Abstract

We present three different methods for the absolute calibration of direct spectral irradiances measured with a Brewer spectroradiometer, which are shown to agree to within ±2%. Direct irradiance spectra derived by Brewer and Bentham spectroradiometers agree to within 4 ± 3%. Good agreement was also found by a comparison of the aerosol optical depth and Angstrom exponent retrieved by the two instruments and a multifilter rotational shadowband radiometer. The spectral aerosol optical depth (300–365 nm) derived from six years of direct irradiance measurements at Thessaloniki shows a distinct seasonal variation, averaging to ~0.3 at 340 nm in winter and ~0.7 in summer.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. S. Balis, V. Amiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Kazantzidis, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, A. Papayannis, V. Matthias, H. Dier, “Study of the effect of different type of aerosols on UV-B radiation from measurements during EARLINET,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1–15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Arola, T. Koskela, “On the sources of bias in aerosol optical depth retrieval in the UV range,” J. Geophys. Res. 109,(2004).

A. A. Silva, V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff, “Aerosol optical thickness from Brewer spectrophotometers and an investigation into the stray-light effect,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2484–2489 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

D. S. Balis, V. Amiridis, C. Zerefos, E. Gerasopoulos, M. Andreae, P. Zanis, A. Kazantzidis, S. Kazadzis, A. Papayannis, “Raman lidar sunphotometric measurements of aerosol optical properties over Thessaloniki, Greece during a biomass burning episode,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 4529–4538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Cheymol, H. De Backer, “Retrieval of the aerosol optical depth in the UV-B at Uccle from Brewer ozone measurements over a long time period 1984–2002,” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4800 (2003).

E. Gerasopoulos, M. O. Andreae, C. Zerefos, T. W. Andreae, D. Balis, P. Formenti, P. Merlet, V. Amiridis, C. Papastefanou, “Climatological aspects of aerosol optical properties in Northern Greece,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 2025–2041 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Petters, V. K. Saxena, J. R. Slusser, B. N. Wenny, S. Madronich, “Aerosol single scattering albedo retrieved from measurements of surface UV irradiance and a radiative transfer model,” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4288–4294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

A. R. Webb, R. Kift, S. Thiel, M. Blumthaler, “An empirical method for the conversion of spectral UV irradiance measurements to actinic flux data,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 4397–4404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Marenco, A. di Sarra, J. De Luisi, “Methodology for determining aerosol optical depth from Brewer 300–320-nm ozone measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1805–1814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Alexandrov, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, B. Cairns, “Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer. Part I: Retrieval algorithm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 524–543 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (7)

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, T. W. Andreae, E. Galani, A. Vasaras, C. Zerefos, V. Amiridis, L. Orlovsky, A. Karnieli, M. Wendisch, H. Wex, B. Holben, W. Maenhaut, J. Lelieveld, “Aerosol optical properties and large scale transport of air masses: observations at a coastal and a semiarid site in the eastern Mediterranean during summer 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9807–9826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasaras, A. F. Bais, U. Feister, C. S. Zerefos, “Comparison of two methods for cloud flagging of spectral UV measurements,” Atmos. Res. 57, 31–42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Groebner, R. Vergaz, V. E. Cachorro, D. V. Henriques, K. Lamb, A. Redondas, J. M. Vilaplana, D. Rembges, “Intercomparison of aerosol optical depth measurements in the UVB using Brewer spectrophotometers and a Li-Cor spectrophotometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1691–1694 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 509–512, 526 (2001).

J. Groebner, “Characterisation of the spectrophotometers used for spectral solar ultraviolet radiation measurements,” Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 97, 415–418 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Groebner, J. B. Kerr, “Ground-based determination of the spectral ultraviolet extraterrestrial solar irradiance: providing a link between space-based and ground-based solar UV measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106D, 7211–7217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, C. Zerefos, M. Blumthaler, “Retrieval of downwelling actinic flux density spectra from spectral measurements of global and direct solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105D, 4857–4864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Carvalho, D. Henriques, “Use of Brewer ozone spectrophotometer for aerosol optical depth measurements on ultraviolet region,” Adv. Space Res. 25, 997–1006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Slusser, J. Gibson, D. Bigelow, D. Kolinski, P. Disterhoft, K. Lantz, A. Beaubien, “Langley method of calibrating UV filter radiometers,” J. Geophys. 105D, 484, (2000).

