Abstract

Integration of free-space-wave add–drop multiplexers that consist of focusing grating couplers (FGCs) and distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) in thin-film waveguides have been investigated for construction of an intraboard wavelength-division-multiplexing optical interconnection. Compact optics of a Lloyd mirror configuration and a contact-type mask aligner were combined as an interference exposure system for fabrication of DBRs of 300μm coupling length. DBRs were integrated with FGCs on a thin-film waveguide on a glass substrate for two-channel wavelength-drop demultiplexing from guided waves to free-space waves. Measured outcoupled wavelengths of two free-space waves from two pairs of a FGC and a DBR agreed with the design values of 845and 849nm.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Savage, "Linking with light," IEEE Spectrum 39(8), 32-36 (2002).
  2. D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chiops," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. K. Lacroix, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, and D. F.-Brosseau, "Design and implementation of a modulator-based free-space optical backplane for multiprocessor applications," Appl. Opt. 42, 2465-2481 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, "Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518-530 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Voigt, S. Kufner, A. Kufner, and I. Frese, "A refractive free-space microoptical 4 x 4 interconnect on chip level with optical fan-out fabricated by the LIGA technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1484-1486 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. Yamamoto, and J. D. Ahearn, "512-channel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based free-space optical link," Appl. Opt. 41, 5552-5561 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Sasaki, K. Kotani, H. Wada, T. Takamori, and T. Ushikubo, "Scalability analysis of diffractive optical element-based free-space photonic circuits for interoptoelectronic chip interconnections," Appl. Opt. 40, 1843-1855 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Gruber, "Multichip module with planar-integrated free-space optical vector-matrix-type interconnects," Appl. Opt. 43, 463-470 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, V. H. Ozguz, and Y. Liu, "Three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor by use of free-space optical interconnection and three-dimensional VLSI chip stacks," Appl. Opt. 41, 348-360 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Ura, "Selective guided mode coupling via bridging mode by integrated gratings for intraboard optical interconnects," in Optoelectronic Interconnects, Integrated Circuits, and Packaging, L. A. Eldada, R. A. Heyler and J. R. Rowlette, Sr., eds., Proc. SPIE 4562, 86-96(2002).
  11. K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A Guided-Mode-Selective Focusing Grating Coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, M. Nishihara, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated waveguide gratings for wavelength-demultiplexing of free space waves from guided waves," Opt. Express. 12, 3072-3078 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Hamada, T. Noritomo, K. Nishio, and S. Ura, "Integration of fine-tuned 0.28 µm period gratings for integrated-optic add/drop multiplexing," in Technical Digest of International Symposium on Contemporary Photonics Technology (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, Japan, 2004), pp. 97-98.
  14. S. Ura, M. Hamada, J. Ohmori, K. Nishio, and K. Kintaka, "Integrated-optic free-space-wave drop demultiplexer fabricated by using interference exposure method," in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Technical Digest of OSA Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper DWA3.
  15. X. Mai, R. Moshrefzadeh, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, and C. T. Seaton, "Simple versatile method for fabricating guided-wave gratings," Appl. Opt. 24, 3155-3161 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A Guided-Mode-Selective Focusing Grating Coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, M. Nishihara, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated waveguide gratings for wavelength-demultiplexing of free space waves from guided waves," Opt. Express. 12, 3072-3078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gruber, "Multichip module with planar-integrated free-space optical vector-matrix-type interconnects," Appl. Opt. 43, 463-470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. K. Lacroix, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, and D. F.-Brosseau, "Design and implementation of a modulator-based free-space optical backplane for multiprocessor applications," Appl. Opt. 42, 2465-2481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, "Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518-530 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

S. Voigt, S. Kufner, A. Kufner, and I. Frese, "A refractive free-space microoptical 4 x 4 interconnect on chip level with optical fan-out fabricated by the LIGA technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1484-1486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, V. H. Ozguz, and Y. Liu, "Three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor by use of free-space optical interconnection and three-dimensional VLSI chip stacks," Appl. Opt. 41, 348-360 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Savage, "Linking with light," IEEE Spectrum 39(8), 32-36 (2002).

M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. Yamamoto, and J. D. Ahearn, "512-channel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based free-space optical link," Appl. Opt. 41, 5552-5561 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

H. Sasaki, K. Kotani, H. Wada, T. Takamori, and T. Ushikubo, "Scalability analysis of diffractive optical element-based free-space photonic circuits for interoptoelectronic chip interconnections," Appl. Opt. 40, 1843-1855 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chiops," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

X. Mai, R. Moshrefzadeh, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, and C. T. Seaton, "Simple versatile method for fabricating guided-wave gratings," Appl. Opt. 24, 3155-3161 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahearn, J. D.

