Abstract

The particulate scattering characteristics of coastal waters were examined at nine locations around the United States, including near-shore sites in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The scattering measurements were used in conjunction with inversion models to estimate particle size distributions and bulk refractive indices of the suspended particles. The relationships between various scattering properties and chlorophyll concentration were also investigated and compared with previous relationships described for case I waters. Although the general patterns of scattering and particle characteristics in coastal waters were fairly consistent, fine-scale variability within the water column was substantial. Combining optical measurements with inversion techniques provided a more informative view of the environment and a better understanding of the nature of particle populations in the coastal ocean.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (3)

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, (2004).

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69–88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26, 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

M. Babin, D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911–915 (2002).

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, M. S. Twardowski, “Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 223, 61–71 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, M. M. Dekshenieks, J. M. Sullivan, “Thin layers and camouflage: hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 225, 123–137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Burd, G. A. Jackson, “Modeling steady-state particle size spectra,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 323–327 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (5)

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5503–5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particle size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885–4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C5), 9509–9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

T. J. Cowles, R. A. Desiderio, M-E. Carr, “Small-scale planktonic structure: persistence and trophic consequences,” Oceanography 11, 4–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Hanson, P. L. Donaghay, “Micro to fine scale chemical gradients and layers in vertically stratified coastal waters,” Oceanography 11, 10–17 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bogucki, J. A. Domaradzki, D. Stramski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Comparison of near-forward light scattering on oceanic turbulence and particles,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4669–4677 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Martinis, D. Risović, “Fractal analysis of suspended particles in seawater,” Fiz. B 2, 65–72 (1998).

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceangr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2223–2249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1992 (2)

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A three-layered sphere model of the optical properties of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceangr. 37, 1680–1690 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Donaghay, H. M. Rines, J. McN. Sieburth, “Simultaneous sampling of fine scale biological, chemical and physical structure in stratified waters,” Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 36, 97–108 (1992).

1991 (1)

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (3)

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93(C9), 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Ackleson, R. W. Spinrad, “Size and refractive index of individual marine particulates: a flow cytometric approach,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1270–1277 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

P. Diehl, H. Haardt, “Measurement of the spectral attenuation to support biological research in a ‘plankton tube’ experiment,” Oceanologica Acta 3, 89–96 (1980).

1974 (1)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The determination of the index of refraction distribution of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. Morel, “Diffusion de la lumière par les eaux de mer; resultants expérimentaux et approche théorique,” AGARD Lect. Ser. 61, 3.1.1–3.1.76 (1973).

1972 (2)

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, G. F. Beardsley, “A technique for the estimation of indices of refraction of marine phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833–839 (1972).

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “A theoretical model of light scattering by Sargasso Sea particulates,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826–830 (1972).

1970 (1)

H. Bader, “The hyperbolic distribution of particle sizes,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822–2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

F. Volz, “Die Optik and Meterologie der atmospharischen Trunberg,” Ber. Dtsch. Wetterdienstes 2, 3–47 (1954).

Aas, E.

E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2223–2249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ackleson, S. G.

Babin, M.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911–915 (2002).

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bader, H.

H. Bader, “The hyperbolic distribution of particle sizes,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822–2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Balch, W. M.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26, 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baratange, F.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, (2004).

Barnard, A. H.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C5), 9509–9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, M. R. Lewis, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In-water instrumentation and platforms for ocean color remote sensing applications,” in Remote Sensing of Coastal Aquatic Environments, R. L. Miller, C. E. Del Castillo, B. A. McKee, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2005), Chap. 4, pp. 69–100.
[CrossRef]

Beardsley, G. F.

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, G. F. Beardsley, “A technique for the estimation of indices of refraction of marine phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833–839 (1972).

Betzer, P. R.

K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. W. Eggimann, “Physical, chemical, and optical measures of suspended particle concentrations: their intercomparison and application to the west African shelf,” in Suspended Solids in Water, J. R. Gibbs, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1974).
[CrossRef]

Bogucki, D. J.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Boss, E.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, (2004).

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69–88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particle size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885–4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C5), 9509–9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5503–5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, E. Boss, G. Korotaev, A. Weidemann, M. Lee, E. Shibanov, “Measurements of the backscattering coefficient,” in Proceedings of ASLO 2001 Aquatic Sciences Meeting (American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Albuquerque, N.M., 2001).

