Abstract

We present a method of interfacing a conventional wavelength multiplexing and demultiplexing device with a two-dimensional (2-D) array of surface-active elements, such as micro-electromechanical system devices or photodetectors. We use diffractive optical elements to transform wavelength division multiplexed signals spread along a line into a 2-D array. We applied this technique to build a device that is compatible with an arrayed-waveguide grating. The theoretical insertion loss predicted by combining beam propagation and rigorous coupled-wave analysis is 2.75dB. However, the experimental loss is 10dB. The difference is due to the poor quality of the diffraction gratings. Nevertheless, the formatting operation was performed successfully.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2004 (5)

2003 (6)

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, M. H. Ayliffe, M. Chateauneuf, and F. Lacroix, "Design rules for highly parallel free-space optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 531-547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. K. Lacroix, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, and D.-F. Brosseau, "Design and implementation of a modulator-based free-space optical backplane for multiprocessor applications," Appl. Opt. 42, 2465-2481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Thomas-Dupuis, M. Chateauneuf, and A. G. Kirk, "Design, implementation, and characterization of a folded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect," Appl. Opt. 42, 5399-5406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ohara, H. Takara, I. Shake, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, S. Mino, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, T. Kitoh, T. Kitagawa, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, "160-Gb/s optical-time-division multiplexing with PPLN hybrid integrated planar lightwave circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 302-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Earnshaw, M.Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, and A. Wong-Foy, "Highly-integrated planar lightwave circuit wavelength selective switch," Electron. Lett. 39, 1397-1398 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. F. Grosz, A. P. Küng, D. N. Maywar, A. Gurevich, and T. H. Wood, "Ultra-high-capacity long-haul 40-Gb/s WDM transmission with 0.8-b/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency by means of strong optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 470-472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

G. Zhou, X. Yuan, P. Dowd, Y-L. Lam, and Y.-C. Chan, "Design of diffractive phase elements for beam shaping: hybrid approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 791-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. Chowdhury, "Design of low-loss and polarization-insensitive reflection grating-based planar demultiplexers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 233-239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Coffa, S. Libertino, G. Coppola, and A. Cutolo, "Feasibility analysis of laser action in erbium-doped silicon waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 36, 1206-1213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and F. Thoma, "Fabrication of microprisms for planar optical interconnections by use of analog gray-scale lithography with high-energy-beam sensitive glass," Appl. Opt. 38, 2986-2990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, and D. V. Plant, "In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems," Appl. Opt. 36, 9253-9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sheng, D. Feng, and S. Larochelle, "Analysis and synthesis of circular diffractive lens with local linear grating model and rigorous coupled-wave theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1562-1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. K. Nisper, "Injection-molded replication of binary optic structures," in Design, Fabrication, and Application of Precision Plastic Optics, A. Ning and R. T. Hebert, eds., Proc. SPIE 2600, 56-64 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. Noponen, J. Turunen, and A. Vasara, "Electromagnetic theory and design of diffractive-lens arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 434-443 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. J. Grande, J. E. Johnson, and C. L. Tang, "GaAs/AlGaAs Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using chemically assisted ion beam etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2537-2539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. F. Grosz, A. P. Küng, D. N. Maywar, A. Gurevich, and T. H. Wood, "Ultra-high-capacity long-haul 40-Gb/s WDM transmission with 0.8-b/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency by means of strong optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 470-472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ahearn, J. D.

Ayliffe, M. H.

Banerjee, S.

A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. F. Grosz, A. P. Küng, D. N. Maywar, A. Gurevich, and T. H. Wood, "Ultra-high-capacity long-haul 40-Gb/s WDM transmission with 0.8-b/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency by means of strong optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 470-472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baukens, V.

P. Tuteleers, A. G. Kirk, M. Chateauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components" inProceedings of 6th Annual Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. 73-77.

Bernier, E.

Boisset, G. C.

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, and D. V. Plant, "In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems," Appl. Opt. 36, 9253-9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brosseau, D.-F.

Buhl, L.

Cappuzzo, M.

Chan, Y.-C.

G. Zhou, X. Yuan, P. Dowd, Y-L. Lam, and Y.-C. Chan, "Design of diffractive phase elements for beam shaping: hybrid approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 791-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chateauneuf, M.

