Abstract

Numerical simulations of radiative transfer were used to examine the effects of a nonuniform vertical profile of the inherent optical properties of the water column associated with the vertical profile of chlorophyll concentration, Chl(z), on the spectral remote-sensing reflectance, Rrs(λ), of the ocean. Using the Gaussian function that describes the Chl(z) profile, we simulated a relatively broad range of open-ocean conditions characterized by the presence of a subsurface Chl maximum at depths greater than or equal to 20 m. The simulations for a vertically nonuniform Chl(z) were compared with reference simulations for a homogeneous ocean whose Chl was identical to the surface Chl of inhomogeneous cases. The range of values for the Gaussian parameters that produce significant differences in Rrs(λ) (>5%) was determined. For some vertical structures of Chl(z) considered, the magnitude of Rrs(λ) and the blue-to-green band ratios of Rrs(λ) differ significantly from the reference values of homogeneous ocean (>70% in extreme cases of low surface chlorophyll of 0.02 mg m−3 and shallow pigment maximum at 20 m). The differences are small or negligible when the nonuniform profiles are characterized by a surface Chl greater than 0.4 mg m−3 or a depth of Chl maximum greater than 45 m (65 m in extremely clear waters with a surface Chl of 0.02 mg m−3 or less). The comparison of modeling results with the current algorithm for retrieving the global distribution of chlorophyll from satellite imagery of ocean color suggests that strong effects of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum on reflectance at low surface chlorophyll concentrations can lead to a severalfold overestimation in the algorithm-derived surface chlorophyll. Examples of field data from the Sea of Japan and the north polar Atlantic Ocean are used to illustrate various nonuniform pigment profiles and their effect on the blue-to-green ratio of Rrs(λ).

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, R. Hapter, S. Kaczmarek, J. Ston, “Bio-optical relationships and ocean color algorithms for the north polar region of the Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C5), 3143, (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean Science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geophys. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Prog. Oceanogr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the noncorrelation of the vertical structure of light scattering and chlorophyll a in case 1 waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20,237–20,246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (2)

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, “Oceanic primary production: estimation by remote sensing at regional and larger scales,” Science 241, 1613–1620 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

M. R. Lewis, J. J. Cullen, T. Platt, “Phytoplankton and thermal structure of the upper ocean: consequences of nonuniformity in the chlorophyll profile,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2565–2570 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (3)

R. C. Smith, “Remote sensing and depth distribution of ocean chlorophyll,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 5, 359–361 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean colour,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).

1975 (2)

Abbott, M. R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean Science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geophys. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, J.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Arrigo, K.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Austin, R. W.

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, “Ocean optics protocols for SeaWiFS validation, revision 1,” (1995).

Baker, K.

Balch, W. M.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean Science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geophys. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barton, I.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean Science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geophys. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bidigare, R. R.

C. C. Trees, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, L. Van Heukelem, “Fluorometric chlorophyll a: Sampling, laboratory methods, and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds., (2000), pp. 162–169.

Brown, O. B.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean Science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geophys. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “Diffuse reflectance of the ocean: some effects of vertical structure,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2892–2895 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, J. W.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean Science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geophys. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean Science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geophys. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caverhill, C. M.

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chavez, F. P.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Clark, D. K.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean Science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geophys. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Remote sensing optical properties of a stratified ocean: an improved interpretation,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3428–3430 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Clark, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Environmental Satellite Service, Washington, D.C. 20233 (personal communication, 2003).

Cota, G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Cullen, J. J.

M. R. Lewis, J. J. Cullen, T. Platt, “Phytoplankton and thermal structure of the upper ocean: consequences of nonuniformity in the chlorophyll profile,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2565–2570 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Culver, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Erga, S. R.

Esaias, W. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean Science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geophys. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean Science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geophys. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frette, O.

Fry, E. S.

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Haltrin, V. I.

Hapter, R.

