Abstract

A UV Rayleigh–Mie scattering lidar has been developed for daytime measurement of temperature and aerosol optical properties in the troposphere. The transmitter is a narrowband, injection-seeded, pulsed, third-harmonic Nd:YAG laser at an eye-safe wavelength of 355 nm. Two Fabry–Perot etalons (FPEs) with a dual-pass optical layout filter the molecular Rayleigh scattering components spectrally for retrieval of the temperature and provide a high rejection rate for aerosol Mie scattering in excess of 43 dB. The Mie signal is filtered with a third FPE filter for direct profiling of aerosol optical properties. The Mie scattering component in the Rayleigh signals, which will have influence on temperature measurements, is corrected by using a measure of aerosol scattering because of the relative insufficiency of Mie rejection of Rayleigh filters in the presence of dense aerosols or clouds, and the Mie rejection capability of system is thus improved. A narrowband interference filter is incorporated with the FPEs to block solar radiation. Also, the small field of view (0.1 mrad) of the receiver and the UV wavelength used enhance the ability of the lidar to suppress the solar background signal in daytime measurement. The system is relatively compact, with a power–aperture product of 0.18 W m−2, and has a high sensitivity to temperature change (0.62%/K). Lidar measurements taken under different weather conditions (winter and summer) are demonstrated. Good agreement between the lidar and the radiosonde measurements was obtained in terms of lapse rates and inversions. Statistical temperature errors of less than 1 K up to a height of 2 km are obtainable, with an averaging time of ~12 min for daytime measurements.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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