Abstract

Spectral particle extinction coefficients of atmospheric aerosols were measured with, to the best of our knowledge, a newly designed differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument. A closure study was carried out on the basis of optical and microphysical aerosol properties obtained from nephelometer, particle soot∕absorption photometer, hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer, twin differential mobility particle sizer, aerodynamic particle sizer, and Berner impactors. The data were collected at the urban site of Leipzig during a period of 10 days in March 2000. The performance test also includes a comparison of the optical properties measured with DOAS to particle optical properties calculated with a Mie-scattering code. The computations take into account dry and ambient particle conditions. Under dry particle conditions the linear regression and the correlation coefficient for particle extinction are 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. At ambient conditions these parameters are 0.89 and 0.97, respectively. An inversion algorithm was used to retrieve microphysical particle properties from the extinction coefficients measured with DOAS. We found excellent agreement within the retrieval uncertainties.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. AlthausenJ. Geophys. Res. 109(D13), D13203 doi:10.1029/2004JD004600 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Pahlow, D. Müller, G. Feingold, W. Eberhard, and R. Steward, "Retrieval of aerosol properties from combined multiwavelength lidar and Sun photometer data: simulations," (submitted to Appl. Opt.).
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    [CrossRef]
  33. O. Dubovik and M. D. King, "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D16), 20673-20696 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. AlthausenJ. Geophys. Res. 109(D13), D13203 doi:10.1029/2004JD004600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Feingold and B. Morley, "Aerosol hygroscopic properties as measured by lidar and comparison with in situ measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108(D11), 4327, doi:10.1029/2002JD002842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, "Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding," Appl. Opt. 41, 3685-3699 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wex, C. Neusüß, M. Wendisch, F. Stratmann, C. Koziar, A. Keil, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Ebert, "Particle scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients: An in situ closure and sensitivity study," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8122, doi:10.1029/2000JD000234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, and U. Leiterer, "Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): Overview," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8129, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Busch, K. Kandler, L. Schutz, and C. Neusüß, "Hygroscopic properties and water-soluble volume fraction of atmospheric particles in the diameter range from 50 nm to 3.8 μm during LACE 98," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8119 doi: 10.1029/2000JD000228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

J. Heintzenberg and G. Erfurt, "Modification of a commercial integrating nephelometer for outdoor measurements," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1645-1650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D16), 20673-20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (6)

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, "Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory," Appl. Opt. 38, 2346-2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, "Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation," Appl. Opt. 38, 2358-2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Bond, T. L. Anderson, and D. Campbell, "Calibration and intercomparison of filter-based measurements of visible light absorption by aerosols," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30, 582-600 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Birmili, F. Stratmann, and A. Wiedensohler, "Design of a DMA-based size spectrometer for a large particle size range and stable operation," J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 549-553 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Wehner and A. Wiedensohler, "Statistical analysis on a long term study of number size distributions in the urban area," J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 645-646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Maßling, A. Wiedensohler, and B. Busch, "Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the southern Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean," J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 837-383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. Flentje, R. Dubois, J. Heintzenberg, and H.-J. Karbach, "Retrieval of aerosol properties from boundary layer extinction measurements with a DOAS system," Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2019-2022 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. Heintzenberg and R. J. Charlson, "Design and applications of the integrating nephelometer: a review," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 987-1000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, and T. Düsterdiek, "Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario," J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D14), 19999-19209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Wendisch and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, "Possibility of refractive index determination of atmospheric aerosol particles by ground-based solar extinction and scattering measurements," Atmos. Environ. 28, 785-792 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, B. J. Turpin, P. H. McMurry, S. H. Herig, and M. R. Stolzenburg, "Mie theory evaluation of species contributions to 1990 wintertime visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 44, 153-162 (1994).

1992 (1)

I. B. Svenningsson, H. C. Hansson, A. Wiedensohler, J. A. Ogren, K. J. Noone, and A. Hallberg, "Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the Po valley," Tellus , Ser. B 44B, 556-569 (1992).

