Abstract

We present experiments on spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) effects at backscatter and discuss the feasibility of new methods for laboratory and field simulations of remote sensing of land surfaces. The extreme sharpness of the intensity peak allows both directional and comparative experimental spectral studies of hot spots. We demonstrate wavelength-dependent features in the hot-spot reflectance signatures that facilitate extension of spectral and directional BRDF measurements of natural targets (such as forest understories and ice surfaces) into retroreflection to exploit their hot-spot characteristics in the interpretation of spaceborne and airborne data.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J.-L. Widlowski, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, M. Verstraete, “Detection and characterization of boreal confinerous forests from remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 405–419 (2001).
  2. J.-G. Winther, S. Gerland, J. B. Ørbæk, B. Ivanov, A. Blanco, J. Boike, “Spectral reflectance of melting snow in a high Arctic watershed on Svalbard: some implications for optical remote sensing studies,” Hydrol. Process. 13, 2033–2039 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. P. Asner, A. S. Warner, “Canopy shadow in IKONOS satellite observations of tropical forests and savannas,” Remote Sens. Environ. 87, 521–533 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Hapke, D. DiMucci, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, “The cause of the hot spot in vegetation canopies and soils: shadow-hiding versus coherent backscatter,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 63–68 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Camacho-de-Coca, F. M. Brèon, M. Leroy, F. J. Garcia-Haro, “Airborne measurement of hot spot reflectance signatures,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 63–75 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Solheim, O. Engelsen, B. Hosgood, G. Andreoli, “Measurement and modeling of the spectral and directional reflection properties of lichen and moss canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 72, 78–94 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, P. Voipio, “BRDF measurement of understory vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen and moss,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published).
  8. F. Poulet, J. N. Cuzzi, R. G. French, L. Dones, “A study of Saturn’s ring phase curves from HST observations,” Icarus 158, 224–248 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Belskaya, V. Shevchenko, “Opposition effect of asteroids,” Icarus 147, 94–105 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. Nelson, B. W. Hapke, W. D. Smythe, L. J. Spilker, “The opposition effect in simulated planetary regoliths. Reflectance and circular polarization ratio change at small phase angle,” Icarus 147, 545–558 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Kuga, A. Ishimaru, “Retroreflectance from a dense distribution of spherical particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 831–835 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen, A. Lagendijk, “Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple scattering events of light in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193–4196 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, “Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1745–1747 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Strozzi, C. Mätzler, “Backscattering measurements of Alpine snowcovers at 5.3 and 35 GHz3,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 838–848 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Kraus, N. Pfeifer, “Determination of terrain models in wooded areas with airborne laser scanner data,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. and Remote Sens. 53, 193–203 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Yu. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, P. Helfenstein, “The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths,” Icarus 159, 396–416 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Yoon, D. N. G. Roy, R. C. Straight, “Coherent backscattering in biological media: measurement and estimation of optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 32, 580–585 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Piironen, K. Muinonen, S. Keränen, H. Karttunen, J. I. Peltoniemi, “Backscattering of light by snow: field measurements,” in Observing Land from Space: Science, Customers, and Technology, M. M. Verstraete, M. Meneti, J. Peltoniemi, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2000), pp. 219–228.
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Kaasalainen, J. Piironen, K. Muinonen, H. Karttunen, J. Peltoniemi, “Laboratory experiments on backscattering from regolith samples,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4416–4420 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Kaasalainen, “Laboratory photometry of planetary regolith analogs. I. Effects of grain and packing properties of the opposition effect,” Astron. Astrophys. 409, 765–769 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Näränen, S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, S. Heikkilä, M. Granvik, V. Saarinen, “Laboratory photometry of planetary regolith analogs. II. Surface roughness and extremes of packing density,” Astron. Astrophys. 426, 1103–1109 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Wax, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 322–324 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. E. Clark, P. Helfenstein, J. F. Bell, C. Peterson, J. Veverka, N. I. Izenberg, D. Wellnitz, L. McFaden, “Near infrared spectrometer photometry of asteroid 433 Eros,” Icarus 155, 189–204 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, B. W. Hapke, A. S. Hale, “Low phase angle laboratory studies of the opposition effect: search for wavelength dependence,” Planet. Space Sci. 50, 849–856 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

