future changes in global tropospheric ozone: impact on radiative forcing," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3807-3810 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Munro, R.

R. Munro, R. Siddans, W. J. Reburn, and B. Kerridge, "Direct measurement of tropospheric ozone from space," Nature 392, 168-171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Newchurch, M. J.

X. Liu, C. E. Sioris, K. Chance, T. P. Kurosu, M. J. Newchurch, R. V. Martin, and P. I. Palmer, "Mapping tropospheric ozone profiles from an airborne UV/visible spectrometer," Appl. Opt. 44, 3312-3319 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, K. Chance, C. E. Sioris, R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, R. V. Martin, and M. J. Newchurch, "Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from global ozone monitoring experiment: algorithm description and validation," J. Geophys. Res.110, D20307, doi:10.1029/2005JD006240 (2005).

Noxon, J. F.

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, Jr., and R. S. Hyde, "Stratospheric NO2 1. Observation method and behavior at mid-latitude," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047-5065 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Oulanovsky, A.

Palmer, P. I.

Perner, D.

K. V. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, and W. Schneider, "Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone, from ultraviolet/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467-476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petritoli, A.

Petropavlovskikh, I.

I. Petropavlovskikh, P. K. Bhartia, and J.DeLuisi, "An improved Umkehr algorithm," NOAA Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, 2004, http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/research/umkehr/append_umk_pdf.pdf

Piters, A. J. M.

R. J. van der A, R. F. van Oss, A. J. M. Piters, J. P. F. Fortuin, Y. J. Meijer, and H. M. Kelder, "Ozone profile retrieval from recalibrated GOME data," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4239, doi:10.1029/2001JD000696 (2002).

Platt, U.

G. Hönninger, C. von Friedeburg, and U. Platt, "Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 231-254 (2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Bruns, S. A. Buehler, J. P. Burrows, K.-P. Heue, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, T. Wagner, and P. Wang, "Retrieval of profile information from airborne multiaxis UV/visible skylight absorption measurements," Appl. Opt. 43, 4415-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, and P. Xie, "The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation," presented at the 15th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, Biarritz, France, May 28-31, 2001.

Preston, K. E.

K. E. Preston, D. J. Fish, H. K. Roscoe, and R. L. Jones, "Accurate derivation of total and stratospheric vertical columns of NO2 from ground-based zenith-sky measurements,"J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 163-172 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Preston, R. L. Jones, and H. K. Roscoe, "Retrieval of NO2 vertical profiles form ground-based UV-visible measurements: method and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19089-19097 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pundt, I.

M. Bruns, S. A. Buehler, J. P. Burrows, K.-P. Heue, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, T. Wagner, and P. Wang, "Retrieval of profile information from airborne multiaxis UV/visible skylight absorption measurements," Appl. Opt. 43, 4415-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, and P. Xie, "The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation," presented at the 15th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, Biarritz, France, May 28-31, 2001.

Ravegnani, F.

Reburn, W. J.

R. Munro, R. Siddans, W. J. Reburn, and B. Kerridge, "Direct measurement of tropospheric ozone from space," Nature 392, 168-171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richter, A.

M. Bruns, S. A. Buehler, J. P. Burrows, K.-P. Heue, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, T. Wagner, and P. Wang, "Retrieval of profile information from airborne multiaxis UV/visible skylight absorption measurements," Appl. Opt. 43, 4415-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, and P. Xie, "The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation," presented at the 15th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, Biarritz, France, May 28-31, 2001.

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice (World Scientific Publishing, 2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Schofield, K. Kreher, B. J. Connor, P. V. Johnston, A. Thomas, D. Shooter, M. P. Chipperfield, C. D. Rodgers, andG. H. Mount, "Retrieved tropospheric and stratospheric BrO columns over Lauder, New Zealand," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004463 (2004).

Rollenbeck, R.

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, and P. Xie, "The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation," presented at the 15th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, Biarritz, France, May 28-31, 2001.

Roscoe, H. K.

K. E. Preston, D. J. Fish, H. K. Roscoe, and R. L. Jones, "Accurate derivation of total and stratospheric vertical columns of NO2 from ground-based zenith-sky measurements,"J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 163-172 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Preston, R. L. Jones, and H. K. Roscoe, "Retrieval of NO2 vertical profiles form ground-based UV-visible measurements: method and validation," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19089-19097 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rozanov, A.

Rozanov, V. V.

R. Hoogen, V. V. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows, "Ozone profiles from GOME satellite data: algorithm description and first validation," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8263-8280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sander, S. P.

Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, S. P. Sander, and L. D. Travis, "Modeling of atmospheric radiative transfer with polarization and its application to the remote sensing of tropospheric ozone," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 84, 169-179 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, and S. P. Sander, "Detection of tropospheric ozone by remote sensing from the ground," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 811-818 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, T.

G. P. Brasseur, J. T. Kiehl, J.-F. Muller, T. Schneider, C. Granier, X. X. Tie, and D. Hauglustaine, "Past and future changes in global tropospheric ozone: impact on radiative forcing," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3807-3810 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, W.

K. V. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, and W. Schneider, "Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone, from ultraviolet/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467-476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, R.

R. Schofield, B. J. Connor, K. Kreher, and P. V. Johnston, "The retrieval of profile and chemical information from ground-based UV-visible spectroscopic measurements," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 115-131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Schofield, K. Kreher, B. J. Connor, P. V. Johnston, A. Thomas, D. Shooter, M. P. Chipperfield, C. D. Rodgers, andG. H. Mount, "Retrieved tropospheric and stratospheric BrO columns over Lauder, New Zealand," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004463 (2004).

Selby, J. E. A.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd,G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, "Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7," AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air. Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1988).

Shettle, E. P.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd,G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, "Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7," AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air. Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1988).

Shooter, D.

R. Schofield, K. Kreher, B. J. Connor, P. V. Johnston, A. Thomas, D. Shooter, M. P. Chipperfield, C. D. Rodgers, andG. H. Mount, "Retrieved tropospheric and stratospheric BrO columns over Lauder, New Zealand," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004463 (2004).

Siddans, R.

R. Munro, R. Siddans, W. J. Reburn, and B. Kerridge, "Direct measurement of tropospheric ozone from space," Nature 392, 168-171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sioris, C. E.

X. Liu, C. E. Sioris, K. Chance, T. P. Kurosu, M. J. Newchurch, R. V. Martin, and P. I. Palmer, "Mapping tropospheric ozone profiles from an airborne UV/visible spectrometer," Appl. Opt. 44, 3312-3319 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, K. Chance, C. E. Sioris, R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, R. V. Martin, and M. J. Newchurch, "Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from global ozone monitoring experiment: algorithm description and validation," J. Geophys. Res.110, D20307, doi:10.1029/2005JD006240 (2005).

Solomon, S.

R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, and S. Solomon, "Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight," J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15499-15511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Spurr, R. J. D.

R. J. D. Spurr, "Simultaneous derivation of intensities and weighting functions in a general pseudo-spherical discrete ordinate radiative transfer treatment," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 75, 129-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, and K. V. Chance, "A linearized discrete ordinate radiative transfer model for atmospheric remote-sensing retrieval," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 689-735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, K. Chance, C. E. Sioris, R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, R. V. Martin, and M. J. Newchurch, "Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from global ozone monitoring experiment: algorithm description and validation," J. Geophys. Res.110, D20307, doi:10.1029/2005JD006240 (2005).

Thomas, A.

R. Schofield, K. Kreher, B. J. Connor, P. V. Johnston, A. Thomas, D. Shooter, M. P. Chipperfield, C. D. Rodgers, andG. H. Mount, "Retrieved tropospheric and stratospheric BrO columns over Lauder, New Zealand," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004463 (2004).

Tie, X. X.

G. P. Brasseur, J. T. Kiehl, J.-F. Muller, T. Schneider, C. Granier, X. X. Tie, and D. Hauglustaine, "Past and future changes in global tropospheric ozone: impact on radiative forcing," Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3807-3810 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, S. P. Sander, and L. D. Travis, "Modeling of atmospheric radiative transfer with polarization and its application to the remote sensing of tropospheric ozone," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 84, 169-179 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, and L. D. Travis, "Errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for Rayleigh scattering atmospheres," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 491-510 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van der A, R. J.

R. J. van der A, R. F. van Oss, A. J. M. Piters, J. P. F. Fortuin, Y. J. Meijer, and H. M. Kelder, "Ozone profile retrieval from recalibrated GOME data," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4239, doi:10.1029/2001JD000696 (2002).

van Oss, R. F.

R. J. van der A, R. F. van Oss, A. J. M. Piters, J. P. F. Fortuin, Y. J. Meijer, and H. M. Kelder, "Ozone profile retrieval from recalibrated GOME data," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4239, doi:10.1029/2001JD000696 (2002).

von Friedeburg, C.

G. Hönninger, C. von Friedeburg, and U. Platt, "Multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 231-254 (2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Wagner, T.