1990 (1)

J. Notholt and F. Raes, "Test of in situ measurements of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by long path transmission spectroscopy," J. Aerosol Sci. 21, 193-196 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

C. S. Sloane and G. T. Wolff, "Prediction of ambient light scattering using a physical model responsive to relative humidity: Validation with measurements from Detroit," Atmos. Environ. 19, 669-680 (1984).

1979 (2)

U. Platt, D. Perner, and H. Pätz, "Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3 and NO2 by differential optical absorption," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329-6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. Berner, C. Lurzer, F. Pohl, O. Preining, and P. Wagner, "The size distribution of the urban aerosol in Vienna," Sci. Total Environ. 13, 245-261 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Aalto, P.

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

Althausen, D.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. AlthausenJ. Geophys. Res. 109(D13), D13203 doi:10.1029/2004JD004600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. L.

T. C. Bond, T. L. Anderson, and D. Campbell, "Calibration and intercomparison of filter-based measurements of visible light absorption by aerosols," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30, 582-600 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. AlthausenJ. Geophys. Res. 109(D13), D13203 doi:10.1029/2004JD004600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, and U. Leiterer, "Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): Overview," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8129, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, "Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation," Appl. Opt. 38, 2358-2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, "Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory," Appl. Opt. 38, 2346-2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berg, O. H.

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

Berner, A.

A. Berner, C. Lurzer, F. Pohl, O. Preining, and P. Wagner, "The size distribution of the urban aerosol in Vienna," Sci. Total Environ. 13, 245-261 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Birmili, W.

W. Birmili, F. Stratmann, and A. Wiedensohler, "Design of a DMA-based size spectrometer for a large particle size range and stable operation," J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 549-553 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffmann, "Absorption and scattering of light by small particles," (Wiley, 1983).

Bond, T. C.

T. C. Bond, T. L. Anderson, and D. Campbell, "Calibration and intercomparison of filter-based measurements of visible light absorption by aerosols," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30, 582-600 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brook, J.

R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, and T. Düsterdiek, "Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario," J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D14), 19999-19209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Busch, B.

B. Busch, K. Kandler, L. Schutz, and C. Neusüß, "Hygroscopic properties and water-soluble volume fraction of atmospheric particles in the diameter range from 50 nm to 3.8 μm during LACE 98," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8119 doi: 10.1029/2000JD000228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

A. Maßling, A. Wiedensohler, and B. Busch, "Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the southern Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean," J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 837-383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cadle, S. H.

S. H. Cadle and J. Groblicki, "An evaluation of methods for the determination of organic and elemental carbon in particulate samples," in Particulate Carbon: Atmospheric Life Cycle, G.T.Wolff and R.L.Klimisch, eds. (Plenum, 1982).

Campbell, D.

T. C. Bond, T. L. Anderson, and D. Campbell, "Calibration and intercomparison of filter-based measurements of visible light absorption by aerosols," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30, 582-600 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Charlson, R. J.

J. Heintzenberg and R. J. Charlson, "Design and applications of the integrating nephelometer: a review," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 987-1000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clauder, E.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Covert, D. S.

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

d'Almeida, G. A.

G. A. d'Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols. Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (ADP, 1991).

Dubois, R.

T. Müller, D. Müller, and R. Dubois, "Particle extinction measured at ambient conditions with differential optical absorption spectroscopy. 1. System setup and characterization," Appl. Opt. 441657-1666 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Flentje, R. Dubois, J. Heintzenberg, and H.-J. Karbach, "Retrieval of aerosol properties from boundary layer extinction measurements with a DOAS system," Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2019-2022 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D16), 20673-20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dusek, U.

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

Düsterdiek, T.

R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, and T. Düsterdiek, "Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario," J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D14), 19999-19209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eberhard, W.

M. Pahlow, D. Müller, G. Feingold, W. Eberhard, and R. Steward, "Retrieval of aerosol properties from combined multiwavelength lidar and Sun photometer data: simulations," (submitted to Appl. Opt.).

Ebert, M.

