Abstract

The size of cigarette smoke aerosols was determined with the photon-correlation technique. The effects of temperature and concentration on aerosol size were also observed. We found that aerosol size increases almost linearly with an increase in concentration but decreases with an increase in temperature.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Z. Cummins and E. R. Pike, eds., Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, 1974).
  2. H. Z. Cummins and E. R. Pike, eds., Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Velocimetry (Plenum, 1977).
  3. B. Chu, Laser Light Scattering, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1991).
  4. B. J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, 1976).
  5. R. G. W. Brown and Anthony E. Smart, "Practical considerations in photon correlation experiments," Appl. Opt. 36, 7480-7492 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. B. King, C. M. Sorensen, T. W. Lester, and J. F. Merklin, "Photon correlation spectroscopy used as a particle size diagnostic in sooting flames," Appl. Opt. 21, 976-978 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. B. King, C. M. Sorensen, T. W. Lester, and J. F. Merklin, "Direct measurements of aerosol diffusion constants in the intermediate Knudsen regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1125-1128 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Pecora, "Doppler shifts in light scattering from pure liquids and polymer solutions," J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1604-1614 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  9. This is one of the popular brands of cigarette in India.
  10. D. E. Koppel, "Analysis of macromolecular polydispersity in intensity correlation spectroscopy: the method of cumulants," J. Chem. Phys. 57, 4814-4820 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. W. Taylor, S. M. Scrivner, C. M. Sorensen, and J. F. Merklin, "Determination of relative number distribution of particle sizes using photon correlation spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 24, 3713-3717 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. P. Chowdhury, C. M. Sorensen, T. W. Taylor, J. F. Merklin, and T. W. Lester, "Application of photon correlation spectroscopy to flowing Brownian motion systems," Appl. Opt. 23, 4149-4154 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. C. M. Sorensen, J. Cai, and N. Lu, "Light scattering measurements of monomer size, monomers per aggregate, and fractal dimension for soot aggregates in flames," Appl. Opt. 31, 6547-6557 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. W. Schaefer, J. E. Martin, P. Wiltzius, and D. S. Canell, "Fractal geometry of colloidal particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2371-2374 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. A. Weitz, J. S. Huang, M. Y. Lin, and J. Sung, "Limits of fractal dimension for irreversible kinetic aggregation of gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1416-1419 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrere, S. Godin, J. Pelon, and G. Megie, "Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195-23208 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. R. Campbell, E. J. Welton, J. D. Spinhiren, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, S. J. Piketh, M. Barenbrug, and B. N. Holben, "Micropulse lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols over northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI 2000 dry season experiments," J. Geophys. Res. 108, SAF 33-1-33-19 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. R. Campbell, E. J. Welton, J. D. Spinhiren, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, S. J. Piketh, M. Barenbrug, and B. N. Holben, "Micropulse lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols over northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI 2000 dry season experiments," J. Geophys. Res. 108, SAF 33-1-33-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrere, S. Godin, J. Pelon, and G. Megie, "Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195-23208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1985 (2)

T. W. Taylor, S. M. Scrivner, C. M. Sorensen, and J. F. Merklin, "Determination of relative number distribution of particle sizes using photon correlation spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 24, 3713-3717 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Weitz, J. S. Huang, M. Y. Lin, and J. Sung, "Limits of fractal dimension for irreversible kinetic aggregation of gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1416-1419 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

1983 (1)

G. B. King, C. M. Sorensen, T. W. Lester, and J. F. Merklin, "Direct measurements of aerosol diffusion constants in the intermediate Knudsen regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1125-1128 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1977 (1)

1972 (1)

D. E. Koppel, "Analysis of macromolecular polydispersity in intensity correlation spectroscopy: the method of cumulants," J. Chem. Phys. 57, 4814-4820 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

R. Pecora, "Doppler shifts in light scattering from pure liquids and polymer solutions," J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1604-1614 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. E.

Barenbrug, M.

J. R. Campbell, E. J. Welton, J. D. Spinhiren, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, S. J. Piketh, M. Barenbrug, and B. N. Holben, "Micropulse lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols over northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI 2000 dry season experiments," J. Geophys. Res. 108, SAF 33-1-33-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berne, B. J.

B. J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, 1976).

Brown, R. G. W.

Cai, J.

Campbell, J. R.