F. Thomas-Dupuis, M. Chateauneuf, and A. G. Kirk, "Design, implementation, and characterization of a folded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect," Appl. Opt. 42, 5399-5406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, M. H. Ayliffe, M. Chateauneuf, and F. Lacroix, "Design rules for highly parallel free-space optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 531-547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Tuteleers, A. G. Kirk, M. Chateauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components" inProceedings of 6th Annual Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. 73-77.

F. Thomas-Dupuis, M. Chateauneuf, M. Menard, and A. G. Kirk, "Design of a two-dimensional optical wavelength (de)multiplexer," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing (Taipei, Taiwan, 2002), pp. 221-223.

Châteauneuf, M.

Chen, E.

Cheng, X.

Chowdhury, D.

D. Chowdhury, "Design of low-loss and polarization-insensitive reflection grating-based planar demultiplexers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 233-239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Coffa, S.

S. Coffa, S. Libertino, G. Coppola, and A. Cutolo, "Feasibility analysis of laser action in erbium-doped silicon waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 36, 1206-1213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Coppola, G.

S. Coffa, S. Libertino, G. Coppola, and A. Cutolo, "Feasibility analysis of laser action in erbium-doped silicon waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 36, 1206-1213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

S. Coffa, S. Libertino, G. Coppola, and A. Cutolo, "Feasibility analysis of laser action in erbium-doped silicon waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 36, 1206-1213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Debaes, C.

P. Tuteleers, A. G. Kirk, M. Chateauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components" inProceedings of 6th Annual Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. 73-77.

Doerr, C.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, and R. L. Lingle, Jr., "High spectral density long-haul 40-Gb/s transmission using CSRZ-DPSK format," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 208-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dowd, P.

G. Zhou, X. Yuan, P. Dowd, Y-L. Lam, and Y.-C. Chan, "Design of diffractive phase elements for beam shaping: hybrid approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 791-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Earnshaw, M. P.

M. P. Earnshaw, M.Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, and A. Wong-Foy, "Highly-integrated planar lightwave circuit wavelength selective switch," Electron. Lett. 39, 1397-1398 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

T. Ohara, H. Takara, I. Shake, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, S. Mino, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, T. Kitoh, T. Kitagawa, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, "160-Gb/s optical-time-division multiplexing with PPLN hybrid integrated planar lightwave circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 302-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Y. Sheng, D. Feng, and S. Larochelle, "Analysis and synthesis of circular diffractive lens with local linear grating model and rigorous coupled-wave theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1562-1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fukuchi, K.

K. Fukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, "10.92-Tb/s (273/spl times/40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical repeatered transmission experiment," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. PD24-1-PD24-3.

Gao, F.

Gimkiewicz, C.

C. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and F. Thoma, "Fabrication of microprisms for planar optical interconnections by use of analog gray-scale lithography with high-energy-beam sensitive glass," Appl. Opt. 38, 2986-2990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, and R. L. Lingle, Jr., "High spectral density long-haul 40-Gb/s transmission using CSRZ-DPSK format," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 208-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, L.

Grande, W. J.

W. J. Grande, J. E. Johnson, and C. L. Tang, "GaAs/AlGaAs Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using chemically assisted ion beam etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2537-2539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, A.

Grosz, D. F.

A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. F. Grosz, A. P. Küng, D. N. Maywar, A. Gurevich, and T. H. Wood, "Ultra-high-capacity long-haul 40-Gb/s WDM transmission with 0.8-b/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency by means of strong optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 470-472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, and R. L. Lingle, Jr., "High spectral density long-haul 40-Gb/s transmission using CSRZ-DPSK format," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 208-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gurevich, A.

A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. F. Grosz, A. P. Küng, D. N. Maywar, A. Gurevich, and T. H. Wood, "Ultra-high-capacity long-haul 40-Gb/s WDM transmission with 0.8-b/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency by means of strong optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 470-472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hagedorn, D.

C. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and F. Thoma, "Fabrication of microprisms for planar optical interconnections by use of analog gray-scale lithography with high-energy-beam sensitive glass," Appl. Opt. 38, 2986-2990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hermanne, A.