F. Camacho-de-Coca, F. M. Brèon, M. Leroy, F. J. Garcia-Haro, “Airborne measurement of hot spot reflectance signatures,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 63–75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Näränen, S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, S. Heikkilä, M. Granvik, V. Saarinen, “Laboratory photometry of planetary regolith analogs. II. Surface roughness and extremes of packing density,” Astron. Astrophys. 426, 1103–1109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

S. Kaasalainen, “Laboratory photometry of planetary regolith analogs. I. Effects of grain and packing properties of the opposition effect,” Astron. Astrophys. 409, 765–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, “Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1745–1747 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Asner, A. S. Warner, “Canopy shadow in IKONOS satellite observations of tropical forests and savannas,” Remote Sens. Environ. 87, 521–533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

F. Poulet, J. N. Cuzzi, R. G. French, L. Dones, “A study of Saturn’s ring phase curves from HST observations,” Icarus 158, 224–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, P. Helfenstein, “The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths,” Icarus 159, 396–416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaasalainen, J. Piironen, K. Muinonen, H. Karttunen, J. Peltoniemi, “Laboratory experiments on backscattering from regolith samples,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4416–4420 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Clark, P. Helfenstein, J. F. Bell, C. Peterson, J. Veverka, N. I. Izenberg, D. Wellnitz, L. McFaden, “Near infrared spectrometer photometry of asteroid 433 Eros,” Icarus 155, 189–204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, B. W. Hapke, A. S. Hale, “Low phase angle laboratory studies of the opposition effect: search for wavelength dependence,” Planet. Space Sci. 50, 849–856 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Wax, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Widlowski, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, M. Verstraete, “Detection and characterization of boreal confinerous forests from remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 405–419 (2001).

2000 (3)

I. Belskaya, V. Shevchenko, “Opposition effect of asteroids,” Icarus 147, 94–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Nelson, B. W. Hapke, W. D. Smythe, L. J. Spilker, “The opposition effect in simulated planetary regoliths. Reflectance and circular polarization ratio change at small phase angle,” Icarus 147, 545–558 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Solheim, O. Engelsen, B. Hosgood, G. Andreoli, “Measurement and modeling of the spectral and directional reflection properties of lichen and moss canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 72, 78–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J.-G. Winther, S. Gerland, J. B. Ørbæk, B. Ivanov, A. Blanco, J. Boike, “Spectral reflectance of melting snow in a high Arctic watershed on Svalbard: some implications for optical remote sensing studies,” Hydrol. Process. 13, 2033–2039 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. Strozzi, C. Mätzler, “Backscattering measurements of Alpine snowcovers at 5.3 and 35 GHz3,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 838–848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Kraus, N. Pfeifer, “Determination of terrain models in wooded areas with airborne laser scanner data,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. and Remote Sens. 53, 193–203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen, A. Lagendijk, “Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple scattering events of light in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193–4196 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hapke, D. DiMucci, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, “The cause of the hot spot in vegetation canopies and soils: shadow-hiding versus coherent backscatter,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 63–68 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1984 (1)

Andreoli, G.

I. Solheim, O. Engelsen, B. Hosgood, G. Andreoli, “Measurement and modeling of the spectral and directional reflection properties of lichen and moss canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 72, 78–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asner, G. P.

G. P. Asner, A. S. Warner, “Canopy shadow in IKONOS satellite observations of tropical forests and savannas,” Remote Sens. Environ. 87, 521–533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bajraszewski, T.

Bell, J. F.

B. E. Clark, P. Helfenstein, J. F. Bell, C. Peterson, J. Veverka, N. I. Izenberg, D. Wellnitz, L. McFaden, “Near infrared spectrometer photometry of asteroid 433 Eros,” Icarus 155, 189–204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Belskaya, I.

I. Belskaya, V. Shevchenko, “Opposition effect of asteroids,” Icarus 147, 94–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, A.

J.-G. Winther, S. Gerland, J. B. Ørbæk, B. Ivanov, A. Blanco, J. Boike, “Spectral reflectance of melting snow in a high Arctic watershed on Svalbard: some implications for optical remote sensing studies,” Hydrol. Process. 13, 2033–2039 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boike, J.

J.-G. Winther, S. Gerland, J. B. Ørbæk, B. Ivanov, A. Blanco, J. Boike, “Spectral reflectance of melting snow in a high Arctic watershed on Svalbard: some implications for optical remote sensing studies,” Hydrol. Process. 13, 2033–2039 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brèon, F. M.