J. R. Campbell, E. J. Welton, J. D. Spinhiren, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, S. J. Piketh, M. Barenbrug, and B. N. Holben, "Micropulse lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols over northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI 2000 dry season experiments," J. Geophys. Res. 108, SAF 33-1-33-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Canell, D. S.

D. W. Schaefer, J. E. Martin, P. Wiltzius, and D. S. Canell, "Fractal geometry of colloidal particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2371-2374 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chazette, P.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrere, S. Godin, J. Pelon, and G. Megie, "Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195-23208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, D. P.

Chu, B.

B. Chu, Laser Light Scattering, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1991).

Cummins, H. Z.

H. Z. Cummins and E. R. Pike, eds., Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, 1974).

H. Z. Cummins and E. R. Pike, eds., Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Velocimetry (Plenum, 1977).

David, C.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrere, S. Godin, J. Pelon, and G. Megie, "Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195-23208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Godin, S.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrere, S. Godin, J. Pelon, and G. Megie, "Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195-23208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

J. R. Campbell, E. J. Welton, J. D. Spinhiren, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, S. J. Piketh, M. Barenbrug, and B. N. Holben, "Micropulse lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols over northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI 2000 dry season experiments," J. Geophys. Res. 108, SAF 33-1-33-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. S.

D. A. Weitz, J. S. Huang, M. Y. Lin, and J. Sung, "Limits of fractal dimension for irreversible kinetic aggregation of gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1416-1419 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ji, Q.

J. R. Campbell, E. J. Welton, J. D. Spinhiren, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, S. J. Piketh, M. Barenbrug, and B. N. Holben, "Micropulse lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols over northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI 2000 dry season experiments," J. Geophys. Res. 108, SAF 33-1-33-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

King, G. B.

G. B. King, C. M. Sorensen, T. W. Lester, and J. F. Merklin, "Direct measurements of aerosol diffusion constants in the intermediate Knudsen regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1125-1128 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. B. King, C. M. Sorensen, T. W. Lester, and J. F. Merklin, "Photon correlation spectroscopy used as a particle size diagnostic in sooting flames," Appl. Opt. 21, 976-978 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koppel, D. E.

D. E. Koppel, "Analysis of macromolecular polydispersity in intensity correlation spectroscopy: the method of cumulants," J. Chem. Phys. 57, 4814-4820 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lefrere, J.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrere, S. Godin, J. Pelon, and G. Megie, "Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195-23208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lester, T. W.

Lin, M. Y.

D. A. Weitz, J. S. Huang, M. Y. Lin, and J. Sung, "Limits of fractal dimension for irreversible kinetic aggregation of gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1416-1419 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, N.

Martin, J. E.

D. W. Schaefer, J. E. Martin, P. Wiltzius, and D. S. Canell, "Fractal geometry of colloidal particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2371-2374 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Megie, G.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrere, S. Godin, J. Pelon, and G. Megie, "Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195-23208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Merklin, J. F.

Pecora, R.

R. Pecora, "Doppler shifts in light scattering from pure liquids and polymer solutions," J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1604-1614 (1964).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, 1976).

Pelon, J.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrere, S. Godin, J. Pelon, and G. Megie, "Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195-23208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pike, E. R.

H. Z. Cummins and E. R. Pike, eds., Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Velocimetry (Plenum, 1977).

H. Z. Cummins and E. R. Pike, eds., Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, 1974).

Piketh, S. J.

J. R. Campbell, E. J. Welton, J. D. Spinhiren, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, S. J. Piketh, M. Barenbrug, and B. N. Holben, "Micropulse lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols over northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI 2000 dry season experiments," J. Geophys. Res. 108, SAF 33-1-33-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, D. W.

D. W. Schaefer, J. E. Martin, P. Wiltzius, and D. S. Canell, "Fractal geometry of colloidal particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2371-2374 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Scrivner, S. M.

Smart, Anthony E.

Sorensen, C. M.

Spinhiren, J. D.

J. R. Campbell, E. J. Welton, J. D. Spinhiren, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, S. J. Piketh, M. Barenbrug, and B. N. Holben, "Micropulse lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols over northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI 2000 dry season experiments," J. Geophys. Res. 108, SAF 33-1-33-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sung, J.