J. R. V. Zaneveld, M. S. Twardowski, K. S. Shifrin, W. S. Pegau, E. Boss, I. Zolotov, “Inversion of light scattering measurements to obtain biogeochemical parameters,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, A.

J. E. Prentice, A. D. Weidemann, W. Scott Pegau, K. J. Voss, M. E. Lee, E. Shybanov, O. Martynov, A. E. Laux, A. Briggs, G. Chang, “Laboratory comparisons of optical scattering instrumentation,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

Brown, C. W.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26, 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “A theoretical model of light scattering by Sargasso Sea particulates,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826–830 (1972).

Burd, A. B.

A. B. Burd, G. A. Jackson, “Modeling steady-state particle size spectra,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 323–327 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, G. F. Beardsley, “A technique for the estimation of indices of refraction of marine phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833–839 (1972).

K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. W. Eggimann, “Physical, chemical, and optical measures of suspended particle concentrations: their intercomparison and application to the west African shelf,” in Suspended Solids in Water, J. R. Gibbs, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1974).
[CrossRef]

Carr, M-E.

T. J. Cowles, R. A. Desiderio, M-E. Carr, “Small-scale planktonic structure: persistence and trophic consequences,” Oceanography 11, 4–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

J. E. Prentice, A. D. Weidemann, W. Scott Pegau, K. J. Voss, M. E. Lee, E. Shybanov, O. Martynov, A. E. Laux, A. Briggs, G. Chang, “Laboratory comparisons of optical scattering instrumentation,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

Chang, G. C.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C5), 9509–9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cowles, T. J.

T. J. Cowles, R. A. Desiderio, M-E. Carr, “Small-scale planktonic structure: persistence and trophic consequences,” Oceanography 11, 4–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dana, D. R.

Davis, R. F.

R. F. Davis, C. C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. M. Napp, “Reducing the effects of fouling on chlorophyll estimates derived from long-term deployments of optical instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 5851–5855 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis-Lunde, K.

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, C. Moore, J. R. Zaneveld, A. K. Hanson, K. Davis-Lunde, R. M. Greene, A. D. Weidemann, “Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System (ORCAS),” in Proceedings of 2002 Ocean Sciences Meeting (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2002).

de Haan, J. F.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceangr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dekshenieks, M. M.

J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, M. M. Dekshenieks, J. M. Sullivan, “Thin layers and camouflage: hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 225, 123–137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, M. S. Twardowski, “Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 223, 61–71 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Desiderio, R. A.

T. J. Cowles, R. A. Desiderio, M-E. Carr, “Small-scale planktonic structure: persistence and trophic consequences,” Oceanography 11, 4–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T. D.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C5), 9509–9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, P.

P. Diehl, H. Haardt, “Measurement of the spectral attenuation to support biological research in a ‘plankton tube’ experiment,” Oceanologica Acta 3, 89–96 (1980).

Domaradzki, J. A.

Donaghay, P. L.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69–88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, M. S. Twardowski, “Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 223, 61–71 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, M. M. Dekshenieks, J. M. Sullivan, “Thin layers and camouflage: hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 225, 123–137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Hanson, P. L. Donaghay, “Micro to fine scale chemical gradients and layers in vertically stratified coastal waters,” Oceanography 11, 10–17 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Donaghay, H. M. Rines, J. McN. Sieburth, “Simultaneous sampling of fine scale biological, chemical and physical structure in stratified waters,” Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 36, 97–108 (1992).

P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, C. Moore, B. Rhodes, “4-D measurements of the finescale structure of inherent optical properties in the coastal ocean using the Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System (ORCAS),” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, C. Moore, J. R. Zaneveld, A. K. Hanson, K. Davis-Lunde, R. M. Greene, A. D. Weidemann, “Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System (ORCAS),” in Proceedings of 2002 Ocean Sciences Meeting (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Eggimann, D. W.

K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. W. Eggimann, “Physical, chemical, and optical measures of suspended particle concentrations: their intercomparison and application to the west African shelf,” in Suspended Solids in Water, J. R. Gibbs, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1974).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, G. M.

