Abstract

A remote-sensing reflectance model based on a lookup table is proposed for use in analyzing satellite ocean color data in both case 1 and case 2 waters. The model coefficients are tabulated for grid values of three angles—solar zenith, sensor zenith, and relative azimuth—to take account of directional variation. This model also requires, as input, a phase function parameter defined by the contribution of suspended particles to the backscattering coefficient. The model is generated from radiative transfer simulations for a wide range of inherent optical properties that cover both case 1 and 2 waters. The model uncertainty that is due to phase function variability is significantly reduced from that in conventional models. Bidirectional variation of reflectance is described and explained for a variety of cases. The effects of wind speed and cloud cover on bidirectional variation are also considered, including those for the fully overcast case in which angular variation can still be considerable (~10%). The implications for seaborne validation of satellite-derived water-leaving reflectance are discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Morel, D. Antoine, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. C 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sagasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. J. Gons, M. Rijkeboer, K. G. Ruddick, “A chlorophyll-retrieval algorithm for satellite imagery (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) of inland and coastal waters,” J. Plankton Res. 24, 947–951 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the noncorrelation of the vertical structure of light scattering and chlorophyll a in case I waters,” J. Geophys. Res. C 95, 20237–20246 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275–295 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Albert, C. D. Mobley, “An analytical model for subsurface irradiance and remote sensing reflectance in deep and shallow case-2 waters,” Opt. Express11, 2873–2890 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, S. J. Lavender, “The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II waters: application to MERIS,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713–1733 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Nechad, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, K. Ruddick, “Suspended particulate matter (SPM) mapping from MERIS imagery. Calibration of a regional algorithm for the Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of the MERIS User Workshop, ESA-SP 549 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), Session 3.
  14. K. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, M. Rijkeboer, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters,” Appl. Opt. 39, 897–912 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. R. Gordon, “Simple calculation of the diffuse reflectance of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2803–2804 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Morel, Y. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates: a tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared to those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res. 49, 177–202 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angles as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, Hydrolight 4.2 Technical Documentation (Sequoia Scientific, Redmond, Wash., 2001).
  21. R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. C 108, 4-1–4-19 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 1.
  28. H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, “Remote assessment of ocean color for satellite visible imagery. A review,” in Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies, R. T. Barber, C. N. K. Mooers, M. J. Bowman, B. Zeizschel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), pp. 1–114.
    [CrossRef]
  29. O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Effect of the particle-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7070–7077 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. S. Twardowski, M. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implication for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. C 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  31. V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, E. B. Shybanov, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, V. I. Mankovsky, W. S. Pegau, S. D. Ladner, “Relationship between backscattering and beam scattering coefficients derived from new measurements of light scattering phase functions,” in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XII (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1994).
  32. Y.-J. Park, M. Kahru, B. Mitchell, “Inversion modeling optimization using CalCOFI data set,” in Hypespectral Remote Sensing of the Ocean, R. Frouin, H. Kawamura, M. Kishino, eds., Proc. SPIE4154, 105–114 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. Fournier, J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 194–201 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  34. V. I. Haltrin, “An analytic Fourier–Forand scattering phase function as an alternative to the Henyey–Greenstein phase function in hydrologic optics,” in 1998 IEEE International Geo-science and Remote Sensing Symposium II, T. I. Stein, ed. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), pp. 910–912.
  35. C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  37. R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, P. M. Martinolich, “Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2377–2383 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  38. T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).
  39. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).
  40. A. W. Harrison, C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 41, 387–392 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  41. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), Chap. 15.
  42. R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Unpolarized irradiance reflectances and glitter patterns of random capillary waves on lakes and seas, by Monte Carlo simulation,” (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, Wash., 1985).
  43. C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  44. A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. C 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  45. K. Ruddick, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, G. Becu, J.-P. D. Blauwe, E. D. Vreker, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Knockaert, B. Nechad, A. Pollentier, P. Roose, D. Saudemont, D. V. Tuyckom, “Preliminary validation of MERIS water products for Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, SP-531 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).
  46. J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote-sensing reflectance measurements and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 2 (National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 98–107.
  47. S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McClean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  48. J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Karder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1998).

2003

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. C 108, 4-1–4-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. J. Gons, M. Rijkeboer, K. G. Ruddick, “A chlorophyll-retrieval algorithm for satellite imagery (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) of inland and coastal waters,” J. Plankton Res. 24, 947–951 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McClean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275–295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, M. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implication for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. C 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. C 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, P. M. Martinolich, “Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2377–2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, S. J. Lavender, “The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II waters: application to MERIS,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713–1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Karder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1998).

1997

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sagasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

1993

1991

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angles as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, Y. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates: a tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared to those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res. 49, 177–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the noncorrelation of the vertical structure of light scattering and chlorophyll a in case I waters,” J. Geophys. Res. C 95, 20237–20246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. C 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Harrison, C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 41, 387–392 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981

1973

Ahn, Y.