D. A. Weitz, J. S. Huang, M. Y. Lin, and J. Sung, "Limits of fractal dimension for irreversible kinetic aggregation of gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1416-1419 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, T. W.

Terhume, R. W.

Tsay, S. C.

J. R. Campbell, E. J. Welton, J. D. Spinhiren, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, S. J. Piketh, M. Barenbrug, and B. N. Holben, "Micropulse lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols over northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI 2000 dry season experiments," J. Geophys. Res. 108, SAF 33-1-33-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, D. A.

D. A. Weitz, J. S. Huang, M. Y. Lin, and J. Sung, "Limits of fractal dimension for irreversible kinetic aggregation of gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1416-1419 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welton, E. J.

J. R. Campbell, E. J. Welton, J. D. Spinhiren, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, S. J. Piketh, M. Barenbrug, and B. N. Holben, "Micropulse lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols over northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI 2000 dry season experiments," J. Geophys. Res. 108, SAF 33-1-33-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiltzius, P.

D. W. Schaefer, J. E. Martin, P. Wiltzius, and D. S. Canell, "Fractal geometry of colloidal particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2371-2374 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

D. E. Koppel, "Analysis of macromolecular polydispersity in intensity correlation spectroscopy: the method of cumulants," J. Chem. Phys. 57, 4814-4820 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. Pecora, "Doppler shifts in light scattering from pure liquids and polymer solutions," J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1604-1614 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrere, S. Godin, J. Pelon, and G. Megie, "Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23195-23208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Campbell, E. J. Welton, J. D. Spinhiren, Q. Ji, S. C. Tsay, S. J. Piketh, M. Barenbrug, and B. N. Holben, "Micropulse lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols over northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI 2000 dry season experiments," J. Geophys. Res. 108, SAF 33-1-33-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

D. W. Schaefer, J. E. Martin, P. Wiltzius, and D. S. Canell, "Fractal geometry of colloidal particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2371-2374 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Weitz, J. S. Huang, M. Y. Lin, and J. Sung, "Limits of fractal dimension for irreversible kinetic aggregation of gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1416-1419 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. B. King, C. M. Sorensen, T. W. Lester, and J. F. Merklin, "Direct measurements of aerosol diffusion constants in the intermediate Knudsen regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1125-1128 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

This is one of the popular brands of cigarette in India.

H. Z. Cummins and E. R. Pike, eds., Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, 1974).

H. Z. Cummins and E. R. Pike, eds., Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Velocimetry (Plenum, 1977).

B. Chu, Laser Light Scattering, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1991).

B. J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, 1976).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup: P1, P2, pump; R1, R2, regulator; F1, F2, flowmeter; T, thermometer; S, smoke chamber; L, Lens; PMT, photomultiplier tube; HV, high-voltage power supply; LV, low-voltage power supply; A∕D, amplifier–discriminator; DC, digital correlator; C, computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Change in size with concentration at a fixed temperature (T = 25 °C) for the data in Table 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Log of size versus log of concentration for the data in Table 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of the data in Table 3, showing the change in size with concentration and temperature.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean Size a for Smoke Aerosols at 25 °C

Tables Icon

Table 2 Effect of Concentration on the Size of Smoke Aerosols at 25 °C

Tables Icon

Table 3 Effect of Temperature on Size at Various Concentrations

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d d t Δ C ( r ¯ , t ) = D 2 Δ C ( r ¯ , t ) ,
C ( r ¯ , t ) = C + Δ C ( r ¯ , t ) .
Δ C ( r ¯ , t ) = Δ C ( r ¯ , 0 ) exp ( γ τ ) ,
Δ C ( r ¯ , t ) Δ C * ( r ¯ , t + τ ) = Δ C ( r ¯ , 0 ) 2 exp ( γ τ ) ,
g 1 ( τ ) E s ( t ) E s * ( t + τ )
g 1 ( τ ) Δ C ( r ¯ , 0 ) 2 exp ( γ τ ) .
I s ( t ) I s * ( t + τ ) = 1 + | E s ( t ) E s * ( t + τ ) I s | 2 .
g 2 ( τ ) Δ C ( r ¯ , 0 ) 2 2 exp ( 2 γ τ ) ,
g 2 ( τ ) exp ( 2 γ τ ) .
γ = D k 2 ,
k = 4 π n λ sin θ 2 .
D = k B T 6 π η R ,

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