P. Tuteleers, A. G. Kirk, M. Chateauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components" inProceedings of 6th Annual Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. 73-77.

Ishii, M.

T. Ohara, H. Takara, I. Shake, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, S. Mino, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, T. Kitoh, T. Kitagawa, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, "160-Gb/s optical-time-division multiplexing with PPLN hybrid integrated planar lightwave circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 302-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

K. Fukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, "10.92-Tb/s (273/spl times/40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical repeatered transmission experiment," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. PD24-1-PD24-3.

Jahns, J.

C. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and F. Thoma, "Fabrication of microprisms for planar optical interconnections by use of analog gray-scale lithography with high-energy-beam sensitive glass," Appl. Opt. 38, 2986-2990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Johnson, J. E.

W. J. Grande, J. E. Johnson, and C. L. Tang, "GaAs/AlGaAs Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using chemically assisted ion beam etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2537-2539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kasamatsu, T.

K. Fukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, "10.92-Tb/s (273/spl times/40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical repeatered transmission experiment," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. PD24-1-PD24-3.

Kawanishi, S.

T. Ohara, H. Takara, I. Shake, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, S. Mino, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, T. Kitoh, T. Kitagawa, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, "160-Gb/s optical-time-division multiplexing with PPLN hybrid integrated planar lightwave circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 302-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, and R. L. Lingle, Jr., "High spectral density long-haul 40-Gb/s transmission using CSRZ-DPSK format," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 208-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, A. G.

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. K. Lacroix, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, and D.-F. Brosseau, "Design and implementation of a modulator-based free-space optical backplane for multiprocessor applications," Appl. Opt. 42, 2465-2481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Thomas-Dupuis, M. Chateauneuf, and A. G. Kirk, "Design, implementation, and characterization of a folded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect," Appl. Opt. 42, 5399-5406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, M. H. Ayliffe, M. Chateauneuf, and F. Lacroix, "Design rules for highly parallel free-space optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 531-547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. Yamamoto, and J. D. Ahearn, "512-channel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based free-space optical link," Appl. Opt. 41, 5552-5561 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Thomas-Dupuis, M. Chateauneuf, M. Menard, and A. G. Kirk, "Design of a two-dimensional optical wavelength (de)multiplexer," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing (Taipei, Taiwan, 2002), pp. 221-223.

P. Tuteleers, A. G. Kirk, M. Chateauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components" inProceedings of 6th Annual Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. 73-77.

Kitagawa, T.

T. Ohara, H. Takara, I. Shake, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, S. Mino, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, T. Kitoh, T. Kitagawa, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, "160-Gb/s optical-time-division multiplexing with PPLN hybrid integrated planar lightwave circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 302-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kitoh, T.

T. Ohara, H. Takara, I. Shake, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, S. Mino, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, T. Kitoh, T. Kitagawa, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, "160-Gb/s optical-time-division multiplexing with PPLN hybrid integrated planar lightwave circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 302-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E. B.

C. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and F. Thoma, "Fabrication of microprisms for planar optical interconnections by use of analog gray-scale lithography with high-energy-beam sensitive glass," Appl. Opt. 38, 2986-2990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kress, B.

B. Kress and P. Meyrueis, Digital Diffractive Optics: an Introduction to Planar Diffractive Optics and Related Technology(Wiley, 2000).

Küng, A. P.

A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. F. Grosz, A. P. Küng, D. N. Maywar, A. Gurevich, and T. H. Wood, "Ultra-high-capacity long-haul 40-Gb/s WDM transmission with 0.8-b/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency by means of strong optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 470-472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, F.

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, M. H. Ayliffe, M. Chateauneuf, and F. Lacroix, "Design rules for highly parallel free-space optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 531-547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, F. K.

Lam, Y-L.

G. Zhou, X. Yuan, P. Dowd, Y-L. Lam, and Y.-C. Chan, "Design of diffractive phase elements for beam shaping: hybrid approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 791-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Larochelle, S.

Y. Sheng, D. Feng, and S. Larochelle, "Analysis and synthesis of circular diffractive lens with local linear grating model and rigorous coupled-wave theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1562-1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E.

