Abstract

We present an analysis of the performance limit of an adaptive multichannel free-space optical interconnect based on a spatial light modulator (SLM). The SLM function is to provide an active alignment of the signal beam in the detector plane. A thorough cross-talk analysis based on the diffractive properties of an ideal SLM in an isoplanatic optical system is shown. We analyze the performance in terms of the bit-error rate (BER) due to cross talk between different channels in the optical interconnect for different alignment states and for different phase-modulation schemes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Kirk, D. Plant, T. Symanski, Z. Vranesic, F. Tooley, D. Rolston, M. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, and D. Brosseau, "Design and implementation of a modulator-based free-space optical backplane for multiprocessor applications," Appl. Opt. 42, 2465-2481 (2003).
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  3. F. A. P. Tooley, "Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3-13 (1996).
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  5. D. C. O'Brien, G. Faulkner, T. D. Wilkinson, B. Robertson, and D. Gil Leyva, "Design and analysis of an adaptive board to board dynamic holographic interconnect," Appl. Opt. 43, 3297-3305 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Boisset, B. Robertson, and H. Hinton, "Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676-678 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, and K. Tateno, "Optical beam direction compensation system for board to board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 874-882 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Lee, L. Huang, C. Kim, and M. Wu, "Free-space fiber optics switches based on MEMs vertical torsion mirrors," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 7-13 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, "High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phase-array beam steering," Opt. Lett. 21, 689-691 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. See www.paralleloptics.com.
  12. J. Liesner, M. Reichter, and H. J. Tiziani, "Determination and compensation of aberrations using SLMs," Opt. Commun. 233, 161-166 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Gil-Leyva, B. Robertson, C. J. Henderson, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Free space optical interconnect using a FLC SLM for active beam steering and wave front correction," in Micro-Optics, VCSELs and Photonic Interconnects, H. Thienpont, K. D. Choquette, and M. R. Taghizadeh, eds., Proc. SPIE 5453, 62-71 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. B. McCormick and F. A. P. Tooley, "Optical and mechanical issues in free-space digital optical logic systems," in Design Issues in Optical Processing, J. Lee, ed., Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), pp. 220-270.
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, and B. Robertson, "Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205-215 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Arrizon, E. Carreon, and M. Testorf, "Implementation of Fourier illuminators using pixelated SLM: efficiency limitations," Opt. Commun. 160, 207-213 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).
  18. V. Morozov, J. Neff, H. Temkin, and A. Fedor, "Analysis of a three dimensional computer optical scheme based on bi-directional free space optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 34, 523-534 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2000).
  20. M. Johansson, S. Hard, B. Robertson, I. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, "Adaptive beam steering implemented in an FLC-SLM free space optical switch," Appl. Opt. 41, 4904-4911 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. H. Lee, "Binary computer-generated holograms," Appl. Opt. 18, 3661-3669 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. Dammann, "Blazed synthetic phase only holograms," Optik 31, 95-104 (1970).
  23. P. O'Neil, Advanced Engineering Mathematics (Wadsworth, 1983).
  24. H. Hamam and J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, "Diffraction efficiency of quantized programable phase elements: a critical assessment," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 389-403 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. J. Henderson, B. Robertson, D. Gil-Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Control of a free space adaptive optical interconnect using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for beam steering," Opt. Eng. 44, 075401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. C. Boisset, "Optomechanics and optical packing for free-space optical interconnects," Ph.D. thesis (McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 1997).
  27. D. S. Steinberg, Vibration Analysis for Electronic Equipment, 3rd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2000).
  28. A. P. Sparks, R. C. Chittick, W. A. Crossland, and J. R. Brocklehurst, "A 128×128 matrix electrically addressed ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator," in Proceedings of the IEE Technical Digest (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1988), Vol. 121, pp. 28-32.
  29. See http://www.commsdesign.com/.
  30. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford U. Press, 1997).
  31. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (Wily-Interscience, 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks (Morgan Kaufman, 2002).