F. Camacho-de-Coca, F. M. Brèon, M. Leroy, F. J. Garcia-Haro, “Airborne measurement of hot spot reflectance signatures,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 63–75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-de-Coca, F.

F. Camacho-de-Coca, F. M. Brèon, M. Leroy, F. J. Garcia-Haro, “Airborne measurement of hot spot reflectance signatures,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 63–75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clark, B. E.

B. E. Clark, P. Helfenstein, J. F. Bell, C. Peterson, J. Veverka, N. I. Izenberg, D. Wellnitz, L. McFaden, “Near infrared spectrometer photometry of asteroid 433 Eros,” Icarus 155, 189–204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cuzzi, J. N.

F. Poulet, J. N. Cuzzi, R. G. French, L. Dones, “A study of Saturn’s ring phase curves from HST observations,” Icarus 158, 224–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

DiMucci, D.

B. Hapke, D. DiMucci, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, “The cause of the hot spot in vegetation canopies and soils: shadow-hiding versus coherent backscatter,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 63–68 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dones, L.

F. Poulet, J. N. Cuzzi, R. G. French, L. Dones, “A study of Saturn’s ring phase curves from HST observations,” Icarus 158, 224–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Engelsen, O.

I. Solheim, O. Engelsen, B. Hosgood, G. Andreoli, “Measurement and modeling of the spectral and directional reflection properties of lichen and moss canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 72, 78–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

French, R. G.

F. Poulet, J. N. Cuzzi, R. G. French, L. Dones, “A study of Saturn’s ring phase curves from HST observations,” Icarus 158, 224–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Haro, F. J.

F. Camacho-de-Coca, F. M. Brèon, M. Leroy, F. J. Garcia-Haro, “Airborne measurement of hot spot reflectance signatures,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 63–75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gerland, S.

J.-G. Winther, S. Gerland, J. B. Ørbæk, B. Ivanov, A. Blanco, J. Boike, “Spectral reflectance of melting snow in a high Arctic watershed on Svalbard: some implications for optical remote sensing studies,” Hydrol. Process. 13, 2033–2039 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gobron, N.

J.-L. Widlowski, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, M. Verstraete, “Detection and characterization of boreal confinerous forests from remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 405–419 (2001).

Granvik, M.

J. Näränen, S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, S. Heikkilä, M. Granvik, V. Saarinen, “Laboratory photometry of planetary regolith analogs. II. Surface roughness and extremes of packing density,” Astron. Astrophys. 426, 1103–1109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hale, A. S.

R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, B. W. Hapke, A. S. Hale, “Low phase angle laboratory studies of the opposition effect: search for wavelength dependence,” Planet. Space Sci. 50, 849–856 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hapke, B.

B. Hapke, D. DiMucci, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, “The cause of the hot spot in vegetation canopies and soils: shadow-hiding versus coherent backscatter,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 63–68 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hapke, B. W.

R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, B. W. Hapke, A. S. Hale, “Low phase angle laboratory studies of the opposition effect: search for wavelength dependence,” Planet. Space Sci. 50, 849–856 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Nelson, B. W. Hapke, W. D. Smythe, L. J. Spilker, “The opposition effect in simulated planetary regoliths. Reflectance and circular polarization ratio change at small phase angle,” Icarus 147, 545–558 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heikkilä, S.

J. Näränen, S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, S. Heikkilä, M. Granvik, V. Saarinen, “Laboratory photometry of planetary regolith analogs. II. Surface roughness and extremes of packing density,” Astron. Astrophys. 426, 1103–1109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helfenstein, P.

B. E. Clark, P. Helfenstein, J. F. Bell, C. Peterson, J. Veverka, N. I. Izenberg, D. Wellnitz, L. McFaden, “Near infrared spectrometer photometry of asteroid 433 Eros,” Icarus 155, 189–204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, P. Helfenstein, “The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths,” Icarus 159, 396–416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hosgood, B.

I. Solheim, O. Engelsen, B. Hosgood, G. Andreoli, “Measurement and modeling of the spectral and directional reflection properties of lichen and moss canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 72, 78–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

Ivanov, B.