Ayliffe, M. H.

Baukens, V.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, "Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518-530 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bernier, E.

Brunfaut, M.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, "Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518-530 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chateauneuf, M.

Debaes, C.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, "Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518-530 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Esener, S. C.

G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, V. H. Ozguz, and Y. Liu, "Three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor by use of free-space optical interconnection and three-dimensional VLSI chip stacks," Appl. Opt. 41, 348-360 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-Brosseau, D.

Frese, I.

S. Voigt, S. Kufner, A. Kufner, and I. Frese, "A refractive free-space microoptical 4 x 4 interconnect on chip level with optical fan-out fabricated by the LIGA technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1484-1486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, U. J.

X. Mai, R. Moshrefzadeh, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, and C. T. Seaton, "Simple versatile method for fabricating guided-wave gratings," Appl. Opt. 24, 3155-3161 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, M.

Hamada, M.

M. Hamada, T. Noritomo, K. Nishio, and S. Ura, "Integration of fine-tuned 0.28 µm period gratings for integrated-optic add/drop multiplexing," in Technical Digest of International Symposium on Contemporary Photonics Technology (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, Japan, 2004), pp. 97-98.

S. Ura, M. Hamada, J. Ohmori, K. Nishio, and K. Kintaka, "Integrated-optic free-space-wave drop demultiplexer fabricated by using interference exposure method," in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Technical Digest of OSA Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper DWA3.

Hermanne, A.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, "Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518-530 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, V. H. Ozguz, and Y. Liu, "Three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor by use of free-space optical interconnection and three-dimensional VLSI chip stacks," Appl. Opt. 41, 348-360 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imaoka, Y.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A Guided-Mode-Selective Focusing Grating Coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, M. Nishihara, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated waveguide gratings for wavelength-demultiplexing of free space waves from guided waves," Opt. Express. 12, 3072-3078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kintaka, K.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, M. Nishihara, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated waveguide gratings for wavelength-demultiplexing of free space waves from guided waves," Opt. Express. 12, 3072-3078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A Guided-Mode-Selective Focusing Grating Coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, M. Hamada, J. Ohmori, K. Nishio, and K. Kintaka, "Integrated-optic free-space-wave drop demultiplexer fabricated by using interference exposure method," in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Technical Digest of OSA Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper DWA3.

Kirk, A. G.

Kotani, K.

H. Sasaki, K. Kotani, H. Wada, T. Takamori, and T. Ushikubo, "Scalability analysis of diffractive optical element-based free-space photonic circuits for interoptoelectronic chip interconnections," Appl. Opt. 40, 1843-1855 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kufner, A.

S. Voigt, S. Kufner, A. Kufner, and I. Frese, "A refractive free-space microoptical 4 x 4 interconnect on chip level with optical fan-out fabricated by the LIGA technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1484-1486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kufner, S.

S. Voigt, S. Kufner, A. Kufner, and I. Frese, "A refractive free-space microoptical 4 x 4 interconnect on chip level with optical fan-out fabricated by the LIGA technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1484-1486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, F. K.

Li, G.

G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, V. H. Ozguz, and Y. Liu, "Three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor by use of free-space optical interconnection and three-dimensional VLSI chip stacks," Appl. Opt. 41, 348-360 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, V. H. Ozguz, and Y. Liu, "Three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor by use of free-space optical interconnection and three-dimensional VLSI chip stacks," Appl. Opt. 41, 348-360 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mai, X.

X. Mai, R. Moshrefzadeh, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, and C. T. Seaton, "Simple versatile method for fabricating guided-wave gratings," Appl. Opt. 24, 3155-3161 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchand, P. J.

G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, V. H. Ozguz, and Y. Liu, "Three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor by use of free-space optical interconnection and three-dimensional VLSI chip stacks," Appl. Opt. 41, 348-360 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meeus, W.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, "Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518-530 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chiops," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moshrefzadeh, R.