2005 (1)

C. J. Henderson, B. Robertson, D. Gil-Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Control of a free space adaptive optical interconnect using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for beam steering," Opt. Eng. 44, 075401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. Liesner, M. Reichter, and H. J. Tiziani, "Determination and compensation of aberrations using SLMs," Opt. Commun. 233, 161-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Gil-Leyva, B. Robertson, C. J. Henderson, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Free space optical interconnect using a FLC SLM for active beam steering and wave front correction," in Micro-Optics, VCSELs and Photonic Interconnects, H. Thienpont, K. D. Choquette, and M. R. Taghizadeh, eds., Proc. SPIE 5453, 62-71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. O'Brien, G. Faulkner, T. D. Wilkinson, B. Robertson, and D. Gil Leyva, "Design and analysis of an adaptive board to board dynamic holographic interconnect," Appl. Opt. 43, 3297-3305 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

V. Arrizon, E. Carreon, and M. Testorf, "Implementation of Fourier illuminators using pixelated SLM: efficiency limitations," Opt. Commun. 160, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, L. Huang, C. Kim, and M. Wu, "Free-space fiber optics switches based on MEMs vertical torsion mirrors," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 7-13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, and K. Tateno, "Optical beam direction compensation system for board to board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 874-882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

H. Hamam and J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, "Diffraction efficiency of quantized programable phase elements: a critical assessment," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 389-403 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, "Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3-13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, "High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phase-array beam steering," Opt. Lett. 21, 689-691 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, and K. Noguchi, "Three-dimensional board-to-board free-space optical interconnects and their application to the prototype multiprocessor system: COSINE-III," Appl. Opt. 39, 1815-1822 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Boisset, B. Robertson, and H. Hinton, "Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676-678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Morozov, J. Neff, H. Temkin, and A. Fedor, "Analysis of a three dimensional computer optical scheme based on bi-directional free space optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 34, 523-534 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1979 (1)

1970 (1)

H. Dammann, "Blazed synthetic phase only holograms," Optik 31, 95-104 (1970).

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (Wily-Interscience, 2002).
[CrossRef]

Arrizon, V.

V. Arrizon, E. Carreon, and M. Testorf, "Implementation of Fourier illuminators using pixelated SLM: efficiency limitations," Opt. Commun. 160, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ayliffe, M.

Bernier, E.

Boisset, G.

G. Boisset, B. Robertson, and H. Hinton, "Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676-678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boisset, G. C.

G. C. Boisset, "Optomechanics and optical packing for free-space optical interconnects," Ph.D. thesis (McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 1997).

Bonas, I.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bracewell, R. N.

R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

Brocklehurst, J. R.

A. P. Sparks, R. C. Chittick, W. A. Crossland, and J. R. Brocklehurst, "A 128×128 matrix electrically addressed ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator," in Proceedings of the IEE Technical Digest (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1988), Vol. 121, pp. 28-32.

Brosseau, D.

Carreon, E.

V. Arrizon, E. Carreon, and M. Testorf, "Implementation of Fourier illuminators using pixelated SLM: efficiency limitations," Opt. Commun. 160, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chittick, R. C.

A. P. Sparks, R. C. Chittick, W. A. Crossland, and J. R. Brocklehurst, "A 128×128 matrix electrically addressed ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator," in Proceedings of the IEE Technical Digest (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1988), Vol. 121, pp. 28-32.

Chu, H. H.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crossland, W. A.

M. Johansson, S. Hard, B. Robertson, I. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, "Adaptive beam steering implemented in an FLC-SLM free space optical switch," Appl. Opt. 41, 4904-4911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, and B. Robertson, "Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205-215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Sparks, R. C. Chittick, W. A. Crossland, and J. R. Brocklehurst, "A 128×128 matrix electrically addressed ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator," in Proceedings of the IEE Technical Digest (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1988), Vol. 121, pp. 28-32.

Croucher, J.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann, "Blazed synthetic phase only holograms," Optik 31, 95-104 (1970).

de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J. L.

H. Hamam and J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, "Diffraction efficiency of quantized programable phase elements: a critical assessment," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 389-403 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dorschner, T. A.

Faulkner, G.

