Abstract

One of the important fields of application of synthetic diffractive structures is optical document security. Several methods of security enhancement of diffractive elements for security applications are presented, namely, high carrier-frequency cryptograms and noise-covered elements are introduced. Structures are designed with respect to the fabrication on special enhanced integral dot-matrix system.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. L. van Renesse, Optical Document Security (Artech House, London, 1994).
  2. Van Renesse, ed., Methods for Computer Design of Diffractive Optical Elements (Wiley, New York, 2001).
  3. N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Cryptogram in digital pixel holography," in Proceedings of 1999 International Workshop on Cryptographic Techniques and E-Commerce, M.Blum and C.H.Lee, eds. (City University, Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, 1999), pp. 286-290.
  4. T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, H. Feng, S. Zhang, S. Fan, N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, "Digital pixel cryptogram in e-beam holography," in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S.A.Benton, S.H.Stevenson, and T.J.Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE 3956, 177-183 (2000).
  5. S. L. Yeh and S. T. Lin, "Dot-matrix hologram with hidden image," Opt. Eng. 41, 314-318 (2002).
  6. A. K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, A. K. Sharma, R. Kumar, and D. P. Chhachhia, "Interferometry based security hologram readable with an encoded key hologram,"Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 42, 816-819 (2004).
  7. V. I. Girnyk, V. I. Grygoruk, I. S. Borisov, and S. A. Kostyukevych, "Stereographic and animated rainbow diffractive images in optical security," in Practical Holography XVIII, T.H.Jeong and H.I.Bjelkhagen, eds., Proc. SPIE 5290, 179-189 (2003).
  8. Y. T. Lu and S. Chi, "Compact, reliable asymmetric optical configuration for cost-effective fabrication of multiplex dot matrix hologram in anti-counterfeiting applications," Optik. 114, 161-167 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. K. Lee, J. W. Wu, S. L. Yeh, C. W. Tu, Y. A. Han, E. H. Liao, L. Y. Chang, I. E. Tsai, H. H. Lin, J. C. Hsieh, and J. T. Lee, "Optical configuration and color-representation range of a variable-pitch dot matrix holographic printer,"Appl. Opt. 39, 40-53 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Liu, X. Zhang, C. Liu, and P. Zhu, "Coded holograms for anticounterfeiting using Fourier transform technique on dot-matrix holograms," in Holography, Diffractive Optics, and Applications, D.Hsu, J.Chen, and Y. Sheng, eds., Proc. SPIE 4924, 134-139 (2002).
  11. Y. T. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and S. Chi, "A non-optical method for making dot-matrix hologram," in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S.A.Benton, S.H.Stevenson, and T.J.Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE 3956, 217-225 (2000).
  12. C. W. Tu, Y. A. Han, C. K. Lee, J. W. J. Wu, A. S. T. Peng, E. H. Z. Liao, and J. T. Lee, "Expanding a color presentation range with true-color dot matrix holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637, 130-140 (1999).
  13. C. K. Lee, J. C. T. Hsieh, J. W. J. Wu, and J. T. Lee, "Optical design and implementation of a variable pitch dot matrix writer," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637, 119-129 (1999).
  14. L. Yaotang, W. Tianji, Y. Shining, Z. Shichao, F. Shaowu, and W. Huangrong, "Theoretical and experimental study of dot matrix hologram," in Holographic Displays and Optical Elements II, D.HsuandJ.H.Hong, eds., Proc. SPIE 3559, 121-129 (1998).
  15. A. E. Macgregor, "Computer generated holograms from dot matrix and laser printers," Am. J. Phys. 60, 839-46 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Fetthauer, C. Stroot, and O. Bryngdahl, "On the quantization of holograms with the iterative Fourier transform algorithm," Opt. Commun. 136, 7-10 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Skeren, I. Richter, and P. Fiala, "Iterative Fourier transform algorithm: comparison of various approaches," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1851-1870 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Skeren,I. Richter, and P. Fiala, "Design and optimization considerations of multi-focus phase-only diffractive elements," in Wave-Optical Systems Engineering II, F.Wyrowski, ed., Proc. SPIE 5182, 233-242 (2003).
  19. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003).