H. Wex, C. Neusüß, M. Wendisch, F. Stratmann, C. Koziar, A. Keil, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Ebert, "Particle scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients: An in situ closure and sensitivity study," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8122, doi:10.1029/2000JD000234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Erfurt, G.

J. Heintzenberg and G. Erfurt, "Modification of a commercial integrating nephelometer for outdoor measurements," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1645-1650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feingold, G.

G. Feingold and B. Morley, "Aerosol hygroscopic properties as measured by lidar and comparison with in situ measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108(D11), 4327, doi:10.1029/2002JD002842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Pahlow, D. Müller, G. Feingold, W. Eberhard, and R. Steward, "Retrieval of aerosol properties from combined multiwavelength lidar and Sun photometer data: simulations," (submitted to Appl. Opt.).

Flentje, H.

H. Flentje, R. Dubois, J. Heintzenberg, and H.-J. Karbach, "Retrieval of aerosol properties from boundary layer extinction measurements with a DOAS system," Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2019-2022 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frank, G.

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

Georgi, B.

R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, and T. Düsterdiek, "Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario," J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D14), 19999-19209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Griaznov, V.

Groblicki, J.

S. H. Cadle and J. Groblicki, "An evaluation of methods for the determination of organic and elemental carbon in particulate samples," in Particulate Carbon: Atmospheric Life Cycle, G.T.Wolff and R.L.Klimisch, eds. (Plenum, 1982).

Guise-Bagley, L.

R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, and T. Düsterdiek, "Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario," J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D14), 19999-19209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hallberg, A.

I. B. Svenningsson, H. C. Hansson, A. Wiedensohler, J. A. Ogren, K. J. Noone, and A. Hallberg, "Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the Po valley," Tellus , Ser. B 44B, 556-569 (1992).

Hameri, K.

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

Hänel, G.

G. Hänel, "Parametrization of the influence of relative humidity on optical aerosol properties," in Aerosols and Their Climatic Effects, H.E. Gerber and A. Deepak, eds. (ADP, 1984), pp. 117-122.

Hansson, H. C.

I. B. Svenningsson, H. C. Hansson, A. Wiedensohler, J. A. Ogren, K. J. Noone, and A. Hallberg, "Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the Po valley," Tellus , Ser. B 44B, 556-569 (1992).

Heintzenberg, J.

J. Heintzenberg and G. Erfurt, "Modification of a commercial integrating nephelometer for outdoor measurements," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1645-1650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Flentje, R. Dubois, J. Heintzenberg, and H.-J. Karbach, "Retrieval of aerosol properties from boundary layer extinction measurements with a DOAS system," Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2019-2022 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Heintzenberg and R. J. Charlson, "Design and applications of the integrating nephelometer: a review," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 987-1000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Herig, S. H.

X. Zhang, B. J. Turpin, P. H. McMurry, S. H. Herig, and M. R. Stolzenburg, "Mie theory evaluation of species contributions to 1990 wintertime visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 44, 153-162 (1994).

Hoff, R. M.

R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, and T. Düsterdiek, "Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario," J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D14), 19999-19209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, H.

H. Horvath, "Influence of atmospheric aerosols upon the global radiation balance," in Atmospheric Particles, R.M.Harrison and R.E.van Grieken, eds., IUPAC Series on Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems (Wiley, 1998), p. 563.

Hube, H.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huffmann, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffmann, "Absorption and scattering of light by small particles," (Wiley, 1983).

Kandler, K.

B. Busch, K. Kandler, L. Schutz, and C. Neusüß, "Hygroscopic properties and water-soluble volume fraction of atmospheric particles in the diameter range from 50 nm to 3.8 μm during LACE 98," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8119 doi: 10.1029/2000JD000228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karbach, H.-J.

H. Flentje, R. Dubois, J. Heintzenberg, and H.-J. Karbach, "Retrieval of aerosol properties from boundary layer extinction measurements with a DOAS system," Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2019-2022 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Keil, A.

H. Wex, C. Neusüß, M. Wendisch, F. Stratmann, C. Koziar, A. Keil, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Ebert, "Particle scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients: An in situ closure and sensitivity study," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8122, doi:10.1029/2000JD000234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D16), 20673-20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koepke, P.

