Abstract

Choroidal perfusion measurements are complicated by the choroid’s location posterior to the retina and its associated retinal blood vessels. Optical coherence tomography is a relatively new imaging technique with sufficient spatial resolution to isolate choroidal backscattering events from the posterior eye. We modified a speckle imaging algorithm to analyze sequential axial depth scans obtained from posterior rat eye to obtain an indicator of choroidal perfusion. This indicator is correlated with known changes in choroidal blood flow in response to increased intraocular pressure.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2003 (2)

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, “In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235–239 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Zvyagin, E. D. J. Smith, D. D. Sampson, “Delay and dispersion characteristics of a frequency-domain optical delay line for scanning interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 333–341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

I. A. Bhutto, T. Amemiya, “Microvascular architecture of the rat choroid: corrosion cast study,” Anat. Rec. 264, 63–71 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

1998 (4)

P. S. Jensen, M. R. Glucksberg, “Regional variation in capillary hemodynamics in the cat retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 407–415 (1998).

M. D. Kulkarni, T. G. van Leeuwen, S. Yazdanfar, J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-estimation accuracy and frame-rate limitations in color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1057–1059 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Grunwald, S. M. Harprasad, J. DuPont, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Fine, A. J. Brucker, A. M. Maguire, A. C. Ho, “Foveolar choroidal blood flow in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 385–390 (1998).

1997 (6)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1119–1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1439–1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Braun, M. W. Dewhirst, D. L. Hatchell, “Quantification of erythrocyte flow in the choroid of the albino rat,” Am. J. Physiol. 272, H1444–H1453 (1997).
[PubMed]

Y. Z. Jia, S. Sato, “Evaluation of coronary collateral circulation in early ischemia in rat hearts. A morphological study,” Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi 64, 329–336 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (2)

M. Cellini, G. L. Possati, N. Caramazza, R. Caramazza, “Colour Doppler analysis of the choroidal circulation in chronic open-angle glaucoma,” Ophthalmologica 210, 200–202 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103, 1260–1270 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

E. Friedman, S. Krupsky, A. M. Lane, S. S. Oak, E. S. Friedman, K. Egan, E. S. Gragoudas, “Ocular blood flow velocity in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 102, 640–646 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Characterization of fluid flow velocity by optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1337–1339 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurements of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. 34, 711–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. S. McLeod, G. A. Lutty, “High-resolution histologic analysis of the human choroidal vasculature,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3799–3811 (1994).

1992 (3)

J. W. Kiel, A. P. Shepherd, “Autoregulation of choroidal blood flow in the rabbit,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 2399–2410 (1992).

J. C. Chen, F. W. Fitzke, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, “Functional loss in age-related Bruch’s membrane change with choroidal perfusion defect,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 334–340 (1992).

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

M. E. Langham, R. Grebe, S. Hopkins, S. Marcus, M. Sebag, “Choroidal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” Exp. Eye Res. 52, 167–173 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

D. Y. Yu, V. A. Alder, S. J. Cringle, M. J. Brown, “Chorodial blood flow measured in the dog eye in vivo and in vitro by local hydrogen clearance polarography: validation of a technique and response to raised intracocular pressure,” Exp. Eye Res. 46, 289–303 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

G. E. Korte, V. Reppucci, P. Henkind, “RPE destruction causes choriocapillary atrophy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 1135–1145 (1984).

1973 (1)

A. Alm, A. Bill, “Ocular and optic nerve blood flow at normal and increased intraocular pressure in monkeys: a study with radioactively labelled microspheres including flow determinations in brain and some other tissues,” Exp. Eye Res. 15, 15–29 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alder, V. A.

D. Y. Yu, V. A. Alder, S. J. Cringle, M. J. Brown, “Chorodial blood flow measured in the dog eye in vivo and in vitro by local hydrogen clearance polarography: validation of a technique and response to raised intracocular pressure,” Exp. Eye Res. 46, 289–303 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alm, A.