1999 (1)

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “The uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, D. Balis, C. Zerefos, M. Blumthaler, “Correcting global solar ultraviolet spectra recorded by a Brewer spectroradiometer for its angular response error,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6339–6344 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Wenny, J. S. Schafer, J. J. DeLuisi, V. K. Saxena, W. F. Barnard, I. V. Petropavlovskikh, A. J. Vergamini, “A study of regional aerosol radiative properties and effects on ultraviolet-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17083–17097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kylling, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, C. S. Zerefos, E. Kosmidis, “Effect of aerosols on solar UV irradiances during the Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26051–26060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Early, A. Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhodt, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1995 (5)

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, J. Staehelin, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Weele, J. Villa-Guerau, De Arellano, F. Kuik, “Combined measurements of UV-A actinic flux, UV-A irradiance and global radiation in relation to photodissociation rates,” Tellus Ser. B 47, 353–364 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Slaper, H. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shifts and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

S. C. Liu, S. A. McKeen, S. Madronich, “Effect of anthropogenic aerosols on biologically active ultraviolet radiation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 2265–2268 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

A. Angstrom, “Techniques of determining the turbidity of the atmosphere,” Tellus 13, 214–223 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Abuhassan, N.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alaart, M.

M. Alaart, KNMI, De Bilt, The Netherlands (personal communication, 2003).

Alexandrov, M. D.

M. D. Alexandrov, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, B. Cairns, “Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer. Part I: Retrieval algorithm,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 524–543 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ambach, W.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, J. Staehelin, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, W. Ambach, “Measurements of direct and global UV spectra under varying turbidity,” in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2049, 195–198 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Amiridis, V.

D. S. Balis, V. Amiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Kazantzidis, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, A. Papayannis, V. Matthias, H. Dier, “Study of the effect of different type of aerosols on UV-B radiation from measurements during EARLINET,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1–15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Balis, V. Amiridis, C. Zerefos, E. Gerasopoulos, M. Andreae, P. Zanis, A. Kazantzidis, S. Kazadzis, A. Papayannis, “Raman lidar sunphotometric measurements of aerosol optical properties over Thessaloniki, Greece during a biomass burning episode,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 4529–4538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Gerasopoulos, M. O. Andreae, C. Zerefos, T. W. Andreae, D. Balis, P. Formenti, P. Merlet, V. Amiridis, C. Papastefanou, “Climatological aspects of aerosol optical properties in Northern Greece,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 2025–2041 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, T. W. Andreae, E. Galani, A. Vasaras, C. Zerefos, V. Amiridis, L. Orlovsky, A. Karnieli, M. Wendisch, H. Wex, B. Holben, W. Maenhaut, J. Lelieveld, “Aerosol optical properties and large scale transport of air masses: observations at a coastal and a semiarid site in the eastern Mediterranean during summer 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9807–9826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M.

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B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vasaras, A.

P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, T. W. Andreae, E. Galani, A. Vasaras, C. Zerefos, V. Amiridis, L. Orlovsky, A. Karnieli, M. Wendisch, H. Wex, B. Holben, W. Maenhaut, J. Lelieveld, “Aerosol optical properties and large scale transport of air masses: observations at a coastal and a semiarid site in the eastern Mediterranean during summer 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9807–9826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasaras, A. F. Bais, U. Feister, C. S. Zerefos, “Comparison of two methods for cloud flagging of spectral UV measurements,” Atmos. Res. 57, 31–42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vergamini, A. J.

B. N. Wenny, J. S. Schafer, J. J. DeLuisi, V. K. Saxena, W. F. Barnard, I. V. Petropavlovskikh, A. J. Vergamini, “A study of regional aerosol radiative properties and effects on ultraviolet-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17083–17097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vergaz, R.

J. Groebner, R. Vergaz, V. E. Cachorro, D. V. Henriques, K. Lamb, A. Redondas, J. M. Vilaplana, D. Rembges, “Intercomparison of aerosol optical depth measurements in the UVB using Brewer spectrophotometers and a Li-Cor spectrophotometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1691–1694 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vilaplana, J. M.

J. Groebner, R. Vergaz, V. E. Cachorro, D. V. Henriques, K. Lamb, A. Redondas, J. M. Vilaplana, D. Rembges, “Intercomparison of aerosol optical depth measurements in the UVB using Brewer spectrophotometers and a Li-Cor spectrophotometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1691–1694 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Villa-Guerau, J.

M. Van Weele, J. Villa-Guerau, De Arellano, F. Kuik, “Combined measurements of UV-A actinic flux, UV-A irradiance and global radiation in relation to photodissociation rates,” Tellus Ser. B 47, 353–364 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wardle, D.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 509–512, 526 (2001).

E. Early, A. Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhodt, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszcynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen with contributions from D. Wardle, G. Seckmeyer, G. Bernhard, “Guidelines for site quality control of UV monitoring,” World Meteorological Organization, Global Atmospheric Watch Publication No. 126, WMO TD No. 884 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneve, Switzerland, 2001).

Wardle, D. I.