A. Morel, Y. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates: a tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared to those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res. 49, 177–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, J.

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, S. J. Lavender, “The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II waters: application to MERIS,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713–1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Allali, K.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

Arnone, R.

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote-sensing reflectance measurements and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 2 (National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 98–107.

Arnone, R. A.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, P. M. Martinolich, “Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2377–2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, E. B. Shybanov, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, V. I. Mankovsky, W. S. Pegau, S. D. Ladner, “Relationship between backscattering and beam scattering coefficients derived from new measurements of light scattering phase functions,” in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XII (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1994).

Babin, M.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. C 108, 4-1–4-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, M. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implication for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. C 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Becu, G.

K. Ruddick, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, G. Becu, J.-P. D. Blauwe, E. D. Vreker, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Knockaert, B. Nechad, A. Pollentier, P. Roose, D. Saudemont, D. V. Tuyckom, “Preliminary validation of MERIS water products for Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, SP-531 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Blauwe, J.-P. D.

K. Ruddick, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, G. Becu, J.-P. D. Blauwe, E. D. Vreker, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Knockaert, B. Nechad, A. Pollentier, P. Roose, D. Saudemont, D. V. Tuyckom, “Preliminary validation of MERIS water products for Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, SP-531 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Boss, E.

Boss, M.

M. S. Twardowski, M. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implication for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. C 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. C 108, 4-1–4-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K.

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote-sensing reflectance measurements and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 2 (National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 98–107.

Carder, K. L.

Cauwer, V. D.

K. Ruddick, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, G. Becu, J.-P. D. Blauwe, E. D. Vreker, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Knockaert, B. Nechad, A. Pollentier, P. Roose, D. Saudemont, D. V. Tuyckom, “Preliminary validation of MERIS water products for Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, SP-531 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

B. Nechad, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, K. Ruddick, “Suspended particulate matter (SPM) mapping from MERIS imagery. Calibration of a regional algorithm for the Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of the MERIS User Workshop, ESA-SP 549 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), Session 3.

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claustre, H.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. C 108, 4-1–4-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coombes, C. A.

A. W. Harrison, C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 41, 387–392 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C.

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote-sensing reflectance measurements and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 2 (National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 98–107.

Deschamps, P.-Y.

K. Ruddick, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, G. Becu, J.-P. D. Blauwe, E. D. Vreker, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Knockaert, B. Nechad, A. Pollentier, P. Roose, D. Saudemont, D. V. Tuyckom, “Preliminary validation of MERIS water products for Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, SP-531 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fell, F.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, G. M.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. C 108, 4-1–4-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), Chap. 15.

Forand, J. L.

G. Fournier, J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 194–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, G.

G. Fournier, J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 194–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fournier-Sicre, V.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote-sensing reflectance measurements and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 2 (National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 98–107.

Fry, E. S.

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Karder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1998).

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sagasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gons, H. J.

H. J. Gons, M. Rijkeboer, K. G. Ruddick, “A chlorophyll-retrieval algorithm for satellite imagery (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) of inland and coastal waters,” J. Plankton Res. 24, 947–951 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Simple calculation of the diffuse reflectance of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2803–2804 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, “Remote assessment of ocean color for satellite visible imagery. A review,” in Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies, R. T. Barber, C. N. K. Mooers, M. J. Bowman, B. Zeizschel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), pp. 1–114.
[CrossRef]

Gould, R. W.

Haltrin, V. I.

V. I. Haltrin, “An analytic Fourier–Forand scattering phase function as an alternative to the Henyey–Greenstein phase function in hydrologic optics,” in 1998 IEEE International Geo-science and Remote Sensing Symposium II, T. I. Stein, ed. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), pp. 910–912.

V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, E. B. Shybanov, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, V. I. Mankovsky, W. S. Pegau, S. D. Ladner, “Relationship between backscattering and beam scattering coefficients derived from new measurements of light scattering phase functions,” in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XII (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1994).

Harrison, A. W.

A. W. Harrison, C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 41, 387–392 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hoepffner, N.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. C 108, 4-1–4-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S.

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote-sensing reflectance measurements and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 2 (National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 98–107.

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McClean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Karder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1998).

Y.-J. Park, M. Kahru, B. Mitchell, “Inversion modeling optimization using CalCOFI data set,” in Hypespectral Remote Sensing of the Ocean, R. Frouin, H. Kawamura, M. Kishino, eds., Proc. SPIE4154, 105–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Karder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Karder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1998).

Kiefer, D. A.

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J. C.

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the noncorrelation of the vertical structure of light scattering and chlorophyll a in case I waters,” J. Geophys. Res. C 95, 20237–20246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Knockaert, M.

K. Ruddick, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, G. Becu, J.-P. D. Blauwe, E. D. Vreker, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Knockaert, B. Nechad, A. Pollentier, P. Roose, D. Saudemont, D. V. Tuyckom, “Preliminary validation of MERIS water products for Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, SP-531 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Ladner, S. D.