Forand, J. L.

G. R. Fournier, J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 194–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, G. R.

G. R. Fournier, J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 194–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, W. D.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C5), 9509–9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “A theoretical model of light scattering by Sargasso Sea particulates,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826–830 (1972).

Greene, R. M.

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, C. Moore, J. R. Zaneveld, A. K. Hanson, K. Davis-Lunde, R. M. Greene, A. D. Weidemann, “Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System (ORCAS),” in Proceedings of 2002 Ocean Sciences Meeting (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Grey, D.

Guillard, R. R. L.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26, 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haardt, H.

P. Diehl, H. Haardt, “Measurement of the spectral attenuation to support biological research in a ‘plankton tube’ experiment,” Oceanologica Acta 3, 89–96 (1980).

Hanson, A. K.

A. K. Hanson, P. L. Donaghay, “Micro to fine scale chemical gradients and layers in vertically stratified coastal waters,” Oceanography 11, 10–17 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, C. Moore, J. R. Zaneveld, A. K. Hanson, K. Davis-Lunde, R. M. Greene, A. D. Weidemann, “Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System (ORCAS),” in Proceedings of 2002 Ocean Sciences Meeting (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Herring, S.

Hovenier, J. W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceangr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, L. D. Travis, Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000).

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Hunt, J. R.

J. R. Hunt, “Prediction of oceanic particle size distributions from coagulation and sedimentation mechanisms,” in Particulates in Water, M. C. Kavanaugh, J. O. Leckie, eds., Advances in Chemistry Series No. 189 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1980), pp. 243–257.
[CrossRef]

Jackson, G. A.

A. B. Burd, G. A. Jackson, “Modeling steady-state particle size spectra,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 323–327 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karp-Boss, L.

L. Karp-Boss, University of Maine, Orono, Maine (personal communication, 2003).

Key, S. A.

S. A. Key, “Internal tidal bores in the Monterey canyon,” M. S. thesis (Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Calif., 1999).

Kiefer, D. A.

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J. C.

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A three-layered sphere model of the optical properties of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceangr. 37, 1680–1690 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “Effect of particle size distribution and chlorophyll content on beam attenuation spectra,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3913–3918 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Korotaev, G.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, (2004).

W. S. Pegau, E. Boss, G. Korotaev, A. Weidemann, M. Lee, E. Shibanov, “Measurements of the backscattering coefficient,” in Proceedings of ASLO 2001 Aquatic Sciences Meeting (American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Albuquerque, N.M., 2001).

Laux, A. E.

J. E. Prentice, A. D. Weidemann, W. Scott Pegau, K. J. Voss, M. E. Lee, E. Shybanov, O. Martynov, A. E. Laux, A. Briggs, G. Chang, “Laboratory comparisons of optical scattering instrumentation,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

Lee, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, (2004).

W. S. Pegau, E. Boss, G. Korotaev, A. Weidemann, M. Lee, E. Shibanov, “Measurements of the backscattering coefficient,” in Proceedings of ASLO 2001 Aquatic Sciences Meeting (American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Albuquerque, N.M., 2001).

Lee, M. E.

J. E. Prentice, A. D. Weidemann, W. Scott Pegau, K. J. Voss, M. E. Lee, E. Shybanov, O. Martynov, A. E. Laux, A. Briggs, G. Chang, “Laboratory comparisons of optical scattering instrumentation,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

Lewis, M. R.

M. S. Twardowski, M. R. Lewis, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In-water instrumentation and platforms for ocean color remote sensing applications,” in Remote Sensing of Coastal Aquatic Environments, R. L. Miller, C. E. Del Castillo, B. A. McKee, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2005), Chap. 4, pp. 69–100.
[CrossRef]

Lide, D. R.

D. R. Lide, “Physical and optical properties of minerals,” in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 4-130–4-136.

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maffione, R. A.

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martinis, M.

M. Martinis, D. Risović, “Fractal analysis of suspended particles in seawater,” Fiz. B 2, 65–72 (1998).

Martynov, O.