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, R. Hapter, S. Kaczmarek, J. Ston, “Bio-optical relationships and ocean color algorithms for the north polar region of the Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C5), 3143, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harding, L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Hoge, F. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean Science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geophys. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Kaczmarek, S.

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, R. Hapter, S. Kaczmarek, J. Ston, “Bio-optical relationships and ocean color algorithms for the north polar region of the Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C5), 3143, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Karl, D. M.

C. C. Trees, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, L. Van Heukelem, “Fluorometric chlorophyll a: Sampling, laboratory methods, and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds., (2000), pp. 162–169.

Kitchen, J. C.

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the noncorrelation of the vertical structure of light scattering and chlorophyll a in case 1 waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20,237–20,246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Letelier, R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean Science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geophys. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Lewis, M. R.

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Lewis, J. J. Cullen, T. Platt, “Phytoplankton and thermal structure of the upper ocean: consequences of nonuniformity in the chlorophyll profile,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2565–2570 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Magnuson, A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Maritorena, S.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

McCluney, W. R.

Minnett, P. J.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean Science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geophys. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water, Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

C. D. Mobley, Hydrolight 4.1 User’s Guide (Sequoia Scientific, Mercer Island, Wash., 1999).

Moore, G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Morel, A.

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Prog. Oceanogr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean colour,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery—A Review,lecture notes on coastal and estuarine studies (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, “Ocean optics protocols for SeaWiFS validation, revision 1,” (1995).

Muller-Karger, F.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

O’Brien, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” Tech. Rep. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

Phinney, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Platt, T.

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll: consequence of nonuniform pigment profile,” Appl. Opt. 28, 490–495 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, “Oceanic primary production: estimation by remote sensing at regional and larger scales,” Science 241, 1613–1620 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Lewis, J. J. Cullen, T. Platt, “Phytoplankton and thermal structure of the upper ocean: consequences of nonuniformity in the chlorophyll profile,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2565–2570 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Prieur, L.

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean colour,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll: consequence of nonuniform pigment profile,” Appl. Opt. 28, 490–495 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, “Oceanic primary production: estimation by remote sensing at regional and larger scales,” Science 241, 1613–1620 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith, “Remote sensing and depth distribution of ocean chlorophyll,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 5, 359–361 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sogandares, F. M.

Stamnes, J. J.

Stamnes, K.

Ston, J.

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, R. Hapter, S. Kaczmarek, J. Ston, “Bio-optical relationships and ocean color algorithms for the north polar region of the Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C5), 3143, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stramska, M.

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, R. Hapter, S. Kaczmarek, J. Ston, “Bio-optical relationships and ocean color algorithms for the north polar region of the Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C5), 3143, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, R. Hapter, S. Kaczmarek, J. Ston, “Bio-optical relationships and ocean color algorithms for the north polar region of the Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C5), 3143, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Strutton, P.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Toole, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

Trees, C. C.

C. C. Trees, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, L. Van Heukelem, “Fluorometric chlorophyll a: Sampling, laboratory methods, and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds., (2000), pp. 162–169.

Van Heukelem, L.

C. C. Trees, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, L. Van Heukelem, “Fluorometric chlorophyll a: Sampling, laboratory methods, and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds., (2000), pp. 162–169.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the noncorrelation of the vertical structure of light scattering and chlorophyll a in case 1 waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20,237–20,246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Remotely sensed reflectance and its dependence on vertical structure: a theoretical derivation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4146–4150 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (12)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “Diffuse reflectance of the ocean: some effects of vertical structure,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2892–2895 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of optical properties in continuously stratified waters,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1893–1897 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Remote sensing optical properties of a stratified ocean: an improved interpretation,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3428–3430 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Diffuse reflectance of the ocean: influence of nonuniform phytoplankton pigment profile,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2116–2129 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, W. R. McCluney, “Estimation of the depth of sunlight penetration in the sea for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 14, 413–416 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll: consequence of nonuniform pigment profile,” Appl. Opt. 28, 490–495 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Remotely sensed reflectance and its dependence on vertical structure: a theoretical derivation,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4146–4150 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Haltrin, “Diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea,” Appl. Opt. 38, 932–936 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Frette, S. R. Erga, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, “Optical remote sensing of waters with vertical structure,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1478–1486 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Sogandares, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (340–640 nm) of pure water. I. Photothermal measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8699–8709 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deep-Sea Res. (1)

