Abstract

We discuss the approaches to preserve the high-reflectance aluminum mirror for the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral region. Single fluoride and oxide layers, a homogeneous multilayer, and hybrid multilayer solutions are put forward. Single fluoride and oxide materials have achieved reflectance above 90% at 193  nm. Multilayer capping can provide reflectance of 93.4% at 193  nm, and a hybrid multilayer of fluoride and oxide can achieve reflectance above 90%  to  160  nm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Ljungblad, U. Dauderstädt, P. Dürr, T. Sandström, H. Buhre, and H. Lakner, "New laser pattern generator for DUV using a spatial light modulator," Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 23-29 (2001).
  2. T. Sandström, U. B. Ljungblad, P. Dürr, H. Lakner, "High-performance laser pattern generation using spatial light modulators (SLM) and deep-UV radiation," http://www.spie.org/web/meetings/programs/m101/confs/4343.html.
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    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Hass and R. Tousey, "Reflecting coatings for the extreme ultraviolet," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 593-602 (1959).
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin film physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Gatto, R. Thielsch, J. Heber, N. KaiserD. Ristau, S. Günster, J. Kohlhaas, M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. Walker, D. Garzella, M. E. Couprie, P. Torchio, M. Alvisi, and C. Amra, "High-performance deep-ultraviolet optics for free-electron lasers," Appl. Opt. 41, 3236-3241 (2002).
  15. G. Hass, "Spectral reflectance of unprotected and protected evaporated metallic front-surface mirrors at various angles of incidence," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 113-116 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Far ultraviolet optical properties of MgF2 films deposited by ion-beam sputtering and their application as protective coatings for Al," Opt. Commun. 215, 93-99 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Multilayer coatings with high reflectance in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range of 50 to 121.6 nm," Appl. Opt. 38, 1231-1236 (1999).
  18. J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Mendez, and J. A. Aznárez, "Nonoxidized Al-overcoated Ir bilayers with high reflectance in the extreme ultraviolet above 50 nm," Opt. Eng. 41, 1418-1424 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Chakrabarti, J. Edelstein, and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Reflective coating of 834 A for imaging O+ inos," Opt. Eng. 33, 409-413 (1994).
  20. F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsärd, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, "VUV mirrors for the (80-120 nm) spectral range," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and N. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 627-636 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Far ultraviolet optical properties of MgF2 films deposited by ion-beam sputtering and their application as protective coatings for Al," Opt. Commun. 215, 93-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsärd, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, "VUV mirrors for the (80-120 nm) spectral range," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and N. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 627-636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

U. Ljungblad, U. Dauderstädt, P. Dürr, T. Sandström, H. Buhre, and H. Lakner, "New laser pattern generator for DUV using a spatial light modulator," Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 23-29 (2001).

1999

1997

H. Knop, M. Uhrig, M. Berkemeier, K. Becker, and G. F. Hanne, "A temperature-stabilized LiF line filter for the argon 106.7 nm resonance line," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1275-1278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. Chakrabarti, J. Edelstein, and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Reflective coating of 834 A for imaging O+ inos," Opt. Eng. 33, 409-413 (1994).

1992

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weißbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, "Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates," Thin Solid Films 217, 7-16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986

H. Günther, "Structure and related properties of thin-film optical coatings," in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. SPIE 678, 2-11 (1986).

1984

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin film physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

1979

G. Hass, "Spectral reflectance of unprotected and protected evaporated metallic front-surface mirrors at various angles of incidence," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 113-116 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1972

1971

1959

Alvisi, M.

Amra, C.

Aznárez, J. A.

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Mendez, and J. A. Aznárez, "Nonoxidized Al-overcoated Ir bilayers with high reflectance in the extreme ultraviolet above 50 nm," Opt. Eng. 41, 1418-1424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Becker, K.

H. Knop, M. Uhrig, M. Berkemeier, K. Becker, and G. F. Hanne, "A temperature-stabilized LiF line filter for the argon 106.7 nm resonance line," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1275-1278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berkemeier, M.

H. Knop, M. Uhrig, M. Berkemeier, K. Becker, and G. F. Hanne, "A temperature-stabilized LiF line filter for the argon 106.7 nm resonance line," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1275-1278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bridou, F.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsärd, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, "VUV mirrors for the (80-120 nm) spectral range," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and N. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 627-636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buhre, H.

U. Ljungblad, U. Dauderstädt, P. Dürr, T. Sandström, H. Buhre, and H. Lakner, "New laser pattern generator for DUV using a spatial light modulator," Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 23-29 (2001).

Chakrabarti, S.

S. Chakrabarti, J. Edelstein, and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Reflective coating of 834 A for imaging O+ inos," Opt. Eng. 33, 409-413 (1994).

Couprie, M. E.

Cox, J. T.

Cuniot-Ponsärd, M.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsärd, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, "VUV mirrors for the (80-120 nm) spectral range," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and N. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 627-636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dauderstädt, U.