A. Alm, A. Bill, “Ocular and optic nerve blood flow at normal and increased intraocular pressure in monkeys: a study with radioactively labelled microspheres including flow determinations in brain and some other tissues,” Exp. Eye Res. 15, 15–29 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amemiya, T.

I. A. Bhutto, T. Amemiya, “Microvascular architecture of the rat choroid: corrosion cast study,” Anat. Rec. 264, 63–71 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aretz, H. T.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

Baumal, C. R.

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103, 1260–1270 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhutto, I. A.

I. A. Bhutto, T. Amemiya, “Microvascular architecture of the rat choroid: corrosion cast study,” Anat. Rec. 264, 63–71 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bill, A.

A. Alm, A. Bill, “Ocular and optic nerve blood flow at normal and increased intraocular pressure in monkeys: a study with radioactively labelled microspheres including flow determinations in brain and some other tissues,” Exp. Eye Res. 15, 15–29 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bird, A. C.

J. C. Chen, F. W. Fitzke, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, “Functional loss in age-related Bruch’s membrane change with choroidal perfusion defect,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 334–340 (1992).

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Braun, R. D.

R. D. Braun, M. W. Dewhirst, D. L. Hatchell, “Quantification of erythrocyte flow in the choroid of the albino rat,” Am. J. Physiol. 272, H1444–H1453 (1997).
[PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, M. J.

D. Y. Yu, V. A. Alder, S. J. Cringle, M. J. Brown, “Chorodial blood flow measured in the dog eye in vivo and in vitro by local hydrogen clearance polarography: validation of a technique and response to raised intracocular pressure,” Exp. Eye Res. 46, 289–303 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brucker, A. J.

J. E. Grunwald, S. M. Harprasad, J. DuPont, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Fine, A. J. Brucker, A. M. Maguire, A. C. Ho, “Foveolar choroidal blood flow in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 385–390 (1998).

Caramazza, N.

M. Cellini, G. L. Possati, N. Caramazza, R. Caramazza, “Colour Doppler analysis of the choroidal circulation in chronic open-angle glaucoma,” Ophthalmologica 210, 200–202 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caramazza, R.

M. Cellini, G. L. Possati, N. Caramazza, R. Caramazza, “Colour Doppler analysis of the choroidal circulation in chronic open-angle glaucoma,” Ophthalmologica 210, 200–202 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cellini, M.

M. Cellini, G. L. Possati, N. Caramazza, R. Caramazza, “Colour Doppler analysis of the choroidal circulation in chronic open-angle glaucoma,” Ophthalmologica 210, 200–202 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. A. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. C.

J. C. Chen, F. W. Fitzke, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, “Functional loss in age-related Bruch’s membrane change with choroidal perfusion defect,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 334–340 (1992).

Chen, Z.

Coker, J. G.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103, 1260–1270 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cringle, S. J.

D. Y. Yu, V. A. Alder, S. J. Cringle, M. J. Brown, “Chorodial blood flow measured in the dog eye in vivo and in vitro by local hydrogen clearance polarography: validation of a technique and response to raised intracocular pressure,” Exp. Eye Res. 46, 289–303 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Dewhirst, M. W.

R. D. Braun, M. W. Dewhirst, D. L. Hatchell, “Quantification of erythrocyte flow in the choroid of the albino rat,” Am. J. Physiol. 272, H1444–H1453 (1997).
[PubMed]

Ding, Z.

Duker, J. S.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103, 1260–1270 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DuPont, J.

J. E. Grunwald, S. M. Harprasad, J. DuPont, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Fine, A. J. Brucker, A. M. Maguire, A. C. Ho, “Foveolar choroidal blood flow in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 385–390 (1998).

Egan, K.

E. Friedman, S. Krupsky, A. M. Lane, S. S. Oak, E. S. Friedman, K. Egan, E. S. Gragoudas, “Ocular blood flow velocity in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 102, 640–646 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

L. F. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurements of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. 34, 711–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fine, S. L.