M. P. Earnshaw, M.Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, and A. Wong-Foy, "Highly-integrated planar lightwave circuit wavelength selective switch," Electron. Lett. 39, 1397-1398 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E. J.

Leuthold, J.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, and R. L. Lingle, Jr., "High spectral density long-haul 40-Gb/s transmission using CSRZ-DPSK format," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 208-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Libertino, S.

S. Coffa, S. Libertino, G. Coppola, and A. Cutolo, "Feasibility analysis of laser action in erbium-doped silicon waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 36, 1206-1213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

Lingle, R.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, and R. L. Lingle, Jr., "High spectral density long-haul 40-Gb/s transmission using CSRZ-DPSK format," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 208-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, and D. V. Plant, "In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems," Appl. Opt. 36, 9253-9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, C. K.

Maywar, D. N.

A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. F. Grosz, A. P. Küng, D. N. Maywar, A. Gurevich, and T. H. Wood, "Ultra-high-capacity long-haul 40-Gb/s WDM transmission with 0.8-b/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency by means of strong optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 470-472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Menard, M.

F. Thomas-Dupuis, M. Chateauneuf, M. Menard, and A. G. Kirk, "Design of a two-dimensional optical wavelength (de)multiplexer," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing (Taipei, Taiwan, 2002), pp. 221-223.

Meyrueis, P.

B. Kress and P. Meyrueis, Digital Diffractive Optics: an Introduction to Planar Diffractive Optics and Related Technology(Wiley, 2000).

Mino, S.

T. Ohara, H. Takara, I. Shake, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, S. Mino, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, T. Kitoh, T. Kitagawa, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, "160-Gb/s optical-time-division multiplexing with PPLN hybrid integrated planar lightwave circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 302-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mori, K.

T. Ohara, H. Takara, I. Shake, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, S. Mino, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, T. Kitoh, T. Kitagawa, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, "160-Gb/s optical-time-division multiplexing with PPLN hybrid integrated planar lightwave circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 302-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morie, M.

K. Fukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, "10.92-Tb/s (273/spl times/40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical repeatered transmission experiment," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. PD24-1-PD24-3.

Nelson, L. E.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, and R. L. Lingle, Jr., "High spectral density long-haul 40-Gb/s transmission using CSRZ-DPSK format," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 208-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nisper, J. K.

J. K. Nisper, "Injection-molded replication of binary optic structures," in Design, Fabrication, and Application of Precision Plastic Optics, A. Ning and R. T. Hebert, eds., Proc. SPIE 2600, 56-64 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noponen, E.

E. Noponen, J. Turunen, and A. Vasara, "Electromagnetic theory and design of diffractive-lens arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 434-443 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ogasahara, D.

K. Fukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, "10.92-Tb/s (273/spl times/40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical repeatered transmission experiment," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. PD24-1-PD24-3.

Ohara, T.

T. Ohara, H. Takara, I. Shake, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, S. Mino, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, T. Kitoh, T. Kitagawa, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, "160-Gb/s optical-time-division multiplexing with PPLN hybrid integrated planar lightwave circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 302-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohhira, R.

K. Fukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, "10.92-Tb/s (273/spl times/40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical repeatered transmission experiment," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. PD24-1-PD24-3.

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, 2000), Chap. 9, pp. 346-381.

Ono, T.

K. Fukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, "10.92-Tb/s (273/spl times/40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical repeatered transmission experiment," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. PD24-1-PD24-3.

Oswald, P.

Ottevaere, H.

P. Tuteleers, A. G. Kirk, M. Chateauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components" inProceedings of 6th Annual Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. 73-77.

Palmer, C.

C. Palmer, "The physics of diffraction gratings" in Diffraction Grating Handbook, 4th ed., E.Loewen, ed. (Richardson Grating Laboratory, Rochester, New York, 2000), pp. 12-30.

Parameswaran, K. R.