V. Fioletov, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, “The relationship between total ozone and spectral UV irradiance from Brewer observations and its use for derivation of total ozone from UV measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2997–3000 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weatherhead, E.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy with contributions from K. Dehne, U. Feister, B. Mayer, P. Taalas, E. Weatherhead, A. Webb, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. Part 1: Spectral instruments,” World Meteorological Organization, Global Atmospheric Watch Publication No. 125, WMO TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneve, Switzerland, 2001).

Webb, A.

G. Seckmeyer, A. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy with contributions from K. Dehne, U. Feister, B. Mayer, P. Taalas, E. Weatherhead, A. Webb, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. Part 1: Spectral instruments,” World Meteorological Organization, Global Atmospheric Watch Publication No. 125, WMO TD No. 1066 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneve, Switzerland, 2001).

Webb, A. R.

A. R. Webb, R. Kift, S. Thiel, M. Blumthaler, “An empirical method for the conversion of spectral UV irradiance measurements to actinic flux data,” Atmos. Environ. 36, 4397–4404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 509–512, 526 (2001).

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszcynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen with contributions from D. Wardle, G. Seckmeyer, G. Bernhard, “Guidelines for site quality control of UV monitoring,” World Meteorological Organization, Global Atmospheric Watch Publication No. 126, WMO TD No. 884 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneve, Switzerland, 2001).

Weihs, P.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 509–512, 526 (2001).

Wendisch, M.

P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, T. W. Andreae, E. Galani, A. Vasaras, C. Zerefos, V. Amiridis, L. Orlovsky, A. Karnieli, M. Wendisch, H. Wex, B. Holben, W. Maenhaut, J. Lelieveld, “Aerosol optical properties and large scale transport of air masses: observations at a coastal and a semiarid site in the eastern Mediterranean during summer 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9807–9826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wenny, B. N.

J. L. Petters, V. K. Saxena, J. R. Slusser, B. N. Wenny, S. Madronich, “Aerosol single scattering albedo retrieved from measurements of surface UV irradiance and a radiative transfer model,” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4288–4294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Wenny, J. S. Schafer, J. J. DeLuisi, V. K. Saxena, W. F. Barnard, I. V. Petropavlovskikh, A. J. Vergamini, “A study of regional aerosol radiative properties and effects on ultraviolet-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17083–17097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wex, H.

P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, T. W. Andreae, E. Galani, A. Vasaras, C. Zerefos, V. Amiridis, L. Orlovsky, A. Karnieli, M. Wendisch, H. Wex, B. Holben, W. Maenhaut, J. Lelieveld, “Aerosol optical properties and large scale transport of air masses: observations at a coastal and a semiarid site in the eastern Mediterranean during summer 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9807–9826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E.

E. Early, A. Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhodt, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zanis, P.

D. S. Balis, V. Amiridis, C. Zerefos, E. Gerasopoulos, M. Andreae, P. Zanis, A. Kazantzidis, S. Kazadzis, A. Papayannis, “Raman lidar sunphotometric measurements of aerosol optical properties over Thessaloniki, Greece during a biomass burning episode,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 4529–4538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zerefos, C.

D. S. Balis, V. Amiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Kazantzidis, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, A. Papayannis, V. Matthias, H. Dier, “Study of the effect of different type of aerosols on UV-B radiation from measurements during EARLINET,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1–15 (2004).
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E. Gerasopoulos, M. O. Andreae, C. Zerefos, T. W. Andreae, D. Balis, P. Formenti, P. Merlet, V. Amiridis, C. Papastefanou, “Climatological aspects of aerosol optical properties in Northern Greece,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 2025–2041 (2003).
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D. S. Balis, V. Amiridis, C. Zerefos, E. Gerasopoulos, M. Andreae, P. Zanis, A. Kazantzidis, S. Kazadzis, A. Papayannis, “Raman lidar sunphotometric measurements of aerosol optical properties over Thessaloniki, Greece during a biomass burning episode,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 4529–4538 (2003).
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P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, T. W. Andreae, E. Galani, A. Vasaras, C. Zerefos, V. Amiridis, L. Orlovsky, A. Karnieli, M. Wendisch, H. Wex, B. Holben, W. Maenhaut, J. Lelieveld, “Aerosol optical properties and large scale transport of air masses: observations at a coastal and a semiarid site in the eastern Mediterranean during summer 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9807–9826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, C. Zerefos, M. Blumthaler, “Retrieval of downwelling actinic flux density spectra from spectral measurements of global and direct solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105D, 4857–4864 (2000).
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A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, D. Balis, C. Zerefos, M. Blumthaler, “Correcting global solar ultraviolet spectra recorded by a Brewer spectroradiometer for its angular response error,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6339–6344 (1998).
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F. Marenco, V. Santacesaria, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, A. di Sarra, A. Papayannis, C. Zerefos, “Optical properties of tropospheric aerosols determined by lidar and spectrophotometric measurements (Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign),” Appl. Opt. 36, 6875–6886 (1997).
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Zerefos, C. S.