J. E. Grunwald, S. M. Harprasad, J. DuPont, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Fine, A. J. Brucker, A. M. Maguire, A. C. Ho, “Foveolar choroidal blood flow in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 385–390 (1998).

Fitzke, F. W.

J. C. Chen, F. W. Fitzke, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, “Functional loss in age-related Bruch’s membrane change with choroidal perfusion defect,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 334–340 (1992).

Flotte, T.

D. A. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, E.

E. Friedman, S. Krupsky, A. M. Lane, S. S. Oak, E. S. Friedman, K. Egan, E. S. Gragoudas, “Ocular blood flow velocity in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 102, 640–646 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, E. S.

E. Friedman, S. Krupsky, A. M. Lane, S. S. Oak, E. S. Friedman, K. Egan, E. S. Gragoudas, “Ocular blood flow velocity in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 102, 640–646 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, H.

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103, 1260–1270 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glucksberg, M. R.

P. S. Jensen, M. R. Glucksberg, “Regional variation in capillary hemodynamics in the cat retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 407–415 (1998).

Gragoudas, E. S.

E. Friedman, S. Krupsky, A. M. Lane, S. S. Oak, E. S. Friedman, K. Egan, E. S. Gragoudas, “Ocular blood flow velocity in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 102, 640–646 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grebe, R.

M. E. Langham, R. Grebe, S. Hopkins, S. Marcus, M. Sebag, “Choroidal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” Exp. Eye Res. 52, 167–173 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. A. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grunwald, J. E.

J. E. Grunwald, S. M. Harprasad, J. DuPont, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Fine, A. J. Brucker, A. M. Maguire, A. C. Ho, “Foveolar choroidal blood flow in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 385–390 (1998).

Halpern, E. F.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harprasad, S. M.

J. E. Grunwald, S. M. Harprasad, J. DuPont, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Fine, A. J. Brucker, A. M. Maguire, A. C. Ho, “Foveolar choroidal blood flow in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 385–390 (1998).

Hatchell, D. L.

R. D. Braun, M. W. Dewhirst, D. L. Hatchell, “Quantification of erythrocyte flow in the choroid of the albino rat,” Am. J. Physiol. 272, H1444–H1453 (1997).
[PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103, 1260–1270 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henkind, P.

G. E. Korte, V. Reppucci, P. Henkind, “RPE destruction causes choriocapillary atrophy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 1135–1145 (1984).

Ho, A. C.

J. E. Grunwald, S. M. Harprasad, J. DuPont, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Fine, A. J. Brucker, A. M. Maguire, A. C. Ho, “Foveolar choroidal blood flow in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 385–390 (1998).

Hopkins, S.

M. E. Langham, R. Grebe, S. Hopkins, S. Marcus, M. Sebag, “Choroidal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” Exp. Eye Res. 52, 167–173 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houser, S. L.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

Huang, D. A.

D. A. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikawa, H.

Izatt, J. A.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, “In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235–239 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, “Imaging and velocimetry of the human retinal circulation with color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1448–1450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kulkarni, T. G. van Leeuwen, S. Yazdanfar, J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-estimation accuracy and frame-rate limitations in color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1057–1059 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1439–1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, “Ultrahigh-velocity resolution imaging of the microcirculation in vivo using color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” in Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedical Science and Clinical Applications V, V. V. Tuchin, J. A. Izatt, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4251, 156–164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jang, I.-K.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, P. S.

P. S. Jensen, M. R. Glucksberg, “Regional variation in capillary hemodynamics in the cat retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 407–415 (1998).

Jia, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Jia, S. Sato, “Evaluation of coronary collateral circulation in early ischemia in rat hearts. A morphological study,” Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi 64, 329–336 (1997).
[PubMed]

Kang, D.-H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauffman, C. R.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiel, J. W.

