Abstract

High-power femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air form self-guided filaments that can persist for many meters. Characterizing these filaments has always been challenging owing to their high intensity. An apparently novel diagnostic is used to directly measure the fluence distribution of femtosecond laser pulses after they have formed self-guided optical filaments in air. The diagnostic is unique in that the information contained in the filaments is not lost owing to the interaction with the apparatus. This allows filament characteristics such as energy and size to be unambiguously determined for the first time.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  15. We used a Sony XCD-X700 for this research.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. Gordon, C. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ting, D. Gordon, D. Kaganovich, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, R. Hubbard, “Experiments on the propagation and filamentation of ultrashort intense laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 131–141 (2004).

2003 (2)

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, A. Ting, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, “Propagation of short, high-intensity laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 73–92 (2003).

M. Hatayama, A. Suda, M. Nurhuda, K. Nagasaka, K. Midorikawa, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses propagating in argon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 603–608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

S. Tzortzakis, L. Berge, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ladouceur, A. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. Grounds, P. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (4)

H. Schillinger, R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, H. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1985 (1)

D. Strickland, G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Andre, Y.-B.

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aoshima, S.

Baronavski, A.

H. Ladouceur, A. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. Grounds, P. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berge, L.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Berge, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, A.

Briscoe, E.

A. Ting, D. Gordon, D. Kaganovich, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, R. Hubbard, “Experiments on the propagation and filamentation of ultrashort intense laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 131–141 (2004).

Brodeur, A.

Chien, C.

Chin, S.

Chiron, A.

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Lange, G. Grillon, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Nibbering, A. Chiron, “Anomalous long-range propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through air: moving focus or pulse self-guiding?” Opt. Lett. 23, 120–122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Comtois, D.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, H. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Berge, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desparois, A.

C. Chien, B. L. Fontaine, A. Desparois, Z. Jiang, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, F. Vidal, H. Mercure, “Single-shot chirped-pulse spectral interferometry used to measure the femtosecond ionization dynamics of air,” Opt. Lett. 25, 578–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, H. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

Fontaine, B. L.

Franco, M.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Berge, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Lange, G. Grillon, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Nibbering, A. Chiron, “Anomalous long-range propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through air: moving focus or pulse self-guiding?” Opt. Lett. 23, 120–122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2, and O2by use of unfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650–660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, M.

Girardi, P.

H. Ladouceur, A. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. Grounds, P. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, D.

A. Ting, D. Gordon, D. Kaganovich, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, R. Hubbard, “Experiments on the propagation and filamentation of ultrashort intense laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 131–141 (2004).

J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. Gordon, C. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, A. Ting, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, “Propagation of short, high-intensity laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 73–92 (2003).

Grillon, G.

Grounds, P.

H. Ladouceur, A. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. Grounds, P. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hafizi, B.

A. Ting, D. Gordon, D. Kaganovich, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, R. Hubbard, “Experiments on the propagation and filamentation of ultrashort intense laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 131–141 (2004).

J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. Gordon, C. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, A. Ting, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, “Propagation of short, high-intensity laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 73–92 (2003).

Hatayama, M.

Hubbard, R.

A. Ting, D. Gordon, D. Kaganovich, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, R. Hubbard, “Experiments on the propagation and filamentation of ultrashort intense laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 131–141 (2004).

Ilkov, F.

Jiang, Z.

C. Chien, B. L. Fontaine, A. Desparois, Z. Jiang, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, F. Vidal, H. Mercure, “Single-shot chirped-pulse spectral interferometry used to measure the femtosecond ionization dynamics of air,” Opt. Lett. 25, 578–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, H. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, T.

C. Chien, B. L. Fontaine, A. Desparois, Z. Jiang, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, F. Vidal, H. Mercure, “Single-shot chirped-pulse spectral interferometry used to measure the femtosecond ionization dynamics of air,” Opt. Lett. 25, 578–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, H. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaganovich, D.

A. Ting, D. Gordon, D. Kaganovich, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, R. Hubbard, “Experiments on the propagation and filamentation of ultrashort intense laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 131–141 (2004).

Kandidov, V.

Kane, D. J.

Kapetanakos, C.

J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. Gordon, C. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.

Kieffer, J.-C.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, H. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kolesik, M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O.

La Fontaine, B.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, H. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ladouceur, H.

H. Ladouceur, A. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. Grounds, P. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lamouroux, B.

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Lange, G. Grillon, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Nibbering, A. Chiron, “Anomalous long-range propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through air: moving focus or pulse self-guiding?” Opt. Lett. 23, 120–122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lange, H.