M. Bruns, S. A. Buehler, J. P. Burrows, K.-P. Heue, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, T. Wagner, and P. Wang, "Retrieval of profile information from airborne multiaxis UV/visible skylight absorption measurements," Appl. Opt. 43, 4415-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, and P. Xie, "The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation," presented at the 15th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, Biarritz, France, May 28-31, 2001.

Wang, P.

Whipple, E. C.

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, Jr., and R. S. Hyde, "Stratospheric NO2 1. Observation method and behavior at mid-latitude," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5047-5065 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wittrock, F.

T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, and P. Xie, "The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation," presented at the 15th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, Biarritz, France, May 28-31, 2001.

Xie, P.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated (1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere), a priori, and retrieved O3 profiles for the base case. The a priori standard deviations are plotted as dashed error bars and the retrieval errors (instrument random noise + smoothing) are plotted as solid error bars. For clarity, the a priori profile is shifted upward by 0.5 km. The inset shows the relative difference between the retrieved and the simulated profiles. The TCO for the simulated and a priori profiles is indicated and the bias and retrieval error in the TCO are indicated for the retrieved profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) AMFs for radiances at 310 and 340 nm for zenith and three VZAs (45°, 75°, and 85°) and direct-Sun irradiance. (b) AMFs for normalized radiances at 300, 310, 320, 330, and 340 nm for VZAs of 45°, 75°, and 85°. (c) Profiles of DFS using radiance spectra at VZAs of 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, 85°, and 88°. The total DFS is also shown in parentheses. Surface albedo is assumed to be 0.1 and the SZA is 45°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Averaging kernels for using (a) the base case except without total column O3 constraint, (b) base case, (c) Umkehr method, and (d) combination of Umkehr and our proposed approach. The total DFS is listed. Each line refers to the sensitivity of retrieved O3 at the layer indicated in the legend to the perturbed O3 at each layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Similar to Fig. 1 but for retrievals under two modified scenarios, representing low and high tropospheric O3 conditions, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Column O3 Biases and Retrieval Errors a

Equations (186)

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( O 3 )
( i .e . , 300 340   nm )
45 ° , 75 ° ,   and   85 ° )
O 3
O 3
3   km
12   km   at   20  km
O 3
( O 3 )
O 3
O 3
O 3
90 %
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
60 °   to   90 °
O 3
20 4 0   km
20   km
NO 2
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
NO 2
O 3
SO 2
NO 3
O 3
NO 2
( 2  km × 2 km )
( 2 6   km )
( e .g .,   75 °   and  85 ° )
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
( 300 340   nm )
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
NO 2   and   SO 2
O 3
O 3
O 3
10 %
O 3
50   km
0.14
550  nm
45 °
90 °
300 340   nm
O 3
O 3
1.0   nm
0.5 nm / pixel
160   at   300   nm
340   nm
0   to   60   km
2.5   km
5   km
12   km
12.51   km
O 3
40.9   DU
O 3
O 3
O 3
5   km
310   and   340   nm
20 25   km
5.5   km
310   and   340   nm
O 3
3.5   and   4 .5   km
45 °
310   and   340   nm
75 °   and   85 °
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
45 ° , 75 °  and  85 °
O 3
45 ° , 75 ° ,   and   85 °
45 ° , 75 ° ,   and   85 °
O 3
60 °   to   90 °
100   log   units
90 °
89.9 °
20.3   km
O 3
O 3
2.8 , 2.9 ,   and   4 .3   km   FWHM
1.4 , 4.2 ,   and   6. 8   km
20.3   km
11.5   km   at   20.3   km
22.5   km
22.5   km
O 3
30   km
22.5   km
O 3
22.5   km
10 15   km
35   km
35   km
O 3
10   km
( 25 %
35   km
11   km
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
0 30   km
30 6 0   km
O 3
2   DU
25 %
O 3
6 % 1 3 %
31.5   km
< 1 %
< 10 %
> 40 %
20   km
20   km
20   km
0.5   DU ( 1 .5% )
2.3   DU ( 5 .6% )
1   DU ( 0 .3% )
3.6   DU ( 1 .2% )
O 3
O 3
O 3
10
O 3
O 3
125   ppbv
3   DU ( 30% )
O 3
2   DU ( 2% )
3.4   DU   ( 11% )
3   DU ( 1% )
3.6   DU ( 1 .3% )
1.0   to   0 .2   nm
0.5   to   0 .1   nm / pixel
0.2
320   nm
0.2
310 340   nm
0.6
0.4
320 340   nm
O 3
0 °   and   45 °
45 °   to   75 °   or   85 °
1
O 3
45 ° , 75 ° ,   and   85 °
O 3
3   km
12   km
20   km
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3
O 3

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