Fabrication of a thick analog profile with photoresist is a difficult task in photolithography. We demonstrate that a binary phase-grating photomask with an appropriate period and duty cycles is capable of manipulating the exposure illumination in an analog fashion and can be used for fabrication of the desired analog micro-optics profiles on the surface of a thick photoresist. By choosing the proper period and variation of duty cycle of the phase-grating mask, one can create the desired analog intensity of exposure illumination for an optical stepper. This allows the formation of a wide range of analog micro-optics profiles with an SPR 220-7 photoresist. The numerical convolution of the diffraction efficiency curve and resist exposure characteristics is used to predict the final resist profile and also to design the appropriate duty-cycle distribution for the binary phase grating. As a demonstration of this technology, we fabricated a variety of micro-optical elements, such as a positive lens, ring lens, prism, and vortex of diameter, by using a phase-grating mask fabricated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) electron-beam resist.
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