G. A. d'Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols. Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (ADP, 1991).

Kolgotin, A.

Koziar, C.

H. Wex, C. Neusüß, M. Wendisch, F. Stratmann, C. Koziar, A. Keil, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Ebert, "Particle scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients: An in situ closure and sensitivity study," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8122, doi:10.1029/2000JD000234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leiterer, U.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, and U. Leiterer, "Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): Overview," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8129, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lurzer, C.

A. Berner, C. Lurzer, F. Pohl, O. Preining, and P. Wagner, "The size distribution of the urban aerosol in Vienna," Sci. Total Environ. 13, 245-261 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Makela, J.

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

Martinsson, B. G.

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

Maßling, A.

A. Maßling, A. Wiedensohler, and B. Busch, "Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the southern Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean," J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 837-383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mattis, I.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. AlthausenJ. Geophys. Res. 109(D13), D13203 doi:10.1029/2004JD004600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McMurry, P. H.

X. Zhang, B. J. Turpin, P. H. McMurry, S. H. Herig, and M. R. Stolzenburg, "Mie theory evaluation of species contributions to 1990 wintertime visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 44, 153-162 (1994).

Mentes, B.

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

Morley, B.

G. Feingold and B. Morley, "Aerosol hygroscopic properties as measured by lidar and comparison with in situ measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108(D11), 4327, doi:10.1029/2002JD002842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

Müller, T.

Neusüß, C.

H. Wex, C. Neusüß, M. Wendisch, F. Stratmann, C. Koziar, A. Keil, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Ebert, "Particle scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients: An in situ closure and sensitivity study," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8122, doi:10.1029/2000JD000234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Busch, K. Kandler, L. Schutz, and C. Neusüß, "Hygroscopic properties and water-soluble volume fraction of atmospheric particles in the diameter range from 50 nm to 3.8 μm during LACE 98," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8119 doi: 10.1029/2000JD000228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Noone, K. J.

I. B. Svenningsson, H. C. Hansson, A. Wiedensohler, J. A. Ogren, K. J. Noone, and A. Hallberg, "Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the Po valley," Tellus , Ser. B 44B, 556-569 (1992).

Notholt, J.

J. Notholt and F. Raes, "Test of in situ measurements of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by long path transmission spectroscopy," J. Aerosol Sci. 21, 193-196 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ogren, J. A.

I. B. Svenningsson, H. C. Hansson, A. Wiedensohler, J. A. Ogren, K. J. Noone, and A. Hallberg, "Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the Po valley," Tellus , Ser. B 44B, 556-569 (1992).

Pahlow, M.

M. Pahlow, D. Müller, G. Feingold, W. Eberhard, and R. Steward, "Retrieval of aerosol properties from combined multiwavelength lidar and Sun photometer data: simulations," (submitted to Appl. Opt.).

Papaspiropoulos, G.

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

Pätz, H.

U. Platt, D. Perner, and H. Pätz, "Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3 and NO2 by differential optical absorption," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329-6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Perner, D.

U. Platt, D. Perner, and H. Pätz, "Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3 and NO2 by differential optical absorption," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329-6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Platt, U.

U. Platt, D. Perner, and H. Pätz, "Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3 and NO2 by differential optical absorption," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329-6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, F.

A. Berner, C. Lurzer, F. Pohl, O. Preining, and P. Wagner, "The size distribution of the urban aerosol in Vienna," Sci. Total Environ. 13, 245-261 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Preining, O.

A. Berner, C. Lurzer, F. Pohl, O. Preining, and P. Wagner, "The size distribution of the urban aerosol in Vienna," Sci. Total Environ. 13, 245-261 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Raes, F.

J. Notholt and F. Raes, "Test of in situ measurements of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by long path transmission spectroscopy," J. Aerosol Sci. 21, 193-196 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schutz, L.

B. Busch, K. Kandler, L. Schutz, and C. Neusüß, "Hygroscopic properties and water-soluble volume fraction of atmospheric particles in the diameter range from 50 nm to 3.8 μm during LACE 98," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8119 doi: 10.1029/2000JD000228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

G. A. d'Almeida, P. Koepke, and E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols. Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (ADP, 1991).