J. E. Prentice, A. D. Weidemann, W. Scott Pegau, K. J. Voss, M. E. Lee, E. Shybanov, O. Martynov, A. E. Laux, A. Briggs, G. Chang, “Laboratory comparisons of optical scattering instrumentation,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, L. D. Travis, Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000).

Moore, C.

P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, C. Moore, B. Rhodes, “4-D measurements of the finescale structure of inherent optical properties in the coastal ocean using the Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System (ORCAS),” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

C. Moore, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “The ECO VSF: a multiangle scattering sensor for determination of the volume scattering function in the backward direction,” presented at Ocean Optics XV, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, C. Moore, J. R. Zaneveld, A. K. Hanson, K. Davis-Lunde, R. M. Greene, A. D. Weidemann, “Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System (ORCAS),” in Proceedings of 2002 Ocean Sciences Meeting (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Moore, C. C.

R. F. Davis, C. C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. M. Napp, “Reducing the effects of fouling on chlorophyll estimates derived from long-term deployments of optical instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 5851–5855 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93(C9), 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Diffusion de la lumière par les eaux de mer; resultants expérimentaux et approche théorique,” AGARD Lect. Ser. 61, 3.1.1–3.1.76 (1973).

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman, eds. (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 1–24.

Mueller, J. L.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, S. Pegau, J. L. Mueller, “Volume scattering function and backscattering coefficients: instruments, characterization, field measurements, and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, C. R. McClain, eds., , (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003), pp. 65–76.

Napp, J. M.

R. F. Davis, C. C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. M. Napp, “Reducing the effects of fouling on chlorophyll estimates derived from long-term deployments of optical instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 5851–5855 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oishi, T.

Osborn, T. R.

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, M. S. Twardowski, “Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 223, 61–71 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pak, H.

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “Effect of particle size distribution and chlorophyll content on beam attenuation spectra,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3913–3918 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The determination of the index of refraction distribution of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, S.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, S. Pegau, J. L. Mueller, “Volume scattering function and backscattering coefficients: instruments, characterization, field measurements, and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, C. R. McClain, eds., , (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003), pp. 65–76.

Pegau, W. S.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, (2004).

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5503–5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C5), 9509–9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Grey, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, M. S. Twardowski, K. S. Shifrin, W. S. Pegau, E. Boss, I. Zolotov, “Inversion of light scattering measurements to obtain biogeochemical parameters,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

W. S. Pegau, E. Boss, G. Korotaev, A. Weidemann, M. Lee, E. Shibanov, “Measurements of the backscattering coefficient,” in Proceedings of ASLO 2001 Aquatic Sciences Meeting (American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Albuquerque, N.M., 2001).

Platt, T.

Prentice, J. E.

J. E. Prentice, A. D. Weidemann, W. Scott Pegau, K. J. Voss, M. E. Lee, E. Shybanov, O. Martynov, A. E. Laux, A. Briggs, G. Chang, “Laboratory comparisons of optical scattering instrumentation,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, B.

P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, C. Moore, B. Rhodes, “4-D measurements of the finescale structure of inherent optical properties in the coastal ocean using the Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System (ORCAS),” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

Rines, H. M.

P. L. Donaghay, H. M. Rines, J. McN. Sieburth, “Simultaneous sampling of fine scale biological, chemical and physical structure in stratified waters,” Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 36, 97–108 (1992).

Rines, J. E. B.

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, M. S. Twardowski, “Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 223, 61–71 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, M. M. Dekshenieks, J. M. Sullivan, “Thin layers and camouflage: hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 225, 123–137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Risovic, D.

M. Martinis, D. Risović, “Fractal analysis of suspended particles in seawater,” Fiz. B 2, 65–72 (1998).

Roach, D. M.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The determination of the index of refraction distribution of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C.

C. Roesler, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, P.O. Box 475, West Boothbay Harbor, Maine (personal communication, 1998).

Sathyendranath, S.

Schreurs, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceangr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scott Pegau, W.

J. E. Prentice, A. D. Weidemann, W. Scott Pegau, K. J. Voss, M. E. Lee, E. Shybanov, O. Martynov, A. E. Laux, A. Briggs, G. Chang, “Laboratory comparisons of optical scattering instrumentation,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

Sedlák, M.

Shibanov, E.