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geophys. Remote Sens. (1)

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, P. J. Minnett, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean Science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geophys. Remote Sens. 36, 1250–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, R. Hapter, S. Kaczmarek, J. Ston, “Bio-optical relationships and ocean color algorithms for the north polar region of the Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C5), 3143, (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the noncorrelation of the vertical structure of light scattering and chlorophyll a in case 1 waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20,237–20,246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Lewis, J. J. Cullen, T. Platt, “Phytoplankton and thermal structure of the upper ocean: consequences of nonuniformity in the chlorophyll profile,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2565–2570 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean colour,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. (1)

R. C. Smith, “Remote sensing and depth distribution of ocean chlorophyll,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 5, 359–361 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanogr. (1)

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Prog. Oceanogr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, “Oceanic primary production: estimation by remote sensing at regional and larger scales,” Science 241, 1613–1620 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” Tech. Rep. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

C. C. Trees, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, L. Van Heukelem, “Fluorometric chlorophyll a: Sampling, laboratory methods, and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds., (2000), pp. 162–169.

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, “Ocean optics protocols for SeaWiFS validation, revision 1,” (1995).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water, Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

C. D. Mobley, Hydrolight 4.1 User’s Guide (Sequoia Scientific, Mercer Island, Wash., 1999).

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. Siegel, M. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. Cota, S. Hooker, C. McClain, K. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. Moore, J. Aiken, K. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: version 4,” in Sea-WiFS Postlaunch Calibrations and Validation Analyses, Part 3, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., (2000), Vol. 11, pp. 9–23.

D. K. Clark, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Environmental Satellite Service, Washington, D.C. 20233 (personal communication, 2003).