Sloane, C. S.

C. S. Sloane and G. T. Wolff, "Prediction of ambient light scattering using a physical model responsive to relative humidity: Validation with measurements from Detroit," Atmos. Environ. 19, 669-680 (1984).

Staebler, R. M.

R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, and T. Düsterdiek, "Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario," J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D14), 19999-19209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R.

M. Pahlow, D. Müller, G. Feingold, W. Eberhard, and R. Steward, "Retrieval of aerosol properties from combined multiwavelength lidar and Sun photometer data: simulations," (submitted to Appl. Opt.).

Stolzenburg, M. R.

X. Zhang, B. J. Turpin, P. H. McMurry, S. H. Herig, and M. R. Stolzenburg, "Mie theory evaluation of species contributions to 1990 wintertime visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 44, 153-162 (1994).

Stratmann, F.

H. Wex, C. Neusüß, M. Wendisch, F. Stratmann, C. Koziar, A. Keil, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Ebert, "Particle scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients: An in situ closure and sensitivity study," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8122, doi:10.1029/2000JD000234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

W. Birmili, F. Stratmann, and A. Wiedensohler, "Design of a DMA-based size spectrometer for a large particle size range and stable operation," J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 549-553 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Svenningsson, I. B.

I. B. Svenningsson, H. C. Hansson, A. Wiedensohler, J. A. Ogren, K. J. Noone, and A. Hallberg, "Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the Po valley," Tellus , Ser. B 44B, 556-569 (1992).

Swietlicki, E.

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

Turpin, B. J.

X. Zhang, B. J. Turpin, P. H. McMurry, S. H. Herig, and M. R. Stolzenburg, "Mie theory evaluation of species contributions to 1990 wintertime visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 44, 153-162 (1994).

Vakeva, M.

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

Veselovskii, I.

von Hoyningen-Huene, W.

M. Wendisch and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, "Possibility of refractive index determination of atmospheric aerosol particles by ground-based solar extinction and scattering measurements," Atmos. Environ. 28, 785-792 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, P.

A. Berner, C. Lurzer, F. Pohl, O. Preining, and P. Wagner, "The size distribution of the urban aerosol in Vienna," Sci. Total Environ. 13, 245-261 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. AlthausenJ. Geophys. Res. 109(D13), D13203 doi:10.1029/2004JD004600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, "Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding," Appl. Opt. 41, 3685-3699 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, and U. Leiterer, "Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): Overview," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8129, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, "Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation," Appl. Opt. 38, 2358-2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, "Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory," Appl. Opt. 38, 2346-2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wehner, B.

B. Wehner and A. Wiedensohler, "Statistical analysis on a long term study of number size distributions in the urban area," J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 645-646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wendisch, M.

H. Wex, C. Neusüß, M. Wendisch, F. Stratmann, C. Koziar, A. Keil, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Ebert, "Particle scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients: An in situ closure and sensitivity study," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8122, doi:10.1029/2000JD000234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wendisch and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, "Possibility of refractive index determination of atmospheric aerosol particles by ground-based solar extinction and scattering measurements," Atmos. Environ. 28, 785-792 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wex, H.

H. Wex, C. Neusüß, M. Wendisch, F. Stratmann, C. Koziar, A. Keil, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Ebert, "Particle scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients: An in situ closure and sensitivity study," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8122, doi:10.1029/2000JD000234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D. N.

Wiebe, H. A.

R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, and T. Düsterdiek, "Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario," J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D14), 19999-19209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wiedensohler, A.