A. Vasaras, A. F. Bais, U. Feister, C. S. Zerefos, “Comparison of two methods for cloud flagging of spectral UV measurements,” Atmos. Res. 57, 31–42 (2001).
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A. Kylling, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, C. S. Zerefos, E. Kosmidis, “Effect of aerosols on solar UV irradiances during the Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26051–26060 (1998).
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B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
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C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
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D. S. Balis, V. Amiridis, C. Zerefos, A. Kazantzidis, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, A. Papayannis, V. Matthias, H. Dier, “Study of the effect of different type of aerosols on UV-B radiation from measurements during EARLINET,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1–15 (2004).
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D. S. Balis, V. Amiridis, C. Zerefos, E. Gerasopoulos, M. Andreae, P. Zanis, A. Kazantzidis, S. Kazadzis, A. Papayannis, “Raman lidar sunphotometric measurements of aerosol optical properties over Thessaloniki, Greece during a biomass burning episode,” Atmos. Environ. 37, 4529–4538 (2003).
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C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
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P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, T. W. Andreae, E. Galani, A. Vasaras, C. Zerefos, V. Amiridis, L. Orlovsky, A. Karnieli, M. Wendisch, H. Wex, B. Holben, W. Maenhaut, J. Lelieveld, “Aerosol optical properties and large scale transport of air masses: observations at a coastal and a semiarid site in the eastern Mediterranean during summer 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9807–9826 (2001).
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A. Kylling, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, C. S. Zerefos, E. Kosmidis, “Effect of aerosols on solar UV irradiances during the Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26051–26060 (1998).
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B. N. Wenny, J. S. Schafer, J. J. DeLuisi, V. K. Saxena, W. F. Barnard, I. V. Petropavlovskikh, A. J. Vergamini, “A study of regional aerosol radiative properties and effects on ultraviolet-B radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17083–17097 (1998).
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S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, D. Balis, C. Zerefos, M. Blumthaler, “Retrieval of downwelling actinic flux density spectra from spectral measurements of global and direct solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105D, 4857–4864 (2000).
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J. Estupinan, M. Bergin, J. Slusser, R. Meltzer, “Measurements of aerosol optical depths in the UV-A: a comparison between USDA Yankee Environmental Systems UV-multifilter rotating shadowing radiometer and an EPA Brewer spectrophotometer,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. Slusser, J. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE4482, 212–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral CFT used to convert the Brewer spectral response for global irradiance measurements to that applicable to direct irradiance measurements, as calculated from measurements with the shadowing disk. Circles represent measurements performed in three different days, and crosses are their average at each wavelength. The solid curve is a second-degree polynomial fit on the averages, and the dashed curves are the 1σ uncertainty envelope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral CTF derived from the Brewer spectrophotometer direct irradiance measurements of a 1000–W DXW quartz–halogen lamp at distances of 115, 200, 270, and 310 cm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Upper panel: spectral CTFs smoothed by polynomial fits for direct irradiance measurements as derived from the three different methods. Lower panel: spectral ratio of CTF determined indirectly from solar irradiance measurements (shadowing disk, solid curve; box, dashed curve) to that determined from lamp measurements in the laboratory.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Upper panel: Brewer-to-Bentham direct irradiance ratios at 310, 340, and 360 nm (circles, crosses, and triangles). Lower panel: mean spectral ratio (thick curve) and standard deviation (light curves) from all scans performed in the three reported days.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Upper panel: comparison of the Angstrom coefficients retrieved from the AOD measurements derived from the Bentham (triangles) and the Brewer (circles) spectroradiometers on 26 June 2003. Lower panel: diurnal course of AOD at 350 nm derived from the two instruments. Crosses represent the AOD derived from the Brewer by use of the extraterrestrial irradiance derived from Langley plots.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Monthly mean AOD at 355 nm (crosses) and 415 nm (circles) measured with the Brewer and the MFR-7 instruments, respectively. Smaller crosses represent the daily averages of AOD at 355 nm, measured by the Brewer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of AOD at 355 nm as measured by the Brewer and as derived through extrapolation of the MFR-7 measurements.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Daily averages of AOD at 355 nm (small triangles) at Thessaloniki under clear skies for the period 1997–2003. Large triangles represent monthly averages with their standard deviation (1σ).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Mean annual variation of monthly AOD at 355 nm measured at Thessaloniki during the period 1997–2003 (crosses). The envelope of dashed curves represents the 1σ departures from the mean.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of Langley Plot Parameters

Equations (2)

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f CT ( λ ) = E b ( λ ) cos ( θ ) E ( λ ) - E d ( λ ) ,
f CT ( λ ) = E d b ( λ ) cos ( θ 0 ) E b ( λ ) .

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