W. S. Pegau, E. Boss, G. Korotaev, A. Weidemann, M. Lee, E. Shibanov, “Measurements of the backscattering coefficient,” in Proceedings of ASLO 2001 Aquatic Sciences Meeting (American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Albuquerque, N.M., 2001).

Shifrin, K. S.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, M. S. Twardowski, K. S. Shifrin, W. S. Pegau, E. Boss, I. Zolotov, “Inversion of light scattering measurements to obtain biogeochemical parameters,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

Shybanov, E.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, (2004).

J. E. Prentice, A. D. Weidemann, W. Scott Pegau, K. J. Voss, M. E. Lee, E. Shybanov, O. Martynov, A. E. Laux, A. Briggs, G. Chang, “Laboratory comparisons of optical scattering instrumentation,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

Sieburth, J. McN.

P. L. Donaghay, H. M. Rines, J. McN. Sieburth, “Simultaneous sampling of fine scale biological, chemical and physical structure in stratified waters,” Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 36, 97–108 (1992).

Silver, M. W.

M. W. Silver, Department of Ocean Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, Calif. (personal communication, 2003).

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Spinrad, R. W.

Stramski, D.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911–915 (2002).

D. J. Bogucki, J. A. Domaradzki, D. Stramski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Comparison of near-forward light scattering on oceanic turbulence and particles,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4669–4677 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, M. Sedlák, “Application of dynamic light scattering to the study of small marine particles,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4825–4834 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J. M.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69–88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, M. M. Dekshenieks, J. M. Sullivan, “Thin layers and camouflage: hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 225, 123–137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, M. S. Twardowski, “Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 223, 61–71 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, C. Moore, B. Rhodes, “4-D measurements of the finescale structure of inherent optical properties in the coastal ocean using the Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System (ORCAS),” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, C. Moore, J. R. Zaneveld, A. K. Hanson, K. Davis-Lunde, R. M. Greene, A. D. Weidemann, “Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System (ORCAS),” in Proceedings of 2002 Ocean Sciences Meeting (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Tassan, S.

Tomlinson, R. D.

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, G. F. Beardsley, “A technique for the estimation of indices of refraction of marine phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833–839 (1972).

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, L. D. Travis, Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000).

Twardowski, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, (2004).

Twardowski, M. S.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69–88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, M. S. Twardowski, “Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 223, 61–71 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C5), 9509–9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particle size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885–4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, M. S. Twardowski, K. S. Shifrin, W. S. Pegau, E. Boss, I. Zolotov, “Inversion of light scattering measurements to obtain biogeochemical parameters,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

C. Moore, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “The ECO VSF: a multiangle scattering sensor for determination of the volume scattering function in the backward direction,” presented at Ocean Optics XV, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

M. S. Twardowski, M. R. Lewis, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In-water instrumentation and platforms for ocean color remote sensing applications,” in Remote Sensing of Coastal Aquatic Environments, R. L. Miller, C. E. Del Castillo, B. A. McKee, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2005), Chap. 4, pp. 69–100.
[CrossRef]

Ulloa, O.

Vaillancourt, R. D.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26, 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles, (Dover, Mineola, N.Y., 1981).

Vassen, W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceangr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceangr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volz, F.

F. Volz, “Die Optik and Meterologie der atmospharischen Trunberg,” Ber. Dtsch. Wetterdienstes 2, 3–47 (1954).

Voss, K. J.

J. E. Prentice, A. D. Weidemann, W. Scott Pegau, K. J. Voss, M. E. Lee, E. Shybanov, O. Martynov, A. E. Laux, A. Briggs, G. Chang, “Laboratory comparisons of optical scattering instrumentation,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

Weidemann, A.

W. S. Pegau, E. Boss, G. Korotaev, A. Weidemann, M. Lee, E. Shibanov, “Measurements of the backscattering coefficient,” in Proceedings of ASLO 2001 Aquatic Sciences Meeting (American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Albuquerque, N.M., 2001).

Weidemann, A. D.

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, C. Moore, J. R. Zaneveld, A. K. Hanson, K. Davis-Lunde, R. M. Greene, A. D. Weidemann, “Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System (ORCAS),” in Proceedings of 2002 Ocean Sciences Meeting (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2002).