U. Ljungblad, U. Dauderstädt, P. Dürr, T. Sandström, H. Buhre, and H. Lakner, "New laser pattern generator for DUV using a spatial light modulator," Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 23-29 (2001).

Desvignes, J.-M.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsärd, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, "VUV mirrors for the (80-120 nm) spectral range," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and N. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 627-636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dürr, P.

U. Ljungblad, U. Dauderstädt, P. Dürr, T. Sandström, H. Buhre, and H. Lakner, "New laser pattern generator for DUV using a spatial light modulator," Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 23-29 (2001).

T. Sandström, U. B. Ljungblad, P. Dürr, H. Lakner, "High-performance laser pattern generation using spatial light modulators (SLM) and deep-UV radiation," http://www.spie.org/web/meetings/programs/m101/confs/4343.html.

Edelstein, J.

S. Chakrabarti, J. Edelstein, and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Reflective coating of 834 A for imaging O+ inos," Opt. Eng. 33, 409-413 (1994).

Garzella, D.

Gatto, A.

Giri, A. P.

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin film physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Günster, S.

Günther, H.

H. Günther, "Structure and related properties of thin-film optical coatings," in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. SPIE 678, 2-11 (1986).

Hacker, E.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weißbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, "Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates," Thin Solid Films 217, 7-16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hanne, G. F.

H. Knop, M. Uhrig, M. Berkemeier, K. Becker, and G. F. Hanne, "A temperature-stabilized LiF line filter for the argon 106.7 nm resonance line," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1275-1278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hass, G.

Hass, G. H.

Heber, J.

Hunter, W. R.

Hutcheson, E. T.

Kaiser, N.

Kaiser, U.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weißbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, "Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates," Thin Solid Films 217, 7-16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Far ultraviolet optical properties of MgF2 films deposited by ion-beam sputtering and their application as protective coatings for Al," Opt. Commun. 215, 93-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Multilayer coatings with high reflectance in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range of 50 to 121.6 nm," Appl. Opt. 38, 1231-1236 (1999).

S. Chakrabarti, J. Edelstein, and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Reflective coating of 834 A for imaging O+ inos," Opt. Eng. 33, 409-413 (1994).

Knop, H.

H. Knop, M. Uhrig, M. Berkemeier, K. Becker, and G. F. Hanne, "A temperature-stabilized LiF line filter for the argon 106.7 nm resonance line," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1275-1278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kohlhaas, J.

Lakner, H.

U. Ljungblad, U. Dauderstädt, P. Dürr, T. Sandström, H. Buhre, and H. Lakner, "New laser pattern generator for DUV using a spatial light modulator," Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 23-29 (2001).

T. Sandström, U. B. Ljungblad, P. Dürr, H. Lakner, "High-performance laser pattern generation using spatial light modulators (SLM) and deep-UV radiation," http://www.spie.org/web/meetings/programs/m101/confs/4343.html.

Larruquert, J. I.

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Far ultraviolet optical properties of MgF2 films deposited by ion-beam sputtering and their application as protective coatings for Al," Opt. Commun. 215, 93-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Mendez, and J. A. Aznárez, "Nonoxidized Al-overcoated Ir bilayers with high reflectance in the extreme ultraviolet above 50 nm," Opt. Eng. 41, 1418-1424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Multilayer coatings with high reflectance in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range of 50 to 121.6 nm," Appl. Opt. 38, 1231-1236 (1999).

Lemaire, P.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsärd, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, "VUV mirrors for the (80-120 nm) spectral range," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and N. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 627-636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ljungblad, U.

U. Ljungblad, U. Dauderstädt, P. Dürr, T. Sandström, H. Buhre, and H. Lakner, "New laser pattern generator for DUV using a spatial light modulator," Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 23-29 (2001).

Ljungblad, U. B.

T. Sandström, U. B. Ljungblad, P. Dürr, H. Lakner, "High-performance laser pattern generation using spatial light modulators (SLM) and deep-UV radiation," http://www.spie.org/web/meetings/programs/m101/confs/4343.html.

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (IoP Publishing, 2001), pp. 158-178.

Mademann, U.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weißbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, "Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates," Thin Solid Films 217, 7-16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maksimovic, I.

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsärd, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, "VUV mirrors for the (80-120 nm) spectral range," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and N. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 627-636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marsi, M.

Mendez, J. A.

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Mendez, and J. A. Aznárez, "Nonoxidized Al-overcoated Ir bilayers with high reflectance in the extreme ultraviolet above 50 nm," Opt. Eng. 41, 1418-1424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Messier, R.

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin film physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Müller, H.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weißbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, "Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates," Thin Solid Films 217, 7-16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Osantowski, J. F.

Ristau, D.

Roy, R. A.

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin film physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sandström, T.