C. J. Henderson, B. Robertson, D. Gil-Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Control of a free space adaptive optical interconnect using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for beam steering," Opt. Eng. 44, 075401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Gil-Leyva, B. Robertson, C. J. Henderson, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Free space optical interconnect using a FLC SLM for active beam steering and wave front correction," in Micro-Optics, VCSELs and Photonic Interconnects, H. Thienpont, K. D. Choquette, and M. R. Taghizadeh, eds., Proc. SPIE 5453, 62-71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. O'Brien, G. Faulkner, T. D. Wilkinson, B. Robertson, and D. Gil Leyva, "Design and analysis of an adaptive board to board dynamic holographic interconnect," Appl. Opt. 43, 3297-3305 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedor, A.

V. Morozov, J. Neff, H. Temkin, and A. Fedor, "Analysis of a three dimensional computer optical scheme based on bi-directional free space optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 34, 523-534 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Franklin, R.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, L. J.

Gil Leyva, D.

Gil-Leyva, D.

C. J. Henderson, B. Robertson, D. Gil-Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Control of a free space adaptive optical interconnect using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for beam steering," Opt. Eng. 44, 075401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Gil-Leyva, B. Robertson, C. J. Henderson, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Free space optical interconnect using a FLC SLM for active beam steering and wave front correction," in Micro-Optics, VCSELs and Photonic Interconnects, H. Thienpont, K. D. Choquette, and M. R. Taghizadeh, eds., Proc. SPIE 5453, 62-71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).

Hamam, H.

H. Hamam and J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, "Diffraction efficiency of quantized programable phase elements: a critical assessment," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 389-403 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Handerek, V. A.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hard, S.

Henderson, C. J.

C. J. Henderson, B. Robertson, D. Gil-Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Control of a free space adaptive optical interconnect using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for beam steering," Opt. Eng. 44, 075401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Gil-Leyva, B. Robertson, C. J. Henderson, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Free space optical interconnect using a FLC SLM for active beam steering and wave front correction," in Micro-Optics, VCSELs and Photonic Interconnects, H. Thienpont, K. D. Choquette, and M. R. Taghizadeh, eds., Proc. SPIE 5453, 62-71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Henshall, G.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hino, S.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, and K. Tateno, "Optical beam direction compensation system for board to board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 874-882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H.

G. Boisset, B. Robertson, and H. Hinton, "Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676-678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hirabayashi, K.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, and K. Tateno, "Optical beam direction compensation system for board to board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 874-882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, D. S.

Holmes, M. J.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

Johansson, M.

Kim, C.

Kirk, A.

Kohama, Y.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, and K. Tateno, "Optical beam direction compensation system for board to board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 874-882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kostuk, R. K.

Lacroix, F.

Lee, S.

Lee, W. H.

Liesner, J.

J. Liesner, M. Reichter, and H. J. Tiziani, "Determination and compensation of aberrations using SLMs," Opt. Commun. 233, 161-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manolis, I.

Manolis, I. G.

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, and B. Robertson, "Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205-215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick and F. A. P. Tooley, "Optical and mechanical issues in free-space digital optical logic systems," in Design Issues in Optical Processing, J. Lee, ed., Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), pp. 220-270.
[CrossRef]

Mears, R. J.

Morozov, V.

V. Morozov, J. Neff, H. Temkin, and A. Fedor, "Analysis of a three dimensional computer optical scheme based on bi-directional free space optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 34, 523-534 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neff, J.

V. Morozov, J. Neff, H. Temkin, and A. Fedor, "Analysis of a three dimensional computer optical scheme based on bi-directional free space optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 34, 523-534 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, K.

O'Brien, D. C.

C. J. Henderson, B. Robertson, D. Gil-Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Control of a free space adaptive optical interconnect using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for beam steering," Opt. Eng. 44, 075401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Gil-Leyva, B. Robertson, C. J. Henderson, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Free space optical interconnect using a FLC SLM for active beam steering and wave front correction," in Micro-Optics, VCSELs and Photonic Interconnects, H. Thienpont, K. D. Choquette, and M. R. Taghizadeh, eds., Proc. SPIE 5453, 62-71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. O'Brien, G. Faulkner, T. D. Wilkinson, B. Robertson, and D. Gil Leyva, "Design and analysis of an adaptive board to board dynamic holographic interconnect," Appl. Opt. 43, 3297-3305 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Neil, P.