J. E. Prentice, A. D. Weidemann, W. Scott Pegau, K. J. Voss, M. E. Lee, E. Shybanov, O. Martynov, A. E. Laux, A. Briggs, G. Chang, “Laboratory comparisons of optical scattering instrumentation,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

Zaneveld, J. R.

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, C. Moore, J. R. Zaneveld, A. K. Hanson, K. Davis-Lunde, R. M. Greene, A. D. Weidemann, “Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System (ORCAS),” in Proceedings of 2002 Ocean Sciences Meeting (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C5), 9509–9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bogucki, J. A. Domaradzki, D. Stramski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Comparison of near-forward light scattering on oceanic turbulence and particles,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4669–4677 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Davis, C. C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. M. Napp, “Reducing the effects of fouling on chlorophyll estimates derived from long-term deployments of optical instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 5851–5855 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Grey, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
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J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A three-layered sphere model of the optical properties of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceangr. 37, 1680–1690 (1992).
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J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “Effect of particle size distribution and chlorophyll content on beam attenuation spectra,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3913–3918 (1982).
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J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The determination of the index of refraction distribution of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
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J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, M. R. Lewis, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In-water instrumentation and platforms for ocean color remote sensing applications,” in Remote Sensing of Coastal Aquatic Environments, R. L. Miller, C. E. Del Castillo, B. A. McKee, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2005), Chap. 4, pp. 69–100.
[CrossRef]

C. Moore, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “The ECO VSF: a multiangle scattering sensor for determination of the volume scattering function in the backward direction,” presented at Ocean Optics XV, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, M. S. Twardowski, K. S. Shifrin, W. S. Pegau, E. Boss, I. Zolotov, “Inversion of light scattering measurements to obtain biogeochemical parameters,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, S. Pegau, J. L. Mueller, “Volume scattering function and backscattering coefficients: instruments, characterization, field measurements, and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, C. R. McClain, eds., , (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003), pp. 65–76.

Zolotov, I.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, M. S. Twardowski, K. S. Shifrin, W. S. Pegau, E. Boss, I. Zolotov, “Inversion of light scattering measurements to obtain biogeochemical parameters,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

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A. Morel, “Diffusion de la lumière par les eaux de mer; resultants expérimentaux et approche théorique,” AGARD Lect. Ser. 61, 3.1.1–3.1.76 (1973).

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J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “Effect of particle size distribution and chlorophyll content on beam attenuation spectra,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3913–3918 (1982).
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S. G. Ackleson, R. W. Spinrad, “Size and refractive index of individual marine particulates: a flow cytometric approach,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1270–1277 (1988).
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D. Stramski, M. Sedlák, “Application of dynamic light scattering to the study of small marine particles,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4825–4834 (1994).
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O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Effect of the particle-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7070–7077 (1994).
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W. S. Pegau, D. Grey, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035–6046 (1997).
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R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, “Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6057–6067 (1997).
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D. J. Bogucki, J. A. Domaradzki, D. Stramski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Comparison of near-forward light scattering on oceanic turbulence and particles,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4669–4677 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particle size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885–4893 (2001).
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E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5503–5507 (2001).
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T. Oishi, “Significant relationship between the backward scattering coefficient of sea water and the scatterance at 120°,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4658–4665 (1990).
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S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “Variability of light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4802–4810 (2003).
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Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. (1)

P. L. Donaghay, H. M. Rines, J. McN. Sieburth, “Simultaneous sampling of fine scale biological, chemical and physical structure in stratified waters,” Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 36, 97–108 (1992).

Ber. Dtsch. Wetterdienstes (1)

F. Volz, “Die Optik and Meterologie der atmospharischen Trunberg,” Ber. Dtsch. Wetterdienstes 2, 3–47 (1954).

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. B. Burd, G. A. Jackson, “Modeling steady-state particle size spectra,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 323–327 (2002).
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Fiz. B (1)

M. Martinis, D. Risović, “Fractal analysis of suspended particles in seawater,” Fiz. B 2, 65–72 (1998).

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M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (10)

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C5), 9509–9516 (2001).
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A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93(C9), 10749–10768 (1988).
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H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
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A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
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R. F. Davis, C. C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. M. Napp, “Reducing the effects of fouling on chlorophyll estimates derived from long-term deployments of optical instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 5851–5855 (1997).
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A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
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J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The determination of the index of refraction distribution of oceanic particulates,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4091–4095 (1974).
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M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014, (2004).

