Abstract

We describe the replication of a relief grating that behaves like a polarizing beam splitter by injection molding. Measurements of the grating master, nickel shim, and replica, performed by atomic force microscopy, allow establishing a limit for the injection molding technique (currently used in CD fabrication) to aspect ratios of approximately 0.15. Although this limit strongly reduces the diffraction efficiency of the elements as well as their polarizing properties, extinction ratios of approximately 10:1 were measured for the replicas in a large range of wavelengths.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Turunen and F. Wyrowski, Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications (Akademie Verlag, 1997).
  2. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  11. H. Becker and U. Heim, "Hot embossing as a method for the fabrication of polymer high aspect ratio structures," Sens. Actuators A 83, 130-135 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Frejlich, L. Cescato, and G. F. Mendes, "Analysis of an active stabilization system for a holographic setup," Appl. Opt. 27, 1967-1976 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Spiro, Electroforming: a Comprehensive Survey of Theory, Practice and Commercial Applications, 2nd ed. (Robert Draper, Ltd., 1971).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

H. Becker and U. Heim, "Hot embossing as a method for the fabrication of polymer high aspect ratio structures," Sens. Actuators A 83, 130-135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. Lalanne, J. Hazart, P. Chavel, E. Cambril, and H. Launoisl, "A transmission polarizing beam splitter grating," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 215-219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, "Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal-stripe gratings," Opt. Eng. 38, 220-226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. T. Gale, "Replication techniques for diffractive optical elements," Microeletron. Eng. 34, 321-339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Nikolajeff, S. Jacobsson, S. Hard, A. Billman, L. Lundbladh, and C. Lindell, "Replication of continuous-relief diffractive optical elements by conventional compact disc injection-molding techniques," Appl. Opt. 36, 4655-4659 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Schmitz, R. Brauer, and O. Bryngdahl, "Grating in the resonance domain as polarizing beam splitters," Opt. Lett. 20, 1830-1831 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. Jahns, K. H. Brenner, W. Däschner, C. Doubrava, and T. Merklein, "Replication of diffractive micro optical elements using a PMMA molding technique," Optik 89, 98-100 (1992).

1990 (1)

L. Cescato, E. Gluch, and N. Streibl, "Holographic quarter-wave plate," Appl. Opt. 29, 3286-3290 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

Becker, H.

H. Becker and U. Heim, "Hot embossing as a method for the fabrication of polymer high aspect ratio structures," Sens. Actuators A 83, 130-135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Billman, A.

F. Nikolajeff, S. Jacobsson, S. Hard, A. Billman, L. Lundbladh, and C. Lindell, "Replication of continuous-relief diffractive optical elements by conventional compact disc injection-molding techniques," Appl. Opt. 36, 4655-4659 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brauer, R.

M. Schmitz, R. Brauer, and O. Bryngdahl, "Grating in the resonance domain as polarizing beam splitters," Opt. Lett. 20, 1830-1831 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, K. H.

J. Jahns, K. H. Brenner, W. Däschner, C. Doubrava, and T. Merklein, "Replication of diffractive micro optical elements using a PMMA molding technique," Optik 89, 98-100 (1992).

Bryngdahl, O.

M. Schmitz, R. Brauer, and O. Bryngdahl, "Grating in the resonance domain as polarizing beam splitters," Opt. Lett. 20, 1830-1831 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cambril, E.

P. Lalanne, J. Hazart, P. Chavel, E. Cambril, and H. Launoisl, "A transmission polarizing beam splitter grating," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 215-219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cescato, L.

Chavel, P.

P. Lalanne, J. Hazart, P. Chavel, E. Cambril, and H. Launoisl, "A transmission polarizing beam splitter grating," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 215-219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Däschner, W.

J. Jahns, K. H. Brenner, W. Däschner, C. Doubrava, and T. Merklein, "Replication of diffractive micro optical elements using a PMMA molding technique," Optik 89, 98-100 (1992).

Doubrava, C.

J. Jahns, K. H. Brenner, W. Däschner, C. Doubrava, and T. Merklein, "Replication of diffractive micro optical elements using a PMMA molding technique," Optik 89, 98-100 (1992).

Frejlich, J.

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, "Replication techniques for diffractive optical elements," Microeletron. Eng. 34, 321-339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gluch, E.

L. Cescato, E. Gluch, and N. Streibl, "Holographic quarter-wave plate," Appl. Opt. 29, 3286-3290 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Hard, S.

F. Nikolajeff, S. Jacobsson, S. Hard, A. Billman, L. Lundbladh, and C. Lindell, "Replication of continuous-relief diffractive optical elements by conventional compact disc injection-molding techniques," Appl. Opt. 36, 4655-4659 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hazart, J.

P. Lalanne, J. Hazart, P. Chavel, E. Cambril, and H. Launoisl, "A transmission polarizing beam splitter grating," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 215-219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heim, U.

H. Becker and U. Heim, "Hot embossing as a method for the fabrication of polymer high aspect ratio structures," Sens. Actuators A 83, 130-135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsson, S.

F. Nikolajeff, S. Jacobsson, S. Hard, A. Billman, L. Lundbladh, and C. Lindell, "Replication of continuous-relief diffractive optical elements by conventional compact disc injection-molding techniques," Appl. Opt. 36, 4655-4659 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jahns, J.