T. Ohara, H. Takara, I. Shake, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, S. Mino, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, T. Kitoh, T. Kitagawa, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, "160-Gb/s optical-time-division multiplexing with PPLN hybrid integrated planar lightwave circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 302-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, M. O.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, and R. L. Lingle, Jr., "High spectral density long-haul 40-Gb/s transmission using CSRZ-DPSK format," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 208-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. H. Szymanski, Z. G. Vranesic, F. A. P. Tooley, D. R. Rolston, M. H. Ayliffe, F. K. Lacroix, B. Robertson, E. Bernier, and D.-F. Brosseau, "Design and implementation of a modulator-based free-space optical backplane for multiprocessor applications," Appl. Opt. 42, 2465-2481 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, M. H. Ayliffe, M. Chateauneuf, and F. Lacroix, "Design rules for highly parallel free-space optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 531-547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Châteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, T. Yamamoto, and J. D. Ahearn, "512-channel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based free-space optical link," Appl. Opt. 41, 5552-5561 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, and D. V. Plant, "In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems," Appl. Opt. 36, 9253-9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, B.

Rolston, D. R.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh, "Beam Optics," in Fundamentals of Photonics, B.E. A.Saleh and M.C.Teich, eds. (Wiley, 1991), pp. 80-107.
[CrossRef]

Sekiya, K.

K. Fukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, "10.92-Tb/s (273/spl times/40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical repeatered transmission experiment," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. PD24-1-PD24-3.

Shake, I.

T. Ohara, H. Takara, I. Shake, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, S. Mino, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, T. Kitoh, T. Kitagawa, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, "160-Gb/s optical-time-division multiplexing with PPLN hybrid integrated planar lightwave circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 302-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Y.

Y. Sheng, D. Feng, and S. Larochelle, "Analysis and synthesis of circular diffractive lens with local linear grating model and rigorous coupled-wave theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1562-1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, S.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, and R. L. Lingle, Jr., "High spectral density long-haul 40-Gb/s transmission using CSRZ-DPSK format," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 208-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, G. J.

G. J. Swanson, "Binary optics technology: theoretical limits on the diffraction efficiency of multilevel diffractive optical elements," Technical Report 914, (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1991).

Szymanski, T. H.

Tagizadeh, M. R.

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, and D. V. Plant, "In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems," Appl. Opt. 36, 9253-9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takara, H.

T. Ohara, H. Takara, I. Shake, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, S. Mino, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, T. Kitoh, T. Kitagawa, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, "160-Gb/s optical-time-division multiplexing with PPLN hybrid integrated planar lightwave circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 302-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

W. J. Grande, J. E. Johnson, and C. L. Tang, "GaAs/AlGaAs Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using chemically assisted ion beam etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2537-2539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

P. Tuteleers, A. G. Kirk, M. Chateauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components" inProceedings of 6th Annual Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. 73-77.

Thoma, F.

C. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and F. Thoma, "Fabrication of microprisms for planar optical interconnections by use of analog gray-scale lithography with high-energy-beam sensitive glass," Appl. Opt. 38, 2986-2990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thomas-Dupuis, F.

F. Thomas-Dupuis, M. Chateauneuf, and A. G. Kirk, "Design, implementation, and characterization of a folded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect," Appl. Opt. 42, 5399-5406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Thomas-Dupuis, M. Chateauneuf, M. Menard, and A. G. Kirk, "Design of a two-dimensional optical wavelength (de)multiplexer," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing (Taipei, Taiwan, 2002), pp. 221-223.

Tooley, F. A. P.

Turunen, J.

E. Noponen, J. Turunen, and A. Vasara, "Electromagnetic theory and design of diffractive-lens arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 434-443 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tuteleers, P.

P. Tuteleers, A. G. Kirk, M. Chateauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components" inProceedings of 6th Annual Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. 73-77.

Vasara, A.

E. Noponen, J. Turunen, and A. Vasara, "Electromagnetic theory and design of diffractive-lens arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 434-443 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Veretennicoff, I.

P. Tuteleers, A. G. Kirk, M. Chateauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components" inProceedings of 6th Annual Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. 73-77.

Vervaeke, M.

P. Tuteleers, A. G. Kirk, M. Chateauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components" inProceedings of 6th Annual Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. 73-77.

Vranesic, Z. G.

Wang, M.

Wang, Y.

Weiner, A. M.

