Abstract

A new design for a Fabry–Perot-based array filter for wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) applications is proposed. The device is composed of two partially reflective mirrors; the surface of one of the mirrors is stepwise. Not only does the configuration of multiple air-gap cavities into a single unit provide wavelength tunability but the channel numbers can be expanded. A four-channel multiplexer has been demonstrated. The results revealed that a compact and cost-effective WDM device should be easily attainable.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Hibino, “Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1090–1101 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology: fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263–1276 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Frenkel, C. Lin, “Angle-tuned etalon filters for optical channel selection in high density wavelength division multiplexed systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 615–624 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Pezeshki, F. K. Tong, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, R. M. Potemski, “Tapered Fabry–Perot waveguide optical demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1082–1085 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Niemi, M. Uusimma, S. Tammela, P. Heimala, T. Kajava, M. Kaivola, H. Ludvigsen, “Tunable silicon etalon for simultaneous spectral filtering and wavelength monitoring of a DWDM transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 58–60 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. D. Lee, W. Chen, Q. Wang, Y. J. Chen, W. T. Beard, D. Stone, R. F. Smith, R. Mincher, I. R. Stewart, “The role of photo-mask resolution in the performance of arrayed-waveguide grating devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1726–1733 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, A. J. Ikushima, “Decay behavior of second-order nonlinearity in GeO2–SiO2glasses poled with UV-radiation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 980–981 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Hercher, “Tunable single-mode operation of gas lasers using intracavity tilted etalons,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1103–1106 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. Hibino, “Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1090–1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

T. Niemi, M. Uusimma, S. Tammela, P. Heimala, T. Kajava, M. Kaivola, H. Ludvigsen, “Tunable silicon etalon for simultaneous spectral filtering and wavelength monitoring of a DWDM transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 58–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Lee, W. Chen, Q. Wang, Y. J. Chen, W. T. Beard, D. Stone, R. F. Smith, R. Mincher, I. R. Stewart, “The role of photo-mask resolution in the performance of arrayed-waveguide grating devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1726–1733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, A. J. Ikushima, “Decay behavior of second-order nonlinearity in GeO2–SiO2glasses poled with UV-radiation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 980–981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology: fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. Pezeshki, F. K. Tong, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, R. M. Potemski, “Tapered Fabry–Perot waveguide optical demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1082–1085 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. A. Humblet, W. M. Hamdy, “Crosstalk analysis and filter optimization of single- and double-cavity Fabry–Perot filters,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1095–1107 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. Frenkel, C. Lin, “Angle-tuned etalon filters for optical channel selection in high density wavelength division multiplexed systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 615–624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

Beard, W. T.

Chen, W.

Chen, Y. J.

Frenkel, A.

A. Frenkel, C. Lin, “Angle-tuned etalon filters for optical channel selection in high density wavelength division multiplexed systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 615–624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, T.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, A. J. Ikushima, “Decay behavior of second-order nonlinearity in GeO2–SiO2glasses poled with UV-radiation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 980–981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hamdy, W. M.

P. A. Humblet, W. M. Hamdy, “Crosstalk analysis and filter optimization of single- and double-cavity Fabry–Perot filters,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1095–1107 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heimala, P.

T. Niemi, M. Uusimma, S. Tammela, P. Heimala, T. Kajava, M. Kaivola, H. Ludvigsen, “Tunable silicon etalon for simultaneous spectral filtering and wavelength monitoring of a DWDM transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 58–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hercher, M.

Hibino, Y.

Y. Hibino, “Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1090–1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology: fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Humblet, P. A.

P. A. Humblet, W. M. Hamdy, “Crosstalk analysis and filter optimization of single- and double-cavity Fabry–Perot filters,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1095–1107 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ikushima, A. J.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, A. J. Ikushima, “Decay behavior of second-order nonlinearity in GeO2–SiO2glasses poled with UV-radiation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 980–981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaivola, M.

T. Niemi, M. Uusimma, S. Tammela, P. Heimala, T. Kajava, M. Kaivola, H. Ludvigsen, “Tunable silicon etalon for simultaneous spectral filtering and wavelength monitoring of a DWDM transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 58–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kajava, T.