X. Mai, R. Moshrefzadeh, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, and C. T. Seaton, "Simple versatile method for fabricating guided-wave gratings," Appl. Opt. 24, 3155-3161 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishihara, H.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A Guided-Mode-Selective Focusing Grating Coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, M. Nishihara, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated waveguide gratings for wavelength-demultiplexing of free space waves from guided waves," Opt. Express. 12, 3072-3078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishihara, M.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, M. Nishihara, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated waveguide gratings for wavelength-demultiplexing of free space waves from guided waves," Opt. Express. 12, 3072-3078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishii, J.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, M. Nishihara, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated waveguide gratings for wavelength-demultiplexing of free space waves from guided waves," Opt. Express. 12, 3072-3078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A Guided-Mode-Selective Focusing Grating Coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nishio, K.

S. Ura, M. Hamada, J. Ohmori, K. Nishio, and K. Kintaka, "Integrated-optic free-space-wave drop demultiplexer fabricated by using interference exposure method," in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Technical Digest of OSA Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper DWA3.

M. Hamada, T. Noritomo, K. Nishio, and S. Ura, "Integration of fine-tuned 0.28 µm period gratings for integrated-optic add/drop multiplexing," in Technical Digest of International Symposium on Contemporary Photonics Technology (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, Japan, 2004), pp. 97-98.

Noritomo, T.

M. Hamada, T. Noritomo, K. Nishio, and S. Ura, "Integration of fine-tuned 0.28 µm period gratings for integrated-optic add/drop multiplexing," in Technical Digest of International Symposium on Contemporary Photonics Technology (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, Japan, 2004), pp. 97-98.

Ohmori, J.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, M. Nishihara, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated waveguide gratings for wavelength-demultiplexing of free space waves from guided waves," Opt. Express. 12, 3072-3078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A Guided-Mode-Selective Focusing Grating Coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, M. Hamada, J. Ohmori, K. Nishio, and K. Kintaka, "Integrated-optic free-space-wave drop demultiplexer fabricated by using interference exposure method," in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Technical Digest of OSA Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper DWA3.

Ottevaere, H.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, "Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518-530 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozguz, V. H.

G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, V. H. Ozguz, and Y. Liu, "Three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor by use of free-space optical interconnection and three-dimensional VLSI chip stacks," Appl. Opt. 41, 348-360 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plant, D. V.

Robertson, B.

Rolston, D. R.

Sasaki, H.

H. Sasaki, K. Kotani, H. Wada, T. Takamori, and T. Ushikubo, "Scalability analysis of diffractive optical element-based free-space photonic circuits for interoptoelectronic chip interconnections," Appl. Opt. 40, 1843-1855 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Satoh, R.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A Guided-Mode-Selective Focusing Grating Coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, M. Nishihara, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated waveguide gratings for wavelength-demultiplexing of free space waves from guided waves," Opt. Express. 12, 3072-3078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savage, N.

N. Savage, "Linking with light," IEEE Spectrum 39(8), 32-36 (2002).

Seaton, C. T.

X. Mai, R. Moshrefzadeh, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, and C. T. Seaton, "Simple versatile method for fabricating guided-wave gratings," Appl. Opt. 24, 3155-3161 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

X. Mai, R. Moshrefzadeh, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, and C. T. Seaton, "Simple versatile method for fabricating guided-wave gratings," Appl. Opt. 24, 3155-3161 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szymanski, T. H.

Takamori, T.

H. Sasaki, K. Kotani, H. Wada, T. Takamori, and T. Ushikubo, "Scalability analysis of diffractive optical element-based free-space photonic circuits for interoptoelectronic chip interconnections," Appl. Opt. 40, 1843-1855 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, "Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518-530 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

Tuteleers, P.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, "Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518-530 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ura, S.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A Guided-Mode-Selective Focusing Grating Coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, M. Nishihara, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated waveguide gratings for wavelength-demultiplexing of free space waves from guided waves," Opt. Express. 12, 3072-3078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ura, "Selective guided mode coupling via bridging mode by integrated gratings for intraboard optical interconnects," in Optoelectronic Interconnects, Integrated Circuits, and Packaging, L. A. Eldada, R. A. Heyler and J. R. Rowlette, Sr., eds., Proc. SPIE 4562, 86-96(2002).

M. Hamada, T. Noritomo, K. Nishio, and S. Ura, "Integration of fine-tuned 0.28 µm period gratings for integrated-optic add/drop multiplexing," in Technical Digest of International Symposium on Contemporary Photonics Technology (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, Japan, 2004), pp. 97-98.

S. Ura, M. Hamada, J. Ohmori, K. Nishio, and K. Kintaka, "Integrated-optic free-space-wave drop demultiplexer fabricated by using interference exposure method," in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Technical Digest of OSA Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper DWA3.

Ushikubo, T.