J.-G. Winther, S. Gerland, J. B. Ørbæk, B. Ivanov, A. Blanco, J. Boike, “Spectral reflectance of melting snow in a high Arctic watershed on Svalbard: some implications for optical remote sensing studies,” Hydrol. Process. 13, 2033–2039 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Izenberg, N. I.

B. E. Clark, P. Helfenstein, J. F. Bell, C. Peterson, J. Veverka, N. I. Izenberg, D. Wellnitz, L. McFaden, “Near infrared spectrometer photometry of asteroid 433 Eros,” Icarus 155, 189–204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaasalainen, S.

J. Näränen, S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, S. Heikkilä, M. Granvik, V. Saarinen, “Laboratory photometry of planetary regolith analogs. II. Surface roughness and extremes of packing density,” Astron. Astrophys. 426, 1103–1109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaasalainen, “Laboratory photometry of planetary regolith analogs. I. Effects of grain and packing properties of the opposition effect,” Astron. Astrophys. 409, 765–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaasalainen, J. Piironen, K. Muinonen, H. Karttunen, J. Peltoniemi, “Laboratory experiments on backscattering from regolith samples,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4416–4420 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, P. Voipio, “BRDF measurement of understory vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen and moss,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published).

Karttunen, H.

S. Kaasalainen, J. Piironen, K. Muinonen, H. Karttunen, J. Peltoniemi, “Laboratory experiments on backscattering from regolith samples,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4416–4420 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Piironen, K. Muinonen, S. Keränen, H. Karttunen, J. I. Peltoniemi, “Backscattering of light by snow: field measurements,” in Observing Land from Space: Science, Customers, and Technology, M. M. Verstraete, M. Meneti, J. Peltoniemi, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2000), pp. 219–228.
[CrossRef]

Keränen, S.

J. Piironen, K. Muinonen, S. Keränen, H. Karttunen, J. I. Peltoniemi, “Backscattering of light by snow: field measurements,” in Observing Land from Space: Science, Customers, and Technology, M. M. Verstraete, M. Meneti, J. Peltoniemi, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2000), pp. 219–228.
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

Kraus, K.

K. Kraus, N. Pfeifer, “Determination of terrain models in wooded areas with airborne laser scanner data,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. and Remote Sens. 53, 193–203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuga, Y.

Lagendijk, A.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen, A. Lagendijk, “Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple scattering events of light in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193–4196 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leroy, M.

F. Camacho-de-Coca, F. M. Brèon, M. Leroy, F. J. Garcia-Haro, “Airborne measurement of hot spot reflectance signatures,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 63–75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mätzler, C.

T. Strozzi, C. Mätzler, “Backscattering measurements of Alpine snowcovers at 5.3 and 35 GHz3,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 838–848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McFaden, L.

B. E. Clark, P. Helfenstein, J. F. Bell, C. Peterson, J. Veverka, N. I. Izenberg, D. Wellnitz, L. McFaden, “Near infrared spectrometer photometry of asteroid 433 Eros,” Icarus 155, 189–204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miloslavskaya, O.

Yu. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, P. Helfenstein, “The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths,” Icarus 159, 396–416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muinonen, K.

Yu. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, P. Helfenstein, “The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths,” Icarus 159, 396–416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaasalainen, J. Piironen, K. Muinonen, H. Karttunen, J. Peltoniemi, “Laboratory experiments on backscattering from regolith samples,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4416–4420 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Piironen, K. Muinonen, S. Keränen, H. Karttunen, J. I. Peltoniemi, “Backscattering of light by snow: field measurements,” in Observing Land from Space: Science, Customers, and Technology, M. M. Verstraete, M. Meneti, J. Peltoniemi, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2000), pp. 219–228.
[CrossRef]

Näränen, J.

J. Näränen, S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, S. Heikkilä, M. Granvik, V. Saarinen, “Laboratory photometry of planetary regolith analogs. II. Surface roughness and extremes of packing density,” Astron. Astrophys. 426, 1103–1109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, P. Voipio, “BRDF measurement of understory vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen and moss,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published).

Nelson, R.

Yu. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, P. Helfenstein, “The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths,” Icarus 159, 396–416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Hapke, D. DiMucci, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, “The cause of the hot spot in vegetation canopies and soils: shadow-hiding versus coherent backscatter,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 63–68 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, R. M.