Liu, X.

Lohrmann, D.

H. Ladouceur, A. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. Grounds, P. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Manka, C.

A. Ting, D. Gordon, D. Kaganovich, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, R. Hubbard, “Experiments on the propagation and filamentation of ultrashort intense laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 131–141 (2004).

Mercure, H.

C. Chien, B. L. Fontaine, A. Desparois, Z. Jiang, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, F. Vidal, H. Mercure, “Single-shot chirped-pulse spectral interferometry used to measure the femtosecond ionization dynamics of air,” Opt. Lett. 25, 578–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, H. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Mlejnek, M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382–384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382–384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Berge, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Lange, G. Grillon, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Nibbering, A. Chiron, “Anomalous long-range propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through air: moving focus or pulse self-guiding?” Opt. Lett. 23, 120–122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2, and O2by use of unfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650–660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nagasaka, K.

Nibbering, E.

Nurhuda, M.

Peñano, J.

A. Ting, D. Gordon, D. Kaganovich, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, R. Hubbard, “Experiments on the propagation and filamentation of ultrashort intense laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 131–141 (2004).

J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. Gordon, C. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peñano, J. R.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, A. Ting, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, “Propagation of short, high-intensity laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 73–92 (2003).

Pepin, H.

C. Chien, B. L. Fontaine, A. Desparois, Z. Jiang, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, F. Vidal, H. Mercure, “Single-shot chirped-pulse spectral interferometry used to measure the femtosecond ionization dynamics of air,” Opt. Lett. 25, 578–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, H. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Berge, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Lange, G. Grillon, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Nibbering, A. Chiron, “Anomalous long-range propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through air: moving focus or pulse self-guiding?” Opt. Lett. 23, 120–122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2, and O2by use of unfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650–660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ripoche, J.-F.

Sauerbrey, R.

H. Schillinger, R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schillinger, H.

H. Schillinger, R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sprangle, P.

A. Ting, D. Gordon, D. Kaganovich, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, R. Hubbard, “Experiments on the propagation and filamentation of ultrashort intense laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 131–141 (2004).

J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. Gordon, C. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, A. Ting, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, “Propagation of short, high-intensity laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 73–92 (2003).

Squier, J.

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland, G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Suda, A.

Ting, A.

A. Ting, D. Gordon, D. Kaganovich, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, R. Hubbard, “Experiments on the propagation and filamentation of ultrashort intense laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 131–141 (2004).

J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. Gordon, C. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, A. Ting, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, “Propagation of short, high-intensity laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 73–92 (2003).

Trebino, R.

Tsuchiya, Y.

Tzortzakis, S.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Berge, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

C. Chien, B. L. Fontaine, A. Desparois, Z. Jiang, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, F. Vidal, H. Mercure, “Single-shot chirped-pulse spectral interferometry used to measure the femtosecond ionization dynamics of air,” Opt. Lett. 25, 578–580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, H. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382–384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Schillinger, R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dir. Energy (2)

A. Ting, D. Gordon, D. Kaganovich, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, R. Hubbard, “Experiments on the propagation and filamentation of ultrashort intense laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 131–141 (2004).

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, A. Ting, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, “Propagation of short, high-intensity laser pulses in air,” J. Dir. Energy 1, 73–92 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (2)

D. Strickland, G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Ladouceur, A. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. Grounds, P. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Plasmas (2)

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, H. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. Gordon, C. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11, 2865–2874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, Y.-B. Andre, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505–R3507 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Tzortzakis, L. Berge, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Breakup and fusion of self-guided femtosecond light pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470–5473 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Apparatus for characterization of high-intensity optical filaments. OD, optical density.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of turbulence on the image quality by use of an unoptimized (open-ended tube) design for flow rates (a) 0, (b) 4, and (c) 10 scfh. The final design was not susceptible to turbulence even at 10 scfh.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra radiated by air (solid curve) and helium (dotted curve) when excited by a 1-mJ, 50 fs laser pulse focused with an f = 90-mm parabolic mirror.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of helium pressure with (a) flow rate and (b) distance from nozzle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluence data for a 50-fs, 800-nm laser pulse after 10-m propagation in air: (a) fluence distribution for a 19-mJ pulse, (b) horizontal lineout through the filament in (a), (c) fluence distribution for a 15-mJ pulse, (d) vertical lineout through the two filaments in (c). The data from (a) and (b) were taken on a different day than the data from (c) and (d).

Equations (1)

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P NL = λ 0 2 2 π [ n K + n R G ( τ ) ] n 0 ,

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