S. Xiao and A. M. Weiner, "2-D wavelength demultiplexer with potential for ≥1000 channels in the C-band," Opt. Express 12, 2895-2902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong-Foy, A.

Wood, T. H.

A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. F. Grosz, A. P. Küng, D. N. Maywar, A. Gurevich, and T. H. Wood, "Ultra-high-capacity long-haul 40-Gb/s WDM transmission with 0.8-b/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency by means of strong optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 470-472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

S. Xiao and A. M. Weiner, "2-D wavelength demultiplexer with potential for ≥1000 channels in the C-band," Opt. Express 12, 2895-2902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, T.

T. Ohara, H. Takara, I. Shake, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, S. Mino, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, T. Kitoh, T. Kitagawa, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, "160-Gb/s optical-time-division multiplexing with PPLN hybrid integrated planar lightwave circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 302-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

Yang, J.

Yuan, X.

G. Zhou, X. Yuan, P. Dowd, Y-L. Lam, and Y.-C. Chan, "Design of diffractive phase elements for beam shaping: hybrid approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 791-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

Zhou, G.

G. Zhou, X. Yuan, P. Dowd, Y-L. Lam, and Y.-C. Chan, "Design of diffractive phase elements for beam shaping: hybrid approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 791-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, and R. L. Lingle, Jr., "High spectral density long-haul 40-Gb/s transmission using CSRZ-DPSK format," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 208-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

F. Thomas-Dupuis, M. Chateauneuf, and A. G. Kirk, "Design, implementation, and characterization of a folded spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect," Appl. Opt. 42, 5399-5406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E. B. Kley, and F. Thoma, "Fabrication of microprisms for planar optical interconnections by use of analog gray-scale lithography with high-energy-beam sensitive glass," Appl. Opt. 38, 2986-2990 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Tagizadeh, and D. V. Plant, "In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems," Appl. Opt. 36, 9253-9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. J. Grande, J. E. Johnson, and C. L. Tang, "GaAs/AlGaAs Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using chemically assisted ion beam etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2537-2539 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. P. Earnshaw, M.Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, and A. Wong-Foy, "Highly-integrated planar lightwave circuit wavelength selective switch," Electron. Lett. 39, 1397-1398 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, and R. L. Lingle, Jr., "High spectral density long-haul 40-Gb/s transmission using CSRZ-DPSK format," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 208-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

S. Coffa, S. Libertino, G. Coppola, and A. Cutolo, "Feasibility analysis of laser action in erbium-doped silicon waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 36, 1206-1213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. Chowdhury, "Design of low-loss and polarization-insensitive reflection grating-based planar demultiplexers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 233-239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, D. V. Plant, M. H. Ayliffe, M. Chateauneuf, and F. Lacroix, "Design rules for highly parallel free-space optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 531-547 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Ohara, H. Takara, I. Shake, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, S. Mino, T. Yamada, M. Ishii, T. Kitoh, T. Kitagawa, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, "160-Gb/s optical-time-division multiplexing with PPLN hybrid integrated planar lightwave circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 302-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. F. Grosz, A. P. Küng, D. N. Maywar, A. Gurevich, and T. H. Wood, "Ultra-high-capacity long-haul 40-Gb/s WDM transmission with 0.8-b/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency by means of strong optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 470-472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

G. Zhou, X. Yuan, P. Dowd, Y-L. Lam, and Y.-C. Chan, "Design of diffractive phase elements for beam shaping: hybrid approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 791-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Noponen, J. Turunen, and A. Vasara, "Electromagnetic theory and design of diffractive-lens arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 434-443 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sheng, D. Feng, and S. Larochelle, "Analysis and synthesis of circular diffractive lens with local linear grating model and rigorous coupled-wave theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1562-1568 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

S. Xiao and A. M. Weiner, "2-D wavelength demultiplexer with potential for ≥1000 channels in the C-band," Opt. Express 12, 2895-2902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. K. Nisper, "Injection-molded replication of binary optic structures," in Design, Fabrication, and Application of Precision Plastic Optics, A. Ning and R. T. Hebert, eds., Proc. SPIE 2600, 56-64 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

P. Tuteleers, A. G. Kirk, M. Chateauneuf, H. Ottevaere, V. Baukens, C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Investigation of the replication quality of plastic micro-optical interconnection components" inProceedings of 6th Annual Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. 73-77.