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J. Plankton Res. (2)

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition, and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26, 191–212 (2004).
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H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceangr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A three-layered sphere model of the optical properties of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceangr. 37, 1680–1690 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (4)

M. Babin, D. Stramski, “Light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 911–915 (2002).

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “A theoretical model of light scattering by Sargasso Sea particulates,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826–830 (1972).

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
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K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, G. F. Beardsley, “A technique for the estimation of indices of refraction of marine phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833–839 (1972).

Mar. Chem. (1)

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, “Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Mar. Chem. 89, 69–88 (2004).
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Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. (2)

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, M. S. Twardowski, “Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 223, 61–71 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. B. Rines, P. L. Donaghay, M. M. Dekshenieks, J. M. Sullivan, “Thin layers and camouflage: hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 225, 123–137 (2002).
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Oceanography (2)

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A. K. Hanson, P. L. Donaghay, “Micro to fine scale chemical gradients and layers in vertically stratified coastal waters,” Oceanography 11, 10–17 (1998).
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D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
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J. R. Hunt, “Prediction of oceanic particle size distributions from coagulation and sedimentation mechanisms,” in Particulates in Water, M. C. Kavanaugh, J. O. Leckie, eds., Advances in Chemistry Series No. 189 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1980), pp. 243–257.
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H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles, (Dover, Mineola, N.Y., 1981).

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C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, L. D. Travis, Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000).

M. S. Twardowski, M. R. Lewis, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In-water instrumentation and platforms for ocean color remote sensing applications,” in Remote Sensing of Coastal Aquatic Environments, R. L. Miller, C. E. Del Castillo, B. A. McKee, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2005), Chap. 4, pp. 69–100.
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, M. S. Twardowski, K. S. Shifrin, W. S. Pegau, E. Boss, I. Zolotov, “Inversion of light scattering measurements to obtain biogeochemical parameters,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

D. R. Lide, “Physical and optical properties of minerals,” in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 4-130–4-136.

J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, C. Moore, J. R. Zaneveld, A. K. Hanson, K. Davis-Lunde, R. M. Greene, A. D. Weidemann, “Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System (ORCAS),” in Proceedings of 2002 Ocean Sciences Meeting (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2002).

P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, C. Moore, B. Rhodes, “4-D measurements of the finescale structure of inherent optical properties in the coastal ocean using the Ocean Response Coastal Analysis System (ORCAS),” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, D. W. Eggimann, “Physical, chemical, and optical measures of suspended particle concentrations: their intercomparison and application to the west African shelf,” in Suspended Solids in Water, J. R. Gibbs, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1974).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Silver, Department of Ocean Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, Calif. (personal communication, 2003).

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, S. Pegau, J. L. Mueller, “Volume scattering function and backscattering coefficients: instruments, characterization, field measurements, and data analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, C. R. McClain, eds., , (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2003), pp. 65–76.

C. Moore, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “The ECO VSF: a multiangle scattering sensor for determination of the volume scattering function in the backward direction,” presented at Ocean Optics XV, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman, eds. (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 1–24.

J. E. Prentice, A. D. Weidemann, W. Scott Pegau, K. J. Voss, M. E. Lee, E. Shybanov, O. Martynov, A. E. Laux, A. Briggs, G. Chang, “Laboratory comparisons of optical scattering instrumentation,” presented at Ocean Optics XVI, Santa Fe, N. Mex., 18–22 November 2002.

W. S. Pegau, E. Boss, G. Korotaev, A. Weidemann, M. Lee, E. Shibanov, “Measurements of the backscattering coefficient,” in Proceedings of ASLO 2001 Aquatic Sciences Meeting (American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Albuquerque, N.M., 2001).

C. Roesler, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, P.O. Box 475, West Boothbay Harbor, Maine (personal communication, 1998).