P. O'Neil, Advanced Engineering Mathematics (Wadsworth, 1983).

Parker, T. R.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks (Morgan Kaufman, 2002).

Redmond, M. M.

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, and B. Robertson, "Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205-215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reichter, M.

J. Liesner, M. Reichter, and H. J. Tiziani, "Determination and compensation of aberrations using SLMs," Opt. Commun. 233, 161-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Resler, D. P.

Robertson, B.

C. J. Henderson, B. Robertson, D. Gil-Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Control of a free space adaptive optical interconnect using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for beam steering," Opt. Eng. 44, 075401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Gil-Leyva, B. Robertson, C. J. Henderson, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Free space optical interconnect using a FLC SLM for active beam steering and wave front correction," in Micro-Optics, VCSELs and Photonic Interconnects, H. Thienpont, K. D. Choquette, and M. R. Taghizadeh, eds., Proc. SPIE 5453, 62-71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. O'Brien, G. Faulkner, T. D. Wilkinson, B. Robertson, and D. Gil Leyva, "Design and analysis of an adaptive board to board dynamic holographic interconnect," Appl. Opt. 43, 3297-3305 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kirk, D. Plant, T. Symanski, Z. Vranesic, F. Tooley, D. Rolston, M. Ayliffe, F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, and D. Brosseau, "Design and implementation of a modulator-based free-space optical backplane for multiprocessor applications," Appl. Opt. 42, 2465-2481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, and B. Robertson, "Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205-215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Johansson, S. Hard, B. Robertson, I. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, "Adaptive beam steering implemented in an FLC-SLM free space optical switch," Appl. Opt. 41, 4904-4911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Boisset, B. Robertson, and H. Hinton, "Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676-678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rolston, D.

Sakano, T.

Sharp, R. C.

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks (Morgan Kaufman, 2002).

Sparks, A. P.

A. P. Sparks, R. C. Chittick, W. A. Crossland, and J. R. Brocklehurst, "A 128×128 matrix electrically addressed ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator," in Proceedings of the IEE Technical Digest (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1988), Vol. 121, pp. 28-32.

Stace, C.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, D. S.

D. S. Steinberg, Vibration Analysis for Electronic Equipment, 3rd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2000).

Symanski, T.

Tan, K. L.

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, and B. Robertson, "Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205-215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tateno, K.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, and K. Tateno, "Optical beam direction compensation system for board to board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 874-882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Temkin, H.

V. Morozov, J. Neff, H. Temkin, and A. Fedor, "Analysis of a three dimensional computer optical scheme based on bi-directional free space optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 34, 523-534 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Testorf, M.

V. Arrizon, E. Carreon, and M. Testorf, "Implementation of Fourier illuminators using pixelated SLM: efficiency limitations," Opt. Commun. 160, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

J. Liesner, M. Reichter, and H. J. Tiziani, "Determination and compensation of aberrations using SLMs," Opt. Commun. 233, 161-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F.

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. A. P. Tooley, "Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3-13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick and F. A. P. Tooley, "Optical and mechanical issues in free-space digital optical logic systems," in Design Issues in Optical Processing, J. Lee, ed., Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), pp. 220-270.
[CrossRef]

Vranesic, Z.

Warr, S. T.

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, and B. Robertson, "Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205-215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

White, H. J.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, T. D.

C. J. Henderson, B. Robertson, D. Gil-Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Control of a free space adaptive optical interconnect using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for beam steering," Opt. Eng. 44, 075401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Gil-Leyva, B. Robertson, C. J. Henderson, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Free space optical interconnect using a FLC SLM for active beam steering and wave front correction," in Micro-Optics, VCSELs and Photonic Interconnects, H. Thienpont, K. D. Choquette, and M. R. Taghizadeh, eds., Proc. SPIE 5453, 62-71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. O'Brien, G. Faulkner, T. D. Wilkinson, B. Robertson, and D. Gil Leyva, "Design and analysis of an adaptive board to board dynamic holographic interconnect," Appl. Opt. 43, 3297-3305 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Johansson, S. Hard, B. Robertson, I. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, "Adaptive beam steering implemented in an FLC-SLM free space optical switch," Appl. Opt. 41, 4904-4911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Tan, S. T. Warr, I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, and B. Robertson, "Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205-215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Woolley, R. A.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

Yamamoto, T.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, and K. Tateno, "Optical beam direction compensation system for board to board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 874-882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford U. Press, 1997).