2004 (1)

A. K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, A. K. Sharma, R. Kumar, and D. P. Chhachhia, "Interferometry based security hologram readable with an encoded key hologram,"Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 42, 816-819 (2004).

2003 (1)

Y. T. Lu and S. Chi, "Compact, reliable asymmetric optical configuration for cost-effective fabrication of multiplex dot matrix hologram in anti-counterfeiting applications," Optik. 114, 161-167 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. L. Yeh and S. T. Lin, "Dot-matrix hologram with hidden image," Opt. Eng. 41, 314-318 (2002).

M. Skeren, I. Richter, and P. Fiala, "Iterative Fourier transform algorithm: comparison of various approaches," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1851-1870 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

F. Fetthauer, C. Stroot, and O. Bryngdahl, "On the quantization of holograms with the iterative Fourier transform algorithm," Opt. Commun. 136, 7-10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. E. Macgregor, "Computer generated holograms from dot matrix and laser printers," Am. J. Phys. 60, 839-46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, A. K.

A. K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, A. K. Sharma, R. Kumar, and D. P. Chhachhia, "Interferometry based security hologram readable with an encoded key hologram,"Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 42, 816-819 (2004).

Bao, N. K.

N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Cryptogram in digital pixel holography," in Proceedings of 1999 International Workshop on Cryptographic Techniques and E-Commerce, M.Blum and C.H.Lee, eds. (City University, Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, 1999), pp. 286-290.

T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, H. Feng, S. Zhang, S. Fan, N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, "Digital pixel cryptogram in e-beam holography," in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S.A.Benton, S.H.Stevenson, and T.J.Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE 3956, 177-183 (2000).

Borisov, I. S.

V. I. Girnyk, V. I. Grygoruk, I. S. Borisov, and S. A. Kostyukevych, "Stereographic and animated rainbow diffractive images in optical security," in Practical Holography XVIII, T.H.Jeong and H.I.Bjelkhagen, eds., Proc. SPIE 5290, 179-189 (2003).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003).

Bryngdahl, O.

F. Fetthauer, C. Stroot, and O. Bryngdahl, "On the quantization of holograms with the iterative Fourier transform algorithm," Opt. Commun. 136, 7-10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. P.

T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, H. Feng, S. Zhang, S. Fan, N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, "Digital pixel cryptogram in e-beam holography," in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S.A.Benton, S.H.Stevenson, and T.J.Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE 3956, 177-183 (2000).

Chang, L. Y.

Chhachhia, D. P.

A. K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, A. K. Sharma, R. Kumar, and D. P. Chhachhia, "Interferometry based security hologram readable with an encoded key hologram,"Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 42, 816-819 (2004).

Chi, S.

Y. T. Lu and S. Chi, "Compact, reliable asymmetric optical configuration for cost-effective fabrication of multiplex dot matrix hologram in anti-counterfeiting applications," Optik. 114, 161-167 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and S. Chi, "A non-optical method for making dot-matrix hologram," in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S.A.Benton, S.H.Stevenson, and T.J.Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE 3956, 217-225 (2000).

Chung, P. S.

T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, H. Feng, S. Zhang, S. Fan, N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, "Digital pixel cryptogram in e-beam holography," in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S.A.Benton, S.H.Stevenson, and T.J.Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE 3956, 177-183 (2000).

Fan, S.

T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, H. Feng, S. Zhang, S. Fan, N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, "Digital pixel cryptogram in e-beam holography," in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S.A.Benton, S.H.Stevenson, and T.J.Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE 3956, 177-183 (2000).

N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Cryptogram in digital pixel holography," in Proceedings of 1999 International Workshop on Cryptographic Techniques and E-Commerce, M.Blum and C.H.Lee, eds. (City University, Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, 1999), pp. 286-290.

Feng, H.