R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, B. W. Hapke, A. S. Hale, “Low phase angle laboratory studies of the opposition effect: search for wavelength dependence,” Planet. Space Sci. 50, 849–856 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Nelson, B. W. Hapke, W. D. Smythe, L. J. Spilker, “The opposition effect in simulated planetary regoliths. Reflectance and circular polarization ratio change at small phase angle,” Icarus 147, 545–558 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ørbæk, J. B.

J.-G. Winther, S. Gerland, J. B. Ørbæk, B. Ivanov, A. Blanco, J. Boike, “Spectral reflectance of melting snow in a high Arctic watershed on Svalbard: some implications for optical remote sensing studies,” Hydrol. Process. 13, 2033–2039 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ovcharenko, A.

Yu. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, P. Helfenstein, “The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths,” Icarus 159, 396–416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peltoniemi, J.

J. Näränen, S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, S. Heikkilä, M. Granvik, V. Saarinen, “Laboratory photometry of planetary regolith analogs. II. Surface roughness and extremes of packing density,” Astron. Astrophys. 426, 1103–1109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaasalainen, J. Piironen, K. Muinonen, H. Karttunen, J. Peltoniemi, “Laboratory experiments on backscattering from regolith samples,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4416–4420 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, P. Voipio, “BRDF measurement of understory vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen and moss,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published).

Peltoniemi, J. I.

J. Piironen, K. Muinonen, S. Keränen, H. Karttunen, J. I. Peltoniemi, “Backscattering of light by snow: field measurements,” in Observing Land from Space: Science, Customers, and Technology, M. M. Verstraete, M. Meneti, J. Peltoniemi, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2000), pp. 219–228.
[CrossRef]

Peterson, C.

B. E. Clark, P. Helfenstein, J. F. Bell, C. Peterson, J. Veverka, N. I. Izenberg, D. Wellnitz, L. McFaden, “Near infrared spectrometer photometry of asteroid 433 Eros,” Icarus 155, 189–204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, N.

K. Kraus, N. Pfeifer, “Determination of terrain models in wooded areas with airborne laser scanner data,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. and Remote Sens. 53, 193–203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Piironen, J.

Yu. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, P. Helfenstein, “The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths,” Icarus 159, 396–416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaasalainen, J. Piironen, K. Muinonen, H. Karttunen, J. Peltoniemi, “Laboratory experiments on backscattering from regolith samples,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4416–4420 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Piironen, K. Muinonen, S. Keränen, H. Karttunen, J. I. Peltoniemi, “Backscattering of light by snow: field measurements,” in Observing Land from Space: Science, Customers, and Technology, M. M. Verstraete, M. Meneti, J. Peltoniemi, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2000), pp. 219–228.
[CrossRef]

Pinty, B.

J.-L. Widlowski, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, M. Verstraete, “Detection and characterization of boreal confinerous forests from remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 405–419 (2001).

Poulet, F.

F. Poulet, J. N. Cuzzi, R. G. French, L. Dones, “A study of Saturn’s ring phase curves from HST observations,” Icarus 158, 224–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rautiainen, M.

J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, P. Voipio, “BRDF measurement of understory vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen and moss,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published).

Rosenbush, V.

Yu. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, P. Helfenstein, “The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths,” Icarus 159, 396–416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roy, D. N. G.

Saarinen, V.

J. Näränen, S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, S. Heikkilä, M. Granvik, V. Saarinen, “Laboratory photometry of planetary regolith analogs. II. Surface roughness and extremes of packing density,” Astron. Astrophys. 426, 1103–1109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shevchenko, V.

I. Belskaya, V. Shevchenko, “Opposition effect of asteroids,” Icarus 147, 94–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shkuratov, Yu.

Yu. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, P. Helfenstein, “The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths,” Icarus 159, 396–416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smolander, H.

J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, P. Voipio, “BRDF measurement of understory vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen and moss,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published).

Smolander, S.

J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, P. Voipio, “BRDF measurement of understory vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen and moss,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published).

Smythe, W.

Yu. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, P. Helfenstein, “The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths,” Icarus 159, 396–416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Hapke, D. DiMucci, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, “The cause of the hot spot in vegetation canopies and soils: shadow-hiding versus coherent backscatter,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 63–68 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smythe, W. D.