H. Wex, C. Neusüß, M. Wendisch, F. Stratmann, C. Koziar, A. Keil, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Ebert, "Particle scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients: An in situ closure and sensitivity study," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8122, doi:10.1029/2000JD000234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, and U. Leiterer, "Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): Overview," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8129, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

B. Wehner and A. Wiedensohler, "Statistical analysis on a long term study of number size distributions in the urban area," J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 645-646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Birmili, F. Stratmann, and A. Wiedensohler, "Design of a DMA-based size spectrometer for a large particle size range and stable operation," J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 549-553 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Maßling, A. Wiedensohler, and B. Busch, "Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the southern Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean," J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 837-383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Svenningsson, H. C. Hansson, A. Wiedensohler, J. A. Ogren, K. J. Noone, and A. Hallberg, "Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the Po valley," Tellus , Ser. B 44B, 556-569 (1992).

Wolff, G. T.

C. S. Sloane and G. T. Wolff, "Prediction of ambient light scattering using a physical model responsive to relative humidity: Validation with measurements from Detroit," Atmos. Environ. 19, 669-680 (1984).

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, B. J. Turpin, P. H. McMurry, S. H. Herig, and M. R. Stolzenburg, "Mie theory evaluation of species contributions to 1990 wintertime visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 44, 153-162 (1994).

Zhou, J. C.

E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

Zörner, S.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1)

T. C. Bond, T. L. Anderson, and D. Campbell, "Calibration and intercomparison of filter-based measurements of visible light absorption by aerosols," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30, 582-600 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Atmos. Environ. (2)

M. Wendisch and W. von Hoyningen-Huene, "Possibility of refractive index determination of atmospheric aerosol particles by ground-based solar extinction and scattering measurements," Atmos. Environ. 28, 785-792 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Sloane and G. T. Wolff, "Prediction of ambient light scattering using a physical model responsive to relative humidity: Validation with measurements from Detroit," Atmos. Environ. 19, 669-680 (1984).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

H. Flentje, R. Dubois, J. Heintzenberg, and H.-J. Karbach, "Retrieval of aerosol properties from boundary layer extinction measurements with a DOAS system," Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2019-2022 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (4)

W. Birmili, F. Stratmann, and A. Wiedensohler, "Design of a DMA-based size spectrometer for a large particle size range and stable operation," J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 549-553 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Wehner and A. Wiedensohler, "Statistical analysis on a long term study of number size distributions in the urban area," J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 645-646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Maßling, A. Wiedensohler, and B. Busch, "Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the southern Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean," J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 837-383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Notholt and F. Raes, "Test of in situ measurements of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by long path transmission spectroscopy," J. Aerosol Sci. 21, 193-196 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. (1)

X. Zhang, B. J. Turpin, P. H. McMurry, S. H. Herig, and M. R. Stolzenburg, "Mie theory evaluation of species contributions to 1990 wintertime visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 44, 153-162 (1994).

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (3)

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, and S. Zörner, "Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469-1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Heintzenberg and R. J. Charlson, "Design and applications of the integrating nephelometer: a review," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 987-1000 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Heintzenberg and G. Erfurt, "Modification of a commercial integrating nephelometer for outdoor measurements," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1645-1650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (8)

U. Platt, D. Perner, and H. Pätz, "Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3 and NO2 by differential optical absorption," J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329-6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. Wex, C. Neusüß, M. Wendisch, F. Stratmann, C. Koziar, A. Keil, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Ebert, "Particle scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients: An in situ closure and sensitivity study," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8122, doi:10.1029/2000JD000234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, and U. Leiterer, "Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): Overview," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8129, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. AlthausenJ. Geophys. Res. 109(D13), D13203 doi:10.1029/2004JD004600 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Busch, K. Kandler, L. Schutz, and C. Neusüß, "Hygroscopic properties and water-soluble volume fraction of atmospheric particles in the diameter range from 50 nm to 3.8 μm during LACE 98," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D21), 8119 doi: 10.1029/2000JD000228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, R. M. Staebler, H. A. Wiebe, J. Brook, B. Georgi, and T. Düsterdiek, "Lidar, nephelometer, and in situ aerosol experiments in southern Ontario," J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D14), 19999-19209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Feingold and B. Morley, "Aerosol hygroscopic properties as measured by lidar and comparison with in situ measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 108(D11), 4327, doi:10.1029/2002JD002842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D16), 20673-20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Total Environ. (1)

A. Berner, C. Lurzer, F. Pohl, O. Preining, and P. Wagner, "The size distribution of the urban aerosol in Vienna," Sci. Total Environ. 13, 245-261 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tellus (2)

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E. Swietlicki, J. C. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, and F. Stratmann, "Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the northeastern Atlantic during ACE-2," Tellus , Ser. B 52B, 201-227 (2000).