Appl. Opt. (6)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. A. P. Tooley, "Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3-13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Boisset, B. Robertson, and H. Hinton, "Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free space optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676-678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Hino, Y. Kohama, and K. Tateno, "Optical beam direction compensation system for board to board free space optical interconnection in high capacity ATM switch," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 874-882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, L. Huang, C. Kim, and M. Wu, "Free-space fiber optics switches based on MEMs vertical torsion mirrors," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 7-13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, and G. Henshall, "Holographic optical switching: The ROSES Demonstrator," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1845-1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Liesner, M. Reichter, and H. J. Tiziani, "Determination and compensation of aberrations using SLMs," Opt. Commun. 233, 161-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Arrizon, E. Carreon, and M. Testorf, "Implementation of Fourier illuminators using pixelated SLM: efficiency limitations," Opt. Commun. 160, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

V. Morozov, J. Neff, H. Temkin, and A. Fedor, "Analysis of a three dimensional computer optical scheme based on bi-directional free space optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 34, 523-534 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Henderson, B. Robertson, D. Gil-Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Control of a free space adaptive optical interconnect using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for beam steering," Opt. Eng. 44, 075401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (1)

H. Dammann, "Blazed synthetic phase only holograms," Optik 31, 95-104 (1970).

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Gil-Leyva, B. Robertson, C. J. Henderson, T. D. Wilkinson, D. C. O'Brien, and G. Faulkner, "Free space optical interconnect using a FLC SLM for active beam steering and wave front correction," in Micro-Optics, VCSELs and Photonic Interconnects, H. Thienpont, K. D. Choquette, and M. R. Taghizadeh, eds., Proc. SPIE 5453, 62-71 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

H. Hamam and J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, "Diffraction efficiency of quantized programable phase elements: a critical assessment," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 389-403 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

P. O'Neil, Advanced Engineering Mathematics (Wadsworth, 1983).

F. B. McCormick and F. A. P. Tooley, "Optical and mechanical issues in free-space digital optical logic systems," in Design Issues in Optical Processing, J. Lee, ed., Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1995), pp. 220-270.
[CrossRef]

See www.paralleloptics.com.

R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).

G. C. Boisset, "Optomechanics and optical packing for free-space optical interconnects," Ph.D. thesis (McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 1997).

D. S. Steinberg, Vibration Analysis for Electronic Equipment, 3rd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2000).

A. P. Sparks, R. C. Chittick, W. A. Crossland, and J. R. Brocklehurst, "A 128×128 matrix electrically addressed ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator," in Proceedings of the IEE Technical Digest (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1988), Vol. 121, pp. 28-32.

See http://www.commsdesign.com/.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford U. Press, 1997).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (Wily-Interscience, 2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks (Morgan Kaufman, 2002).

Cited By

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflective adaptive interconnect based on a reconfigurable LCOS SLM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmissive SLM architecture for a 4 × 4 adaptive optical interconnect for (a) a perfectly aligned system and (b) a system in which a tilt error of β is present.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of VCSEL-array and detector-array layouts in a 1 × A relay in which there is a one-to-one correspondence between VCSELs and detector windows. Beam steering occurs when the correct hologram pattern is displayed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Superimposed plots arising from the scanning of the replay field by changing the position of the first diffraction order from d u = 0 to d u = N / 2 , using an SLM with N = 128 pixels , ρ = 0.8 , and phase levels of (a) 2, (b) 4, and (c) 8. In the plot we can see the roll-off of the intensity due to the sinc envelope. Moreover, there are certain peaks along the curve that are due to multiple replication orders landing at the same position.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variance in signal power between scroll positions as a function of grating period (number of pixels).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative intensity distribution for the 12 VCSELs in the vicinity of the first diffraction order from VCSEL v6 when a binary SLM is used. The u coordinate system is referred to a hypothetical on-axis source. The intensity from each source is normalized individually to the input power in the pupil plane from each source. The intensity for channel 6 is represented by squares.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized cross-talk power incident on the detector using (a) two phase levels, (b) four phase levels, and (c) eight phase levels. The cross-talk power on each state is normalized by the power of the signal beam according to Figs. 4(a), 4(b), and 4(c), respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

BER with (a) two phase levels, (b) four phase levels, and (c) eight phase levels. The value of σ T is kept constant for the three plots. As the signal beam decreases, the BER increases as expected.