J. W. Kiel, A. P. Shepherd, “Autoregulation of choroidal blood flow in the rabbit,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 2399–2410 (1992).

Korte, G. E.

G. E. Korte, V. Reppucci, P. Henkind, “RPE destruction causes choriocapillary atrophy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 1135–1145 (1984).

Krupsky, S.

E. Friedman, S. Krupsky, A. M. Lane, S. S. Oak, E. S. Friedman, K. Egan, E. S. Gragoudas, “Ocular blood flow velocity in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 102, 640–646 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, M. D.

Lane, A. M.

E. Friedman, S. Krupsky, A. M. Lane, S. S. Oak, E. S. Friedman, K. Egan, E. S. Gragoudas, “Ocular blood flow velocity in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 102, 640–646 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langham, M. E.

M. E. Langham, R. Grebe, S. Hopkins, S. Marcus, M. Sebag, “Choroidal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” Exp. Eye Res. 52, 167–173 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lexer, F.

L. F. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurements of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. 34, 711–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lutty, G. A.

D. S. McLeod, G. A. Lutty, “High-resolution histologic analysis of the human choroidal vasculature,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3799–3811 (1994).

Maguire, A. M.

J. E. Grunwald, S. M. Harprasad, J. DuPont, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Fine, A. J. Brucker, A. M. Maguire, A. C. Ho, “Foveolar choroidal blood flow in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 385–390 (1998).

Maguire, M. G.

J. E. Grunwald, S. M. Harprasad, J. DuPont, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Fine, A. J. Brucker, A. M. Maguire, A. C. Ho, “Foveolar choroidal blood flow in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 385–390 (1998).

Malekafzali, A.

Marcus, S.

M. E. Langham, R. Grebe, S. Hopkins, S. Marcus, M. Sebag, “Choroidal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” Exp. Eye Res. 52, 167–173 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLeod, D. S.

D. S. McLeod, G. A. Lutty, “High-resolution histologic analysis of the human choroidal vasculature,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3799–3811 (1994).

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Nohira, K.

Oak, S. S.

E. Friedman, S. Krupsky, A. M. Lane, S. S. Oak, E. S. Friedman, K. Egan, E. S. Gragoudas, “Ocular blood flow velocity in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 102, 640–646 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohura, T.

Pauleikhoff, D.

J. C. Chen, F. W. Fitzke, D. Pauleikhoff, A. C. Bird, “Functional loss in age-related Bruch’s membrane change with choroidal perfusion defect,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 334–340 (1992).

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Possati, G. L.

M. Cellini, G. L. Possati, N. Caramazza, R. Caramazza, “Colour Doppler analysis of the choroidal circulation in chronic open-angle glaucoma,” Ophthalmologica 210, 200–202 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103, 1260–1270 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichel, E.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103, 1260–1270 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

Reppucci, V.

G. E. Korte, V. Reppucci, P. Henkind, “RPE destruction causes choriocapillary atrophy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 1135–1145 (1984).

Rollins, A. M.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, “In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235–239 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, “Imaging and velocimetry of the human retinal circulation with color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1448–1450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, “Ultrahigh-velocity resolution imaging of the microcirculation in vivo using color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” in Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedical Science and Clinical Applications V, V. V. Tuchin, J. A. Izatt, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE4251, 156–164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

Sato, S.

Y. Z. Jia, S. Sato, “Evaluation of coronary collateral circulation in early ischemia in rat hearts. A morphological study,” Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi 64, 329–336 (1997).
[PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

L. F. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurements of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. 34, 711–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saxer, C.

Schlendorf, K. H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L. F.

L. F. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurements of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. 34, 711–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103, 1260–1270 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sebag, M.

M. E. Langham, R. Grebe, S. Hopkins, S. Marcus, M. Sebag, “Choroidal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy,” Exp. Eye Res. 52, 167–173 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Q.

Shepherd, A. P.

J. W. Kiel, A. P. Shepherd, “Autoregulation of choroidal blood flow in the rabbit,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 2399–2410 (1992).