Other (7)

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C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffmann, "Absorption and scattering of light by small particles," (Wiley, 1983).

S. H. Cadle and J. Groblicki, "An evaluation of methods for the determination of organic and elemental carbon in particulate samples," in Particulate Carbon: Atmospheric Life Cycle, G.T.Wolff and R.L.Klimisch, eds. (Plenum, 1982).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Locations of the different systems: (A) DOAS, (B) reflector for reference light path (distance 27 m), (C) inlet for in situ particle characterization, (D) meteorological parameters (temperature and relative humidity), (E) nephelometer, (F) Berner impactor, (G) reflector for measurement light path (distance 286 m).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flow chart of calculation of optical aerosol properties at dry conditions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Flow chart of calculation of optical aerosol properties at ambient conditions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Volume fractions of less hygroscopic particles and relative EC volume. The date 3∕17 denotes 2000∕03/17 00:00 local time.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relation of gravimetrically determined mass from impactor measurements (m Imp) and mass (m SD) calculated from the particle number size distribution and particle density of 1.7 g∕cm3. The correlation coefficient is R = 0.97. Each data point is the mean of one day with respect to two days.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Time series of relative humidity. (b) Scattering coefficients derived from DOAS measurements at ambient conditions, measured with a nephelometer, and calculated with Mie-scattering theory for an external mixture of dry particles. (c), (d) Regression analysis for particle scattering at dry conditions calculated with Mie-scattering theory and particle scattering measured with a nephelometer. (c) The complete data set. (d) The data points for low values of particle scattering. Also shown are the linear correlation (R) and the regression coefficients (a and b). The axes titles are described in Table 1. The error bars show characteristic uncertainties.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Dry absorption coefficients measured with PSAP and calculated for internal and external mixing of particles. Regression analysis for the measured absorption versus the calculated absorption for an external mixture (b), (c) of particles, and an internal mixture (d)–(e) of particles. Also shown are the linear correlation and regression coefficients, and inset plots.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Particle extinction coefficients measured at low relative humidities. Particle extinction measured with DOAS and corrected to dry conditions. Particle extinction calculated with Mie theory for dry conditions for internal and external mixing. (b), (c) Regression analysis for particle extinction at dry conditions calculated with Mie-scattering theory and retrieved from ambient extinction coefficients measured with DOAS. (b) The complete data set with characteristic uncertainties and (c) inset of the same data. Also shown are the linear correlation and the regression coefficients. The axes titles are described in Table 1.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Comparison between particle extinction coefficients and respective uncertainties at ambient relative humidities measured with DOAS and calculated with Mie theory for an external particle mixture. (b), (c) Regression analysis for particle extinction measured at ambient conditions versus the same parameter calculated with Mie-scattering theory.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optical growth factors for particle extinction. The ambient extinction coefficient is measured with DOAS at a wavelength of 550 nm. The reference value at dry conditions is taken from Mie calculations. Also shown are growth curves for particle extinction (Ref. 22) and for particle scattering (Ref. 23; data are taken from Ref. 24), and a best fit of the model given in Ref. 22 with parameters a = 0.38 and b = 1.07. The fit uses data up to 90% relative humidity.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Effective radius, surface-area, and volume concentrations measured with in situ instruments at dry and ambient conditions, and calculated with the inversion algorithm from measured particle extinction spectra.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Definition of Parameters

Equations (4)

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b u ( λ ) = d min d max π ( d p 2 ) 2 d N d log d p Q u ( π d p / λ , m ) d d p ,
u = ext,   sca, abs .
m = m i V i V i .
b ext , abs amb b ext , abs dry = { ( 1 RH ) γ : 0   RH   0 .7 a ( 1 RH ) b : 0.7   RH   0.999

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