Abstract

The design, fabrication, and characterization of large, two-dimensional multiple-quantum-well modulator arrays are presented. Such arrays present a speed advantage compared with competing technologies such as liquid crystals and micromirrors, which are intrinsically limited to the kilohertz range. We discuss the design compromises to reach high-contrast, low-voltage swing optical structures compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-based integrated circuits and present experimental results. Contrast ratio of 5:1 (limited by the fill factor), variations in uniformity below 1 nm, and frame rates in excess of 10 kHz are demonstrated. Technology maturity for volume production is also discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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