T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, H. Feng, S. Zhang, S. Fan, N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, "Digital pixel cryptogram in e-beam holography," in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S.A.Benton, S.H.Stevenson, and T.J.Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE 3956, 177-183 (2000).

Fetthauer, F.

F. Fetthauer, C. Stroot, and O. Bryngdahl, "On the quantization of holograms with the iterative Fourier transform algorithm," Opt. Commun. 136, 7-10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fiala, P.

M. Skeren, I. Richter, and P. Fiala, "Iterative Fourier transform algorithm: comparison of various approaches," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1851-1870 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Skeren,I. Richter, and P. Fiala, "Design and optimization considerations of multi-focus phase-only diffractive elements," in Wave-Optical Systems Engineering II, F.Wyrowski, ed., Proc. SPIE 5182, 233-242 (2003).

Girnyk, V. I.

V. I. Girnyk, V. I. Grygoruk, I. S. Borisov, and S. A. Kostyukevych, "Stereographic and animated rainbow diffractive images in optical security," in Practical Holography XVIII, T.H.Jeong and H.I.Bjelkhagen, eds., Proc. SPIE 5290, 179-189 (2003).

Grygoruk, V. I.

V. I. Girnyk, V. I. Grygoruk, I. S. Borisov, and S. A. Kostyukevych, "Stereographic and animated rainbow diffractive images in optical security," in Practical Holography XVIII, T.H.Jeong and H.I.Bjelkhagen, eds., Proc. SPIE 5290, 179-189 (2003).

Han, Y. A.

C. K. Lee, J. W. Wu, S. L. Yeh, C. W. Tu, Y. A. Han, E. H. Liao, L. Y. Chang, I. E. Tsai, H. H. Lin, J. C. Hsieh, and J. T. Lee, "Optical configuration and color-representation range of a variable-pitch dot matrix holographic printer,"Appl. Opt. 39, 40-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tu, Y. A. Han, C. K. Lee, J. W. J. Wu, A. S. T. Peng, E. H. Z. Liao, and J. T. Lee, "Expanding a color presentation range with true-color dot matrix holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637, 130-140 (1999).

Hsieh, J. C.

Hsieh, J. C. T.

C. K. Lee, J. C. T. Hsieh, J. W. J. Wu, and J. T. Lee, "Optical design and implementation of a variable pitch dot matrix writer," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637, 119-129 (1999).

Huangrong, W.

L. Yaotang, W. Tianji, Y. Shining, Z. Shichao, F. Shaowu, and W. Huangrong, "Theoretical and experimental study of dot matrix hologram," in Holographic Displays and Optical Elements II, D.HsuandJ.H.Hong, eds., Proc. SPIE 3559, 121-129 (1998).

Kaura, S. K.

A. K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, A. K. Sharma, R. Kumar, and D. P. Chhachhia, "Interferometry based security hologram readable with an encoded key hologram,"Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 42, 816-819 (2004).

Kostyukevych, S. A.

V. I. Girnyk, V. I. Grygoruk, I. S. Borisov, and S. A. Kostyukevych, "Stereographic and animated rainbow diffractive images in optical security," in Practical Holography XVIII, T.H.Jeong and H.I.Bjelkhagen, eds., Proc. SPIE 5290, 179-189 (2003).

Kumar, R.

A. K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, A. K. Sharma, R. Kumar, and D. P. Chhachhia, "Interferometry based security hologram readable with an encoded key hologram,"Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 42, 816-819 (2004).

Lee, C. K.

C. K. Lee, J. W. Wu, S. L. Yeh, C. W. Tu, Y. A. Han, E. H. Liao, L. Y. Chang, I. E. Tsai, H. H. Lin, J. C. Hsieh, and J. T. Lee, "Optical configuration and color-representation range of a variable-pitch dot matrix holographic printer,"Appl. Opt. 39, 40-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Lee, J. C. T. Hsieh, J. W. J. Wu, and J. T. Lee, "Optical design and implementation of a variable pitch dot matrix writer," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637, 119-129 (1999).