Shishkov, M.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, E. D. J.

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

Stinson, W. G.

D. A. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103, 1260–1270 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. G. Fujimoto, “High-speed and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1811–1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Unfried, C. J.

L. F. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurements of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. 34, 711–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

Wang, X.

Wang, X. J.

Welch, A. J.

Wilkins, J. R.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 105, 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. R. Baumal, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. R. Wilkins, J. G. Coker, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization,” Ophthalmology 103, 1260–1270 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, S.

Yabushita, H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106, 1640–1645 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

Yazdanfar, S.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, “In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 235–239 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, “Imaging and velocimetry of the human retinal circulation with color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1448–1450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kulkarni, T. G. van Leeuwen, S. Yazdanfar, J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-estimation accuracy and frame-rate limitations in color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1057–1059 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1439–1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup for the OCT system. A Michelson interferometer configuration with a 1290-nm superluminescent diode source (SLD) was used. In the reference arm, delay-line scanning was performed with a RSOD. The rat’s eye was placed at the focal point of the sample arm. The primary computer drove the galvanometer of the RSOD, acquired the interferograms from the photodetector (PD), and sent a digital trigger to a secondary computer to acquire synchronous blood-pressure data from an arterial line placed in the rat.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

M-scan image of the baseline flow condition. The amplitudes of A-scan envelopes are mapped to a gray-scale color map shown below the image and are referenced to the sample arm’s output power. The first A-scan appears at the left, and subsequent sequential A-scans form the rest of the image to the right. Incident light travels from the top of the image toward the bottom such that the ordinate represents axial depth. VR, vitreal–retina interface; CH, the choroid. Synchronous blood-pressure data are shown in the scan at the top, where the vertical time scale corresponds to the sequential A-scan number in the image. The baseline flow condition, i.e., before any physiological insult, showed a great deal of amplitude fluctuation in the choroid during the acquisition time of 1.28 s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

M-scan image of the carotid-clamped condition. For a full explanation of the axes, see the caption of Fig. 2. This image was obtained after both common carotid arteries were clamped. A periodic amplitude fluctuation synchronous with the systole of the blood pressure waveform appears in the choroid.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Summed average differences of the entire M-scan and the choroid section for various physiological conditions. The mean of the choroid section’s summed average difference and its standard deviation are shown. The entire M-Scan mean summed average differences are also displayed. The Baseline condition corresponds to M-scan images taken before any physiological insult; Clamp condition represents images when both common carotid arteries were clamped shut; and Release condition represents images taken immediately after both carotid arteries have been released. The PP for each M-Scan IOP condition was calculated and binned in 153mmHg increments for display purposes. The number after each PP denotes the binned PP range [mmHg]. Lastly, the Death condition corresponds to images of the posterior eye after the rat has been sacrificed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mean and standard deviation results of the collateral reperfusion experiments. Both common carotid arteries were clamped shut at time 0 min. M-scan data sets were taken 1 min postocclusion and every 3 min afterward for as long as 30 min. The summed average difference for each time point was computed and normalized to the mean of the summed average difference for the baseline condition of each rat. Filled circles denote the mean; error bars represent the standard deviation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the mean temporal frequency bandwidth between baseline and carotid-clamped conditions. We computed the average frequency spectrum by taking a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform of the choroid section only and computing the mean temporal frequency spectrum from all depths. Both spectra were normalized to their total energies. The solid curve denotes the baseline condition, and the dotted curve denotes the carotid-clamped condition.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Probabilities of Group Differences in the Choroid Section Only of the Summed Average Difference between Different Physiological Conditions Obtained with Student’s t-Testa

Equations (2)

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D [ n ] = k = 1 256 I k [ n ] - I k + 1 [ n ] I k [ n ] + I k + 1 [ n ] ,
I k [ n ] = m = 1 M X k [ m + M 3 ( n - 1 ) ] .

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