R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, B. W. Hapke, A. S. Hale, “Low phase angle laboratory studies of the opposition effect: search for wavelength dependence,” Planet. Space Sci. 50, 849–856 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Nelson, B. W. Hapke, W. D. Smythe, L. J. Spilker, “The opposition effect in simulated planetary regoliths. Reflectance and circular polarization ratio change at small phase angle,” Icarus 147, 545–558 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, I.

I. Solheim, O. Engelsen, B. Hosgood, G. Andreoli, “Measurement and modeling of the spectral and directional reflection properties of lichen and moss canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 72, 78–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spilker, L. J.

R. M. Nelson, B. W. Hapke, W. D. Smythe, L. J. Spilker, “The opposition effect in simulated planetary regoliths. Reflectance and circular polarization ratio change at small phase angle,” Icarus 147, 545–558 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stenberg, P.

J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, P. Voipio, “BRDF measurement of understory vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen and moss,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published).

Straight, R. C.

Strozzi, T.

T. Strozzi, C. Mätzler, “Backscattering measurements of Alpine snowcovers at 5.3 and 35 GHz3,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 838–848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Targowski, P.

van Albada, M. P.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen, A. Lagendijk, “Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple scattering events of light in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193–4196 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Tiggelen, B. A.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen, A. Lagendijk, “Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple scattering events of light in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193–4196 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verstraete, M.

J.-L. Widlowski, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, M. Verstraete, “Detection and characterization of boreal confinerous forests from remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 405–419 (2001).

Veverka, J.

B. E. Clark, P. Helfenstein, J. F. Bell, C. Peterson, J. Veverka, N. I. Izenberg, D. Wellnitz, L. McFaden, “Near infrared spectrometer photometry of asteroid 433 Eros,” Icarus 155, 189–204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Voipio, P.

J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, P. Voipio, “BRDF measurement of understory vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen and moss,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published).

Warner, A. S.

G. P. Asner, A. S. Warner, “Canopy shadow in IKONOS satellite observations of tropical forests and savannas,” Remote Sens. Environ. 87, 521–533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wax, M.

Wellnitz, D.

B. E. Clark, P. Helfenstein, J. F. Bell, C. Peterson, J. Veverka, N. I. Izenberg, D. Wellnitz, L. McFaden, “Near infrared spectrometer photometry of asteroid 433 Eros,” Icarus 155, 189–204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Widlowski, J.-L.

J.-L. Widlowski, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, M. Verstraete, “Detection and characterization of boreal confinerous forests from remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 405–419 (2001).

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen, A. Lagendijk, “Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple scattering events of light in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193–4196 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winther, J.-G.

J.-G. Winther, S. Gerland, J. B. Ørbæk, B. Ivanov, A. Blanco, J. Boike, “Spectral reflectance of melting snow in a high Arctic watershed on Svalbard: some implications for optical remote sensing studies,” Hydrol. Process. 13, 2033–2039 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Yang, C.

Yoon, G.

Zubko, E.

Yu. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, P. Helfenstein, “The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths,” Icarus 159, 396–416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

S. Kaasalainen, “Laboratory photometry of planetary regolith analogs. I. Effects of grain and packing properties of the opposition effect,” Astron. Astrophys. 409, 765–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Näränen, S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, S. Heikkilä, M. Granvik, V. Saarinen, “Laboratory photometry of planetary regolith analogs. II. Surface roughness and extremes of packing density,” Astron. Astrophys. 426, 1103–1109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hydrol. Process. (1)

J.-G. Winther, S. Gerland, J. B. Ørbæk, B. Ivanov, A. Blanco, J. Boike, “Spectral reflectance of melting snow in a high Arctic watershed on Svalbard: some implications for optical remote sensing studies,” Hydrol. Process. 13, 2033–2039 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (5)

F. Poulet, J. N. Cuzzi, R. G. French, L. Dones, “A study of Saturn’s ring phase curves from HST observations,” Icarus 158, 224–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Belskaya, V. Shevchenko, “Opposition effect of asteroids,” Icarus 147, 94–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Nelson, B. W. Hapke, W. D. Smythe, L. J. Spilker, “The opposition effect in simulated planetary regoliths. Reflectance and circular polarization ratio change at small phase angle,” Icarus 147, 545–558 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Clark, P. Helfenstein, J. F. Bell, C. Peterson, J. Veverka, N. I. Izenberg, D. Wellnitz, L. McFaden, “Near infrared spectrometer photometry of asteroid 433 Eros,” Icarus 155, 189–204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu. Shkuratov, A. Ovcharenko, E. Zubko, O. Miloslavskaya, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, V. Rosenbush, P. Helfenstein, “The opposition effect and negative polarization of structural analogs for planetary regoliths,” Icarus 159, 396–416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