L. Karp-Boss, University of Maine, Orono, Maine (personal communication, 2003).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of individual measurements of particulate beta (βp) at 100°, 125°, and 150° from the ECO-VSF to the polynomial fit estimate of bbp over four angles (fourth angle: βp180° = 0). χ factors are equal to 0.87 at 100°, 0.90 at 125°, and 1.36 at 150°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Particulate backscattering ratio ( b ˜ b p) versus PSD slope (ξ) from all field sites (1-m binned). The solid curves overlaid on this plot are the modeled bulk refractive-index contours18 that use two parameters. The refractive-index contours shown range from 1.02 (bottom) to 1.20 (top) with a gradation of 0.02. The color of the data points indicates the areas of the U.S. from which the data were collected: the blue points represent the two Gulf of Mexico sites (Texas and Florida coasts); the red points represent the two Rhode Island (Atlantic coast) sites; the black points represent the Santa Barbara channel, California, site; the solid green points represent the Monterey Bay, California, site; and the open green squares represent data from East Sound, Washington. Both of the green colored sites had strong phytoplankton blooms. The Monterey Bay data (solid green) exhibits a unique bifurcation in b ˜ b p as ξ nears ~3.5.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Semilog plot of particulate backscattering ratio ( b ˜ b p) as a function of absorption-estimated chlorophyll concentration for all field sites (1-m binned). The thick solid curve is the power-law fit for the data displayed. The thin solid curve represents the case I power-law model of Twardowski et al.18 (marked T). The horizontal dashed curve is the case I model of Ulloa et al.45 (marked U). The vertical dash–dot curve is the case I model of Morel43 (marked M), and the vertical dashed curve is that of Gordon et al.44 (marked G). (b) The residual between the field data and the power-law fit of this study.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Semilog plot of PSD slope (ξ) as a function of absorption-estimated chlorophyll concentration for all field sites (1-m binned).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Log–log plot of particulate scattering bp(532) as a function of absorption-estimated chlorophyll concentration for all field sites (1-m binned). The horizontal dashed curve (marked A) is the power-law fit, the solid curve (marked B) is the linear fit for all the data displayed, and the vertical dashed curve (marked C) is the case I model of Morel and Maritorena46 for 550 nm. The residuals between the field data are shown for the (b) power and (c) linear fits of this study.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

ORCAS deployment data (~1 week) from Monterey Bay, Calif. Data are at full resolution (no 1-m binning) with interpolation between data points. All the graphs are for the same time [Julian day, pacific daylight time (PDT)] and depth (m) scales. Plots are identified as (a)–(e). The black areas in (e) represent ξ values that have gone below 2.5 (i.e., positive cp slopes; see text).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Particulate backscattering (bbp) versus apg (715 nm) for all the field sites (1-m binned). Two least-squares linear regressions are plotted; the lower curve is a fit of the points from the Monterey Bay data only, and the upper curve is a fit of all the other field data. (b) Particulate backscattering ratio ( b ˜ b p) versus the ratio of apg (715 nm)/cpg (715 nm) for all the field sites. The line represents a least-squares linear regression of the points.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Example Qc spectrum (2-nm resolution) of Pseudo-nitzschia modeled with Mie theory, assuming a Gaussian PSD with a mean size of 30 μm and a standard deviation of 4 μm. The line represents a power-law fit to the spectrum.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Locations of U.S. Coastal Sampling Sites and Approximate Bottom Depth (m) at Each Site

Equations (8)

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b b = 2 π π / 2 π sin ( θ ) β ( θ ) d θ .
c p ( λ ) = A c λ - γ ,
PSD slope ( ξ ) = γ + 3 - 0.5 exp ( - 6 γ ) .
n ^ p ( b ˜ b p ,     γ ) = 1 + b ˜ b p 0.5377 + 0.4867 ( γ ) 2 [ 1.4676 + 2.2950 ( γ ) 2 + 2.3113 ( γ ) 4 ] .
Chl ( mg m - 3 ) = [ a p g ( 676 ) - a p g ( 650 ) ] / 0.014.
b ˜ b p = 0.013 [ Chl ] - 0.216 ,             r 2 = 0.33.
b p ( 532 nm ) = 0.672 [ Chl ] 0.364 , r 2 = 0.28 ,
b p ( 532 nm ) = 0.143 [ Chl ] + 0.39 , r 2 = 0.61.

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