Equations (28)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d ξ = F ( tan α ) ,
d ζ = F ( tan β ) ,
h ( x ) = exp { i k [ ( x d ξ ) + ( y d ζ ) ] F } .
d f X = d ξ λ F , d f Y = d ζ λ F .
d u = d ξ N Δ λ F , d v = d ζ N Δ λ F .
τ ( x h , y h ) = 2 π ( x h d u + y h d v ) N .
h b ( x ) = 2 n * = - sin [ π ( n / 2 ) ] π n exp ( 2 π i x n d f X ) ,
h m ( x ) = g = - sin [ π ( n / m ) ] π n / m exp ( 2 π i x n d f x ) ,
t ( x ) = rect ( x ρΔ ) { comb ( x Δ ) [ rect ( x ) h ( x ) ] } ,
t ( x ) = rect ( x ρΔ ) { [ δ ( x - s ) comb ( x Δ ) ] [ rect ( x N Δ ) h ( x ) ] } ,
T ( f X ) = Δρ sinc ( ρΔ f X ) { [ exp ( i 2 π f X s ) Δ comb ( Δ f X ) ] N Δ sinc ( N Δ f X ) H ( f X ) } ,
T ( f X ) = ρ sinc ( ρΔ f X ) [ exp ( i 2 π f X s ) sin ( N πΔ f X ) N sin ( πΔ f X ) cos ( πΔ f X ) ] H ( f X ) ,
T ( f X ) = ρ sinc ( ρΔ f X ) [ exp ( i 2 π f X s ) sin ( N πΔ f X ) N sin ( πΔ f X ) cos ( πΔ f X ) ] g = - sinc ( n M ) δ ( f X - d f X ) ,
T ( f X ) = ρ sinc ( ρΔ f X ) ( g = - sinc ( n M ) { exp [ i 2 π ( f X - n d f X ) s ] sin [ N πΔ ( f X - n d f X ) ] N sin [ πΔ ( f X - n d f X ) ] cos [ πΔ ( f X - n d f X ) ] } ) ,
T g ( f X ) = T ( f X ) G ( f X ) ,
T ( f X ) = ρ sinc ( ρΔ f X ) { q = - δ [ f X - ( q Δ + d f X ) ] } .
q = - ρ 2 sinc 2 [ ρΔ ( q Δ + d f X ) ] = ρ ,
T μ ( f X ) = T ( f X ) δ ( f X - μ ) ,
T μ ( f X ) = ρ sinc [ ρΔ ( f X - μ ) ] { g = - sinc ( n M ) × sin [ N πΔ ( f X - n d f X - μ ) ] N sin [ πΔ ( f X - n d f X - μ ) ] cos [ πΔ f X - n d f X - μ ) ] } .
I = SP IN + i S + i T ,
BER = 1 4 [ erfc ( I 1 - I D σ 1 2 ) + erfc ( I D - I 0 σ 0 2 ) ] ,
σ 1 2 = σ 0 2 = σ T 2 .
BER = 1 2 erfc ( Q 2 ) ,
Q = I 1 - I 0 σ 1 + σ 0 = I 1 2 σ T .
η ( β , M ) = A d T μ g ( f X , f Y ) 2 d f X d f Y .
BER ( p ) = 1 2 A - 1 b 1 = 0 b 1 = 1 b 2 = 0 b 2 = 1 b A = 0 b A = 1 1 4 [ erfc ( I D + I offset - I 0 - I x t σ T 2 ) + erfc ( I 1 + I x t - I D - I offset σ T 2 ) ]
I offset = 1 2 q = 1 , q p A S c q .
I x t = q = 1 , q p A S ( b q c q ) .

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