T. Strozzi, C. Mätzler, “Backscattering measurements of Alpine snowcovers at 5.3 and 35 GHz3,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 838–848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

ISPRS J. Photogramm. and Remote Sens. (1)

K. Kraus, N. Pfeifer, “Determination of terrain models in wooded areas with airborne laser scanner data,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. and Remote Sens. 53, 193–203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

J.-L. Widlowski, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, M. Verstraete, “Detection and characterization of boreal confinerous forests from remote sensing data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 405–419 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, B. A. van Tiggelen, A. Lagendijk, “Experimental evidence for recurrent multiple scattering events of light in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4193–4196 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, B. W. Hapke, A. S. Hale, “Low phase angle laboratory studies of the opposition effect: search for wavelength dependence,” Planet. Space Sci. 50, 849–856 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (4)

G. P. Asner, A. S. Warner, “Canopy shadow in IKONOS satellite observations of tropical forests and savannas,” Remote Sens. Environ. 87, 521–533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Hapke, D. DiMucci, R. Nelson, W. Smythe, “The cause of the hot spot in vegetation canopies and soils: shadow-hiding versus coherent backscatter,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 63–68 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Camacho-de-Coca, F. M. Brèon, M. Leroy, F. J. Garcia-Haro, “Airborne measurement of hot spot reflectance signatures,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 63–75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Solheim, O. Engelsen, B. Hosgood, G. Andreoli, “Measurement and modeling of the spectral and directional reflection properties of lichen and moss canopies,” Remote Sens. Environ. 72, 78–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Peltoniemi, S. Kaasalainen, J. Näränen, M. Rautiainen, P. Stenberg, H. Smolander, S. Smolander, P. Voipio, “BRDF measurement of understory vegetation in pine forests: dwarf shrubs, lichen and moss,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published).

J. Piironen, K. Muinonen, S. Keränen, H. Karttunen, J. I. Peltoniemi, “Backscattering of light by snow: field measurements,” in Observing Land from Space: Science, Customers, and Technology, M. M. Verstraete, M. Meneti, J. Peltoniemi, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2000), pp. 219–228.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of BRDF measurement: ∊ and ι are angles of emergence and incidence, respectively. The principal plane is defined by Sun, target, and Observer, and α is the phase angle between them. (ϕ and ϕ0 are the corresponding azimuths for emergence and incidence.) At α = 0° the detector obscures the light source. The small-angle goniometer discussed in this paper is utilized to include zero phase in the study.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the QTH lamp system (top) and the experimental setup (bottom). The distances from the lamp and the laser to the beam splitter were 13 and 100 cm, respectively (having the QTH source closer than the laser to the beam splitter was crucial for the alignment), 7–10 cm from the beam splitter to the sample (depending on what sample is used), and 125 cm from the CCD lens to the sample. The QTH and laser spot diameters on the sample were 2.5 cm and 2–3 mm, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lichen (Cladina arbuscula) sample. The stand was ~5 cm high.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Left, backscattering peaks for aluminum oxide at 1064 and 632.8 nm and white light (QTH) and right, QTH phase curves of lichen (asterisks) and sand (squares).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of backscattering peaks for lichen (left) and Kalajoki sand (right) measured with a laser at a, 1064 and b, 632.8 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of phase curves of the lichen sample at 1064 and 633 nm measured with lasers (from −2° to 35°) and with the spectrogoniometer (other angles).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectra of lichen at increasing phase angles. The variations in intensity from 0° to 12° are of the order of 3% at 1064 nm, 20% at 633 nm, and 15% at 1500 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Rounding of the phase curve with 1.5° angular resolution. The phase curve is illustrated by an exponential function [sharp curve; see Eqs. (1) and (2)].

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Backscattering Peak Amplitudesa

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( x ) = c exp ( - x ) + k x + d ,
I R ( x ) = c [ 2 sinh a / 2 a ] exp ( - x ) + k x + d ,             x > a 2 , I R ( x ) = c 2 a ( 1 - exp - a 2 cosh x ) + k x 2 a + k a 4 + d ,             - a 2 < x < a 2 .

Metrics