C. Palmer, "The physics of diffraction gratings" in Diffraction Grating Handbook, 4th ed., E.Loewen, ed. (Richardson Grating Laboratory, Rochester, New York, 2000), pp. 12-30.

B. E. A. Saleh, "Beam Optics," in Fundamentals of Photonics, B.E. A.Saleh and M.C.Teich, eds. (Wiley, 1991), pp. 80-107.
[CrossRef]

G. J. Swanson, "Binary optics technology: theoretical limits on the diffraction efficiency of multilevel diffractive optical elements," Technical Report 914, (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1991).

F. Thomas-Dupuis, M. Chateauneuf, M. Menard, and A. G. Kirk, "Design of a two-dimensional optical wavelength (de)multiplexer," in Proceedings of Optics in Computing (Taipei, Taiwan, 2002), pp. 221-223.

K. Fukuchi, T. Kasamatsu, M. Morie, R. Ohhira, T. Ito, K. Sekiya, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, "10.92-Tb/s (273/spl times/40-Gb/s) triple-band/ultra-dense WDM optical repeatered transmission experiment," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference Optical Fiber Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001), pp. PD24-1-PD24-3.

B. Kress and P. Meyrueis, Digital Diffractive Optics: an Introduction to Planar Diffractive Optics and Related Technology(Wiley, 2000).

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, 2000), Chap. 9, pp. 346-381.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the formatting technique: (a) illustration of the required components, (b), (c) evolution of the beam (dashed curve) from the side and from the top.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gaussian beam optimization diagram. Symbols d 1 and d 2 represent the limiting aperture diameters and z 1 and z 2 represent the distance between the beam waist ω o and the apertures. Distance s is the separation between DOE 1 and DOE 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Minimum separation required between DOE 1 and DOE 2 as a function of the smallest allowed grating period. The three curves represent the minimum separation for a device with four (gray), five (dotted), and eight (black) rows with an output pitch of 250 μm , a wavelength of 1550 nm , and no vertical offset. The horizontal segmented line indicates the longest possible propagation distance ( l max ) for the same system assuming an input pitch of 63.5 μm . Thin solid line, 4; dash-dotted line, 5; thick solid line, 8; dashed line, L maximum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency versus period for a four-level grating etched into fused silica calculated with RCWA. Dotted curve, P polarization; solid curve, S polarization; thick solid curve, average.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Layout and mapping of the formatting system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

RCWA prediction of the loss for each channel in the formatting system assuming perfect alignment.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Monte Carlo analysis of the insertion loss.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photograph of the formatting system (front view). The DOEs and microlenses were etched inside the concentric metallic squares. The features outside the squares are used for alignment.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured grating profile. The gray curve represents the desired profile.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured formatting system loss

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

AWG and formatting system loss. The losses are divided into three sources: the AWG, the formatting system, and the alignment and collimation error between the two devices. ao-45-1-122-g012AWG, ao-45-1-122-g013 Formatting, ao-45-1-122-g014 System Alignment & Collimation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Alignment Tolerances

Equations (9)

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m λ = p i sin ( θ i ) ,
p = p x p y ( p x 2 + p y 2 ) ,
θ p = tan 1 ( p y p x ) .
ω ( z ) = ω 0 [ 1 + ( z λ π ω 0 2 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
z = π ω 0 2 λ [ ( ω ω 0 ) 2 1 ] 1 / 2 .
l max = z 1 + z 2 = π ω 0 2 λ [ ( d 1 3 ω 0 ) 2 1 ] 1 / 2 + π ω 0 2 λ [ ( d 2 3 ω 0 ) 2 1 ] 1 / 2 ,
ω o l = d 1 d 2 3 ( d 1 2 + d 2 2 ) 1 / 2 .
l min = ( p min λ ) [ ( r 1 2 ) d 2 + | y | ] ,
± Δ b = s λ [ 1 λ 2 p 2 p 1 λ 2 ( p ± Δ p ) 2 ( p ± Δ p ) ] ,

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