J. Jahns, K. H. Brenner, W. Däschner, C. Doubrava, and T. Merklein, "Replication of diffractive micro optical elements using a PMMA molding technique," Optik 89, 98-100 (1992).

Kley, E.-B.

B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, "Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal-stripe gratings," Opt. Eng. 38, 220-226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne, J. Hazart, P. Chavel, E. Cambril, and H. Launoisl, "A transmission polarizing beam splitter grating," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 215-219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Launoisl, H.

P. Lalanne, J. Hazart, P. Chavel, E. Cambril, and H. Launoisl, "A transmission polarizing beam splitter grating," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 215-219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lindell, C.

F. Nikolajeff, S. Jacobsson, S. Hard, A. Billman, L. Lundbladh, and C. Lindell, "Replication of continuous-relief diffractive optical elements by conventional compact disc injection-molding techniques," Appl. Opt. 36, 4655-4659 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundbladh, L.

F. Nikolajeff, S. Jacobsson, S. Hard, A. Billman, L. Lundbladh, and C. Lindell, "Replication of continuous-relief diffractive optical elements by conventional compact disc injection-molding techniques," Appl. Opt. 36, 4655-4659 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madou, M.

M. Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication (CRC Press, 1997).

Mendes, G. F.

Merklein, T.

J. Jahns, K. H. Brenner, W. Däschner, C. Doubrava, and T. Merklein, "Replication of diffractive micro optical elements using a PMMA molding technique," Optik 89, 98-100 (1992).

Nikolajeff, F.

F. Nikolajeff, S. Jacobsson, S. Hard, A. Billman, L. Lundbladh, and C. Lindell, "Replication of continuous-relief diffractive optical elements by conventional compact disc injection-molding techniques," Appl. Opt. 36, 4655-4659 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitz, M.

M. Schmitz, R. Brauer, and O. Bryngdahl, "Grating in the resonance domain as polarizing beam splitters," Opt. Lett. 20, 1830-1831 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnabel, B.

B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, "Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal-stripe gratings," Opt. Eng. 38, 220-226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Soares, L. L.

Spiro, P.

P. Spiro, Electroforming: a Comprehensive Survey of Theory, Practice and Commercial Applications, 2nd ed. (Robert Draper, Ltd., 1971).

Streibl, N.

L. Cescato, E. Gluch, and N. Streibl, "Holographic quarter-wave plate," Appl. Opt. 29, 3286-3290 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyrowski, F.

B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, "Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal-stripe gratings," Opt. Eng. 38, 220-226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

L. Cescato, E. Gluch, and N. Streibl, "Holographic quarter-wave plate," Appl. Opt. 29, 3286-3290 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Nikolajeff, S. Jacobsson, S. Hard, A. Billman, L. Lundbladh, and C. Lindell, "Replication of continuous-relief diffractive optical elements by conventional compact disc injection-molding techniques," Appl. Opt. 36, 4655-4659 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

P. Lalanne, J. Hazart, P. Chavel, E. Cambril, and H. Launoisl, "A transmission polarizing beam splitter grating," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 215-219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Microeletron. Eng. (1)

M. T. Gale, "Replication techniques for diffractive optical elements," Microeletron. Eng. 34, 321-339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

M. Schmitz, R. Brauer, and O. Bryngdahl, "Grating in the resonance domain as polarizing beam splitters," Opt. Lett. 20, 1830-1831 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, "Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal-stripe gratings," Opt. Eng. 38, 220-226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

J. Jahns, K. H. Brenner, W. Däschner, C. Doubrava, and T. Merklein, "Replication of diffractive micro optical elements using a PMMA molding technique," Optik 89, 98-100 (1992).

Sens. Actuators A (1)

H. Becker and U. Heim, "Hot embossing as a method for the fabrication of polymer high aspect ratio structures," Sens. Actuators A 83, 130-135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. Spiro, Electroforming: a Comprehensive Survey of Theory, Practice and Commercial Applications, 2nd ed. (Robert Draper, Ltd., 1971).

J. Turunen and F. Wyrowski, Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications (Akademie Verlag, 1997).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

M. Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication (CRC Press, 1997).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Working scheme of the holographic PBS. Unpolarized light is incident at the Littrow angle (θL), and the −1 order is reflected in the same direction of the incident light. The −1 diffracted order is linearly polarized in the TE direction, whereas the zeroth order is polarized in the TM direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of a typical profile of the holographic PBS. The diffraction spectrum of this grating corresponds to the master spectrum shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of the different steps of the replication process: (a) the glass master, (b) the Ni shim, (c) the polycarbonate replica.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AFM of the profiles: (a) master, (b) Ni shim, and (c) polycarbonate replica.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction spectrum at the Littrow condition of incidence of the master (solid and dashed curves) and its replica (open box and filled triangle curves) for the orthogonal polarizations (TE and TM).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diffraction spectrum of a polycarbonate replica at the Littrow condition of incidence for the orthogonal polarizations (TE, solid curve; and TM, dashed curve) and the extinction rate for the −1 diffracted order [ η 1 (TM) / η 1 ( TE ) ] in the box-barred curve.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 AFM Measurements (Grating Period Λ and Depth h ) for the Masters and Their Corresponding Ni Shims a

Tables Icon

Table 2 AFM Microscopy Measurements of the Period (Λ) and of the Depth ( h ) for Each Couple Ni Shim and Its Polycarbonate Replica

Metrics