H. Sasaki, K. Kotani, H. Wada, T. Takamori, and T. Ushikubo, "Scalability analysis of diffractive optical element-based free-space photonic circuits for interoptoelectronic chip interconnections," Appl. Opt. 40, 1843-1855 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, "Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518-530 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vervaeke, M.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, "Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518-530 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, S.

S. Voigt, S. Kufner, A. Kufner, and I. Frese, "A refractive free-space microoptical 4 x 4 interconnect on chip level with optical fan-out fabricated by the LIGA technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1484-1486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Volckaerts, B.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, "Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518-530 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vranesic, Z. G.

Vynck, P.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, "Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518-530 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wada, H.

H. Sasaki, K. Kotani, H. Wada, T. Takamori, and T. Ushikubo, "Scalability analysis of diffractive optical element-based free-space photonic circuits for interoptoelectronic chip interconnections," Appl. Opt. 40, 1843-1855 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

Yuceturk, E.

G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, V. H. Ozguz, and Y. Liu, "Three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor by use of free-space optical interconnection and three-dimensional VLSI chip stacks," Appl. Opt. 41, 348-360 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

X. Mai, R. Moshrefzadeh, U. J. Gibson, G. I. Stegeman, and C. T. Seaton, "Simple versatile method for fabricating guided-wave gratings," Appl. Opt. 24, 3155-3161 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sasaki, K. Kotani, H. Wada, T. Takamori, and T. Ushikubo, "Scalability analysis of diffractive optical element-based free-space photonic circuits for interoptoelectronic chip interconnections," Appl. Opt. 40, 1843-1855 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, V. H. Ozguz, and Y. Liu, "Three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor by use of free-space optical interconnection and three-dimensional VLSI chip stacks," Appl. Opt. 41, 348-360 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, "Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 518-530 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Voigt, S. Kufner, A. Kufner, and I. Frese, "A refractive free-space microoptical 4 x 4 interconnect on chip level with optical fan-out fabricated by the LIGA technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1484-1486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, Y. Imaoka, J. Ohmori, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "A Guided-Mode-Selective Focusing Grating Coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 512-514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express. (1)

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, J. Ohmori, Y. Imaoka, M. Nishihara, S. Ura, R. Satoh, and H. Nishihara, "Integrated waveguide gratings for wavelength-demultiplexing of free space waves from guided waves," Opt. Express. 12, 3072-3078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chiops," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

N. Savage, "Linking with light," IEEE Spectrum 39(8), 32-36 (2002).

M. Hamada, T. Noritomo, K. Nishio, and S. Ura, "Integration of fine-tuned 0.28 µm period gratings for integrated-optic add/drop multiplexing," in Technical Digest of International Symposium on Contemporary Photonics Technology (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, Japan, 2004), pp. 97-98.

S. Ura, M. Hamada, J. Ohmori, K. Nishio, and K. Kintaka, "Integrated-optic free-space-wave drop demultiplexer fabricated by using interference exposure method," in Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Technical Digest of OSA Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper DWA3.

S. Ura, "Selective guided mode coupling via bridging mode by integrated gratings for intraboard optical interconnects," in Optoelectronic Interconnects, Integrated Circuits, and Packaging, L. A. Eldada, R. A. Heyler and J. R. Rowlette, Sr., eds., Proc. SPIE 4562, 86-96(2002).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Concept image of intraboard chip-to-chip optical interconnection with a thin-film waveguide for 2-D parallel transmission from a VCSEL array to a PD array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view of the proposed free-space-wave add–drop multiplexing configuration with a thin-film waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional view of a waveguide with a refractive-index profile, and the calculated electric-field profiles of the TE 0 mode and the TE 1 mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Compact interference exposure system developed for integrating the DGM DBRs. The Lloyd mirror optics and contact-type mask aligner are combined.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scanning electron microscope photographs of the fabricated gratings: (a) top view and (b) cross-sectional view.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of the experimental setup. A wavelength tunable laser diode was used instead of VCSELs to characterize wavelength drop demultiplexing function.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wavelength dependences of output efficiencies from the first GMS FGC and DGM-DBR (open circles) and the second GMS FGC and DGM DBR (closed circles).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Period Differences ΔΛ for Gratings Integrated by Varying ϕ with Pitch Δϕ = 1.5 × 10-4 Rad

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured Period Differences ΔΛ for Gratings Integrated by Varying ϕ with Pitch Δϕ = 2.5 × 10-4 Rad

Equations (1)

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Λ = λ 2   sin   ϕ = λ 2   cos   2 δ ,

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