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery—A Review,lecture notes on coastal and estuarine studies (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Examples of chlorophyll profiles for one selected pair of zmax and Chl0 values and several combinations of σ and h values as indicated. Shown also are the profiles of the absorption, a, and scattering, b, coefficients at 445 nm associated with the Chl profiles that are displayed in the top right-hand figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example results of radiative transfer simulations, showing the differences in reflectance Rrs(λ) and reflectance ratio Rrs(λ)/Rrs(555) between the homogenous ocean with a uniform pigment profile (solid curves) and the inhomogeneous ocean with a distinct subsurface chlorophyll maximum (dotted curves). The surface chlorophyll in the inhomogeneous case is identical to that in the homogeneous case in these simulations. The values of the chlorophyll profile parameters, zmax and Chl0, are given. The simulations for nonuniform pigment profiles were made with depth-dependent absorption and scattering coefficients (see text for a detailed explanation).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example results of radiative transfer simulations, showing how the relative difference between nonuniform and homogenous ocean values of Rrs(445), Rrs(555), and Rrs(445)/Rrs(555) depend on parameters h and σ for a given Chl0 = 0.05 mg m−3 and zmax = 30 m. The simulations for nonuniform pigment profiles were made with the depth-dependent absorption and scattering coefficients. The symbol Δ on the vertical axis is equivalent to Rchange [see Eq. (7) and text for a detailed explanation].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A, Results of radiative transfer simulations indicating the values of σ and Chlmax for which the absolute value of the difference between remote-sensing reflectance Rrs(445) in the inhomogeneous ocean and in the homogeneous ocean was greater than 5%. For a given zmax and Chl0 (legend below A), all pairs of values of Chlmax and σ that lie on the corresponding line and to the right of the line define the domain of the Chlmax and σ values where the difference is >5%. B, For example, the interpretation of the figure is illustrated for line 1 from A. The shaded area corresponds to the difference >5%. The simulations for nonuniform pigment profiles were made with the depth-dependent absorption and scattering coefficients (see text for a detailed explanation).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4 but for the remote-sensing reflectance ratio Rrs(445)/Rrs(555).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same as Fig. 4 but for Rrs(485)/Rrs(555).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Examples of the measured Chl(z) profiles from the Sea of Japan and the north polar waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Data points are accompanied by solid curves that represent the fitted Gaussian curves [Eq. (6)]. The dates, times, and locations of measurements and the parameters of the Gaussian curves are listed here. Station 38: 30 June 1999; 23:05 GMT; 38°01′N 128°53′E. h = 41.30, σ = 7.05, zmax = 26.5, Chl0 = 0.15. Station 61:5 July 1999; 2:16 GMT; 40°10′N 136°20′E. h = 25.62, σ = 8.45, zmax = 25.0, Chl0 = 0.10. Station ks10: 15 July 1998; 6:49 GMT; 78°55′N 7°09′E. h = 19.80, σ = 7.80, zmax = 17.5, Chl0 = 0.08. Station ks23: 16 July 1998; 15:35 GMT; 78°50′N 9°30′E. h = 9.25, σ = 3.0, zmax = 35.7, Chl0 = 0.09. Station z1: 25 July 1999; 15:45 GMT; 78°00′N 5°00′E. h = 25.51, σ = 4.60, zmax = 20.3, Chl0 = 0.97. Station z3: 25 July 1999; 7:30 GMT; 78°04′N 7°00′E. h = 76.16, σ = 5.22, zmax = 30.8, Chl0 = 0.94.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relationship between in situ-measured reflectance ratio Rrs(442)/Rrs(555) and the measured chlorophyll a concentration at the sea surface. The data were collected in the Sea of Japan and the north polar Atlantic. Filled symbols indicate data collected when the remote-sensing reflectance was significantly affected by the nonuniform pigment profile (with the exception of the z1 and z3 stations; see text for an explanation). The solid curve shows the OC4 (version 4) algorithm.10

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

A, Chlorophyll concentration at the sea surface, Chl, as a function of the blue-to-green ratio of remote-sensing reflectance Rrs(445)/Rrs(555). B, Same as A but for Rrs(485)/Rrs(555). The data points were obtained from our radiative transfer simulations for nonuniform pigment profiles, in which the absorption and scattering coefficients varied with depth (see text for a detailed explanation). Solid curves correspond to simulations of a homogeneous ocean. These curves are very close to the rightmost data points that represent simulations with negligible effect of nonuniform Chl(z) profiles on the reflectance ratio. The spread of the data points to the left from the solid curves illustrates the effects of nonuniform Chl(z) profiles in the simulations. For comparison, the OC4 (version 4) and OC2 (version 4) algorithms are shown.10

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Pairs of zmax and Chl0 Values Used to Generate Idealized Chl Profilesa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Pairs of 3 and h Values Used to Generate Idealized Chl Profiles

Equations (7)

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a ( λ , z ) = a w ( λ ) + a p ( λ , z ) + a CDOM ( λ , z ) ,
a p ( λ , z ) = 0.06 a c * ( λ ) Chl ( z ) 0.65 ,
a CDOM ( λ , z ) = 0.012 Chl ( z ) 0.65 exp [ - 0.014 ( λ - 440 ) ] ,
b ( λ , z ) = b w ( λ ) + b p ( λ , z ) ,
b p ( λ , z ) = ( 550 / λ ) 0.30 Chl ( z ) 0.62 .
Chl ( z ) = Chl 0 + h / [ σ ( 2 π ) 0.5 ] exp [ - ( z - z max ) 2 / 2 σ 2 ] ,
R change ( % ) = [ ( R nonunif - R unif ) / R unif ] 100 ,

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