V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, E. B. Shybanov, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, V. I. Mankovsky, W. S. Pegau, S. D. Ladner, “Relationship between backscattering and beam scattering coefficients derived from new measurements of light scattering phase functions,” in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XII (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1994).

Lavender, S. J.

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, S. J. Lavender, “The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II waters: application to MERIS,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713–1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lazin, G.

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McClean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. E.

V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, E. B. Shybanov, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, V. I. Mankovsky, W. S. Pegau, S. D. Ladner, “Relationship between backscattering and beam scattering coefficients derived from new measurements of light scattering phase functions,” in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XII (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1994).

Lee, Z.

Lee, Z. P.

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote-sensing reflectance measurements and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 2 (National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 98–107.

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275–295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, M. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implication for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. C 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mankovsky, V. I.

V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, E. B. Shybanov, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, V. I. Mankovsky, W. S. Pegau, S. D. Ladner, “Relationship between backscattering and beam scattering coefficients derived from new measurements of light scattering phase functions,” in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XII (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1994).

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. C 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Karder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1998).

Martinolich, P. M.

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Karder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1998).

McClean, S.

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McClean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McLean, S.

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote-sensing reflectance measurements and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 2 (National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 98–107.

Mitchell, B.

Y.-J. Park, M. Kahru, B. Mitchell, “Inversion modeling optimization using CalCOFI data set,” in Hypespectral Remote Sensing of the Ocean, R. Frouin, H. Kawamura, M. Kishino, eds., Proc. SPIE4154, 105–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Karder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1998).

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Unpolarized irradiance reflectances and glitter patterns of random capillary waves on lakes and seas, by Monte Carlo simulation,” (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, Wash., 1985).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote-sensing reflectance measurements and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 2 (National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 98–107.

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, Hydrolight 4.2 Technical Documentation (Sequoia Scientific, Redmond, Wash., 2001).

Moore, G. F.

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, S. J. Lavender, “The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II waters: application to MERIS,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713–1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275–295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. C 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angles as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, Y. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates: a tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared to those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res. 49, 177–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. C 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, “Remote assessment of ocean color for satellite visible imagery. A review,” in Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies, R. T. Barber, C. N. K. Mooers, M. J. Bowman, B. Zeizschel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), pp. 1–114.
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 1.

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote-sensing reflectance measurements and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 2 (National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 98–107.

Nechad, B.

K. Ruddick, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, G. Becu, J.-P. D. Blauwe, E. D. Vreker, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Knockaert, B. Nechad, A. Pollentier, P. Roose, D. Saudemont, D. V. Tuyckom, “Preliminary validation of MERIS water products for Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, SP-531 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

B. Nechad, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, K. Ruddick, “Suspended particulate matter (SPM) mapping from MERIS imagery. Calibration of a regional algorithm for the Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of the MERIS User Workshop, ESA-SP 549 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), Session 3.

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Karder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1998).

Obolensky, G.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. C 108, 4-1–4-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ovidio, F.

Park, Y.

K. Ruddick, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, G. Becu, J.-P. D. Blauwe, E. D. Vreker, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Knockaert, B. Nechad, A. Pollentier, P. Roose, D. Saudemont, D. V. Tuyckom, “Preliminary validation of MERIS water products for Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, SP-531 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

B. Nechad, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, K. Ruddick, “Suspended particulate matter (SPM) mapping from MERIS imagery. Calibration of a regional algorithm for the Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of the MERIS User Workshop, ESA-SP 549 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), Session 3.

Park, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Park, M. Kahru, B. Mitchell, “Inversion modeling optimization using CalCOFI data set,” in Hypespectral Remote Sensing of the Ocean, R. Frouin, H. Kawamura, M. Kishino, eds., Proc. SPIE4154, 105–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Patch, J. S.

Pegau, W. S.

M. S. Twardowski, M. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implication for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. C 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, E. B. Shybanov, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, V. I. Mankovsky, W. S. Pegau, S. D. Ladner, “Relationship between backscattering and beam scattering coefficients derived from new measurements of light scattering phase functions,” in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XII (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1994).

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

Platt, T.

Pollentier, A.

K. Ruddick, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, G. Becu, J.-P. D. Blauwe, E. D. Vreker, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Knockaert, B. Nechad, A. Pollentier, P. Roose, D. Saudemont, D. V. Tuyckom, “Preliminary validation of MERIS water products for Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, SP-531 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Pope, R. M.

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Unpolarized irradiance reflectances and glitter patterns of random capillary waves on lakes and seas, by Monte Carlo simulation,” (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, Wash., 1985).

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), Chap. 15.

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rijkeboer, M.

H. J. Gons, M. Rijkeboer, K. G. Ruddick, “A chlorophyll-retrieval algorithm for satellite imagery (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) of inland and coastal waters,” J. Plankton Res. 24, 947–951 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, M. Rijkeboer, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters,” Appl. Opt. 39, 897–912 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roose