T. Niemi, M. Uusimma, S. Tammela, P. Heimala, T. Kajava, M. Kaivola, H. Ludvigsen, “Tunable silicon etalon for simultaneous spectral filtering and wavelength monitoring of a DWDM transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 58–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

B. Pezeshki, F. K. Tong, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, R. M. Potemski, “Tapered Fabry–Perot waveguide optical demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1082–1085 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kisker, D. W.

B. Pezeshki, F. K. Tong, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, R. M. Potemski, “Tapered Fabry–Perot waveguide optical demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1082–1085 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. D.

Lin, C.

A. Frenkel, C. Lin, “Angle-tuned etalon filters for optical channel selection in high density wavelength division multiplexed systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 615–624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ludvigsen, H.

T. Niemi, M. Uusimma, S. Tammela, P. Heimala, T. Kajava, M. Kaivola, H. Ludvigsen, “Tunable silicon etalon for simultaneous spectral filtering and wavelength monitoring of a DWDM transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 58–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology: fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mincher, R.

Niemi, T.

T. Niemi, M. Uusimma, S. Tammela, P. Heimala, T. Kajava, M. Kaivola, H. Ludvigsen, “Tunable silicon etalon for simultaneous spectral filtering and wavelength monitoring of a DWDM transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 58–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pezeshki, B.

B. Pezeshki, F. K. Tong, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, R. M. Potemski, “Tapered Fabry–Perot waveguide optical demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1082–1085 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Potemski, R. M.

B. Pezeshki, F. K. Tong, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, R. M. Potemski, “Tapered Fabry–Perot waveguide optical demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1082–1085 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. F.

Stewart, I. R.

Stone, D.

Takahashi, M.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, A. J. Ikushima, “Decay behavior of second-order nonlinearity in GeO2–SiO2glasses poled with UV-radiation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 980–981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tammela, S.

T. Niemi, M. Uusimma, S. Tammela, P. Heimala, T. Kajava, M. Kaivola, H. Ludvigsen, “Tunable silicon etalon for simultaneous spectral filtering and wavelength monitoring of a DWDM transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 58–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tong, F. K.

B. Pezeshki, F. K. Tong, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, R. M. Potemski, “Tapered Fabry–Perot waveguide optical demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1082–1085 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Uusimma, M.

T. Niemi, M. Uusimma, S. Tammela, P. Heimala, T. Kajava, M. Kaivola, H. Ludvigsen, “Tunable silicon etalon for simultaneous spectral filtering and wavelength monitoring of a DWDM transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 58–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, A. J. Ikushima, “Decay behavior of second-order nonlinearity in GeO2–SiO2glasses poled with UV-radiation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 980–981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

P. A. Humblet, W. M. Hamdy, “Crosstalk analysis and filter optimization of single- and double-cavity Fabry–Perot filters,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1095–1107 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Hibino, “Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1090–1101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. Pezeshki, F. K. Tong, J. A. Kash, D. W. Kisker, R. M. Potemski, “Tapered Fabry–Perot waveguide optical demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1082–1085 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Niemi, M. Uusimma, S. Tammela, P. Heimala, T. Kajava, M. Kaivola, H. Ludvigsen, “Tunable silicon etalon for simultaneous spectral filtering and wavelength monitoring of a DWDM transmitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 58–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology: fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Frenkel, C. Lin, “Angle-tuned etalon filters for optical channel selection in high density wavelength division multiplexed systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 615–624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Lee, W. Chen, Q. Wang, Y. J. Chen, W. T. Beard, D. Stone, R. F. Smith, R. Mincher, I. R. Stewart, “The role of photo-mask resolution in the performance of arrayed-waveguide grating devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1726–1733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic configuration of the tunable air-gap Fabry–Perot array filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated dependence of maximum transmittance on the incidence angle for three beam sizes. Stars indicate experimental results.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittance linewidth versus incidence angle for three beam sizes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Device configuration of a four-channel tunable air-gap Fabry–Perot filter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured transmission spectra of the four-channel Fabry–Perot array when the piezoelectric transducer’s voltage was scanned.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic setup for cascading Fabry–Perot array filters to expand the channel numbers.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T j ( ν ) = T max 1 + [ ( 2 F / π ) sin ( δ j ) ] 2 ,
δ j = ν 2 π c / ( d j cos θ ) ,
ν j = q FSR + j ν s ,             q an integer ,
FSR = c / ( 2 d 0 cos θ )
ν s = FSR Δ d / ( λ / 2 ) .
N < FSR / ν s .

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