U. Ljungblad, U. Dauderstädt, P. Dürr, T. Sandström, H. Buhre, and H. Lakner, "New laser pattern generator for DUV using a spatial light modulator," Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 23-29 (2001).

T. Sandström, U. B. Ljungblad, P. Dürr, H. Lakner, "High-performance laser pattern generation using spatial light modulators (SLM) and deep-UV radiation," http://www.spie.org/web/meetings/programs/m101/confs/4343.html.

Thielsch, R.

A. Gatto, R. Thielsch, J. Heber, N. KaiserD. Ristau, S. Günster, J. Kohlhaas, M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. Walker, D. Garzella, M. E. Couprie, P. Torchio, M. Alvisi, and C. Amra, "High-performance deep-ultraviolet optics for free-electron lasers," Appl. Opt. 41, 3236-3241 (2002).

R. Thielsch, "Optical coatings for the DUV/VUV," in Optical Interference Coatings, N.Kaiser and H.K.Pulker, eds., Vol. 88 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2003), pp. 257-280.

Torchio, P.

Tousey, R.

Trovò, M.

Uhrig, M.

H. Knop, M. Uhrig, M. Berkemeier, K. Becker, and G. F. Hanne, "A temperature-stabilized LiF line filter for the argon 106.7 nm resonance line," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1275-1278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R.

Weißbrodt, P.

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weißbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, "Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates," Thin Solid Films 217, 7-16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

G. Hass, "Spectral reflectance of unprotected and protected evaporated metallic front-surface mirrors at various angles of incidence," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 113-116 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin film physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

H. Knop, M. Uhrig, M. Berkemeier, K. Becker, and G. F. Hanne, "A temperature-stabilized LiF line filter for the argon 106.7 nm resonance line," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1275-1278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

U. Ljungblad, U. Dauderstädt, P. Dürr, T. Sandström, H. Buhre, and H. Lakner, "New laser pattern generator for DUV using a spatial light modulator," Microelectron. Eng. 57-58, 23-29 (2001).

Opt. Commun.

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Far ultraviolet optical properties of MgF2 films deposited by ion-beam sputtering and their application as protective coatings for Al," Opt. Commun. 215, 93-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Mendez, and J. A. Aznárez, "Nonoxidized Al-overcoated Ir bilayers with high reflectance in the extreme ultraviolet above 50 nm," Opt. Eng. 41, 1418-1424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, J. Edelstein, and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, "Reflective coating of 834 A for imaging O+ inos," Opt. Eng. 33, 409-413 (1994).

Proc. SPIE

F. Bridou, M. Cuniot-Ponsärd, J.-M. Desvignes, I. Maksimovic, and P. Lemaire, "VUV mirrors for the (80-120 nm) spectral range," in Advances in Optical Thin Films, C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and N. A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE 5250, 627-636 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Günther, "Structure and related properties of thin-film optical coatings," in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. SPIE 678, 2-11 (1986).

Thin Solid Films

U. Kaiser, N. Kaiser, P. Weißbrodt, U. Mademann, E. Hacker, and H. Müller, "Structure of thin fluoride films deposited on amorphous substrates," Thin Solid Films 217, 7-16 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (IoP Publishing, 2001), pp. 158-178.

T. Sandström, U. B. Ljungblad, P. Dürr, H. Lakner, "High-performance laser pattern generation using spatial light modulators (SLM) and deep-UV radiation," http://www.spie.org/web/meetings/programs/m101/confs/4343.html.

R. Thielsch, "Optical coatings for the DUV/VUV," in Optical Interference Coatings, N.Kaiser and H.K.Pulker, eds., Vol. 88 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2003), pp. 257-280.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Oxidation of an aluminum surface and its protective layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of aluminum oxide thickness on the reflectance decrease at 193   nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance of aluminum in the VUV spectral region without protective layers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance of aluminum in the UV–visible spectral region without a protective layer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectance oscillation relationship with a capping layer thickness.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental results with an optimized capping layer thickness.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated reflectance with oxide materials as the capping layers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental results with an optimized capping layer thickness.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reflectance enhancement at 193   nm with a four-layer quarter-wavelength stacks.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Reflectance enhancement at 193   nm with a four-layer non-quarter-wavelength stacks.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Reflectance enhancement in the VUV spectral range with a MgF 2 SiO 2 hybrid stack.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Reflectance enhancement in the VUV spectral range with an AlF 3 SiO 2 hybrid stack.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Reflectance time stability of an aluminum single layer.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Reflectance time stability of aluminum with MgF 2   and   SiO 2 capping layers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Reflectance Degradation over Time of Aluminum Mirrors with Different Protective Materials

Equations (2)

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air | 1qw   H   1qw   L   1qw   H   1qw   L | Al .
R = [ y 0 ( y H     4 / y L     4 ) n ] 2 + ( y H     4 / y L     4 ) k 2 [ y 0 + ( y H     4 / y L     4 ) n ] 2 + ( y H     4 / y L     4 ) k 2 ,

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