C. W. Tu, Y. A. Han, C. K. Lee, J. W. J. Wu, A. S. T. Peng, E. H. Z. Liao, and J. T. Lee, "Expanding a color presentation range with true-color dot matrix holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637, 130-140 (1999).

Lee, J. T.

C. K. Lee, J. W. Wu, S. L. Yeh, C. W. Tu, Y. A. Han, E. H. Liao, L. Y. Chang, I. E. Tsai, H. H. Lin, J. C. Hsieh, and J. T. Lee, "Optical configuration and color-representation range of a variable-pitch dot matrix holographic printer,"Appl. Opt. 39, 40-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tu, Y. A. Han, C. K. Lee, J. W. J. Wu, A. S. T. Peng, E. H. Z. Liao, and J. T. Lee, "Expanding a color presentation range with true-color dot matrix holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637, 130-140 (1999).

C. K. Lee, J. C. T. Hsieh, J. W. J. Wu, and J. T. Lee, "Optical design and implementation of a variable pitch dot matrix writer," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637, 119-129 (1999).

Li, Y.

T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, H. Feng, S. Zhang, S. Fan, N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, "Digital pixel cryptogram in e-beam holography," in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S.A.Benton, S.H.Stevenson, and T.J.Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE 3956, 177-183 (2000).

N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Cryptogram in digital pixel holography," in Proceedings of 1999 International Workshop on Cryptographic Techniques and E-Commerce, M.Blum and C.H.Lee, eds. (City University, Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, 1999), pp. 286-290.

Liao, E. H.

Liao, E. H. Z.

C. W. Tu, Y. A. Han, C. K. Lee, J. W. J. Wu, A. S. T. Peng, E. H. Z. Liao, and J. T. Lee, "Expanding a color presentation range with true-color dot matrix holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637, 130-140 (1999).

Lin, H. H.

Lin, H. Y.

Y. T. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and S. Chi, "A non-optical method for making dot-matrix hologram," in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S.A.Benton, S.H.Stevenson, and T.J.Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE 3956, 217-225 (2000).

Lin, S. T.

S. L. Yeh and S. T. Lin, "Dot-matrix hologram with hidden image," Opt. Eng. 41, 314-318 (2002).

Liu, C.

S. Liu, X. Zhang, C. Liu, and P. Zhu, "Coded holograms for anticounterfeiting using Fourier transform technique on dot-matrix holograms," in Holography, Diffractive Optics, and Applications, D.Hsu, J.Chen, and Y. Sheng, eds., Proc. SPIE 4924, 134-139 (2002).

Liu, S.

S. Liu, X. Zhang, C. Liu, and P. Zhu, "Coded holograms for anticounterfeiting using Fourier transform technique on dot-matrix holograms," in Holography, Diffractive Optics, and Applications, D.Hsu, J.Chen, and Y. Sheng, eds., Proc. SPIE 4924, 134-139 (2002).

Lu, Y. T.

Y. T. Lu and S. Chi, "Compact, reliable asymmetric optical configuration for cost-effective fabrication of multiplex dot matrix hologram in anti-counterfeiting applications," Optik. 114, 161-167 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and S. Chi, "A non-optical method for making dot-matrix hologram," in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S.A.Benton, S.H.Stevenson, and T.J.Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE 3956, 217-225 (2000).

Macgregor, A. E.

A. E. Macgregor, "Computer generated holograms from dot matrix and laser printers," Am. J. Phys. 60, 839-46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Peng, A. S. T.

C. W. Tu, Y. A. Han, C. K. Lee, J. W. J. Wu, A. S. T. Peng, E. H. Z. Liao, and J. T. Lee, "Expanding a color presentation range with true-color dot matrix holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637, 130-140 (1999).

Richter, I.

M. Skeren, I. Richter, and P. Fiala, "Iterative Fourier transform algorithm: comparison of various approaches," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1851-1870 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Skeren,I. Richter, and P. Fiala, "Design and optimization considerations of multi-focus phase-only diffractive elements," in Wave-Optical Systems Engineering II, F.Wyrowski, ed., Proc. SPIE 5182, 233-242 (2003).

Shaowu, F.

L. Yaotang, W. Tianji, Y. Shining, Z. Shichao, F. Shaowu, and W. Huangrong, "Theoretical and experimental study of dot matrix hologram," in Holographic Displays and Optical Elements II, D.HsuandJ.H.Hong, eds., Proc. SPIE 3559, 121-129 (1998).

Sharma, A. K.

A. K. Aggarwal, S. K. Kaura, A. K. Sharma, R. Kumar, and D. P. Chhachhia, "Interferometry based security hologram readable with an encoded key hologram,"Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 42, 816-819 (2004).

Shichao, Z.

L. Yaotang, W. Tianji, Y. Shining, Z. Shichao, F. Shaowu, and W. Huangrong, "Theoretical and experimental study of dot matrix hologram," in Holographic Displays and Optical Elements II, D.HsuandJ.H.Hong, eds., Proc. SPIE 3559, 121-129 (1998).

Shining, Y.

L. Yaotang, W. Tianji, Y. Shining, Z. Shichao, F. Shaowu, and W. Huangrong, "Theoretical and experimental study of dot matrix hologram," in Holographic Displays and Optical Elements II, D.HsuandJ.H.Hong, eds., Proc. SPIE 3559, 121-129 (1998).

Skeren, M.

M. Skeren, I. Richter, and P. Fiala, "Iterative Fourier transform algorithm: comparison of various approaches," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1851-1870 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Skeren,I. Richter, and P. Fiala, "Design and optimization considerations of multi-focus phase-only diffractive elements," in Wave-Optical Systems Engineering II, F.Wyrowski, ed., Proc. SPIE 5182, 233-242 (2003).

Stroot, C.

F. Fetthauer, C. Stroot, and O. Bryngdahl, "On the quantization of holograms with the iterative Fourier transform algorithm," Opt. Commun. 136, 7-10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tianji, W.

L. Yaotang, W. Tianji, Y. Shining, Z. Shichao, F. Shaowu, and W. Huangrong, "Theoretical and experimental study of dot matrix hologram," in Holographic Displays and Optical Elements II, D.HsuandJ.H.Hong, eds., Proc. SPIE 3559, 121-129 (1998).

Tsai, I. E.

Tu, C. W.

C. K. Lee, J. W. Wu, S. L. Yeh, C. W. Tu, Y. A. Han, E. H. Liao, L. Y. Chang, I. E. Tsai, H. H. Lin, J. C. Hsieh, and J. T. Lee, "Optical configuration and color-representation range of a variable-pitch dot matrix holographic printer,"Appl. Opt. 39, 40-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tu, Y. A. Han, C. K. Lee, J. W. J. Wu, A. S. T. Peng, E. H. Z. Liao, and J. T. Lee, "Expanding a color presentation range with true-color dot matrix holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637, 130-140 (1999).

van Renesse, R. L.

R. L. van Renesse, Optical Document Security (Artech House, London, 1994).

Wang, T.

N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Cryptogram in digital pixel holography," in Proceedings of 1999 International Workshop on Cryptographic Techniques and E-Commerce, M.Blum and C.H.Lee, eds. (City University, Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, 1999), pp. 286-290.

T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, H. Feng, S. Zhang, S. Fan, N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, "Digital pixel cryptogram in e-beam holography," in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S.A.Benton, S.H.Stevenson, and T.J.Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE 3956, 177-183 (2000).

Wen, H.

N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Cryptogram in digital pixel holography," in Proceedings of 1999 International Workshop on Cryptographic Techniques and E-Commerce, M.Blum and C.H.Lee, eds. (City University, Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, 1999), pp. 286-290.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003).

Wong, W. H.

N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Cryptogram in digital pixel holography," in Proceedings of 1999 International Workshop on Cryptographic Techniques and E-Commerce, M.Blum and C.H.Lee, eds. (City University, Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, 1999), pp. 286-290.

T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, H. Feng, S. Zhang, S. Fan, N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, "Digital pixel cryptogram in e-beam holography," in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S.A.Benton, S.H.Stevenson, and T.J.Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE 3956, 177-183 (2000).

Wu, J. W.

Wu, J. W. J.

C. W. Tu, Y. A. Han, C. K. Lee, J. W. J. Wu, A. S. T. Peng, E. H. Z. Liao, and J. T. Lee, "Expanding a color presentation range with true-color dot matrix holograms," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637, 130-140 (1999).

Wu, J. W. J.

C. K. Lee, J. C. T. Hsieh, J. W. J. Wu, and J. T. Lee, "Optical design and implementation of a variable pitch dot matrix writer," in Practical Holography XIII, S.A.Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE 3637, 119-129 (1999).

Yang, S.

T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, H. Feng, S. Zhang, S. Fan, N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, H. P. Chan, and P. S. Chung, "Digital pixel cryptogram in e-beam holography," in Practical Holography XIV and Holographic Materials VI, S.A.Benton, S.H.Stevenson, and T.J.Trout, eds., Proc. SPIE 3956, 177-183 (2000).

N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Cryptogram in digital pixel holography," in Proceedings of 1999 International Workshop on Cryptographic Techniques and E-Commerce, M.Blum and C.H.Lee, eds. (City University, Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, 1999), pp. 286-290.

Yaotang, L.

L. Yaotang, W. Tianji, Y. Shining, Z. Shichao, F. Shaowu, and W. Huangrong, "Theoretical and experimental study of dot matrix hologram," in Holographic Displays and Optical Elements II, D.HsuandJ.H.Hong, eds., Proc. SPIE 3559, 121-129 (1998).

Yeh, S. L.

Zhang, S.

N. K. Bao, W. H. Wong, T. Wang, Y. Li, S. Yang, S. Zhang, S. Fan, and H. Wen, "Cryptogram in digital pixel holography," in Proceedings of 1999 International Workshop on Cryptographic Techniques and E-Commerce, M.Blum and C.H.Lee, eds. (City University, Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, 1999), pp. 286-290.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic idea of transforming the staircaselike depth relief to the binary grating with phase-shifted dot areas. Each elementary step of the original grating corresponds to the dot filled with a regular binary grating. The gratings within particular dots are phase shifted, relative to each other.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of possible segmentation of the element that (a) consists of two types of structure: one that carries the encrypted information (image DOEs indicated by dark gray rectangles) and a second that carries the covering noise (noise DOEs indicated by the light gray area). After filling with corresponding microstructures, (b) the whole element seems compact and segmentation is practically not visible.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstruction geometry of the noise-covered security element. When reconstructing without a proper reading mask, the encrypted information remains hidden in the covering noise. If the proper mask is used, the encrypted image appears in the reconstruction plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of segmentation of the encrypted information. An encoded image is divided into several parts that are individually more or less senseless, and each of them is recorded separately. The integral reconstruction of the whole object is possible only when the proper reading mask is used.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Microscopic image of the fabricated microstructure and (b) its detail realized with the enhanced integral dot-matrix system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example of the color cryptogram. The cryptogram area photographed (a) out of the first diffraction order and (b) in the direction of first diffraction order. (c) Reconstruction of the cryptogram in the laser light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental demonstration of the noise-covered cryptogram. Reconstruction (a) with and (b) without a proper reading mask. (c) Image of the reading mask used.

Equations (3)

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t ( x ) = m = - c m e 2 π i m Λ x ,
c m = 1 Λ - Λ / 2 Λ / 2 t ( x ) e 2 πim Λ x dx ,
c m , Δ = 1 Λ - Λ / 2 Λ / 2 t ( x - Δ ) e 2 πim Λ ( x - Δ ) dx = e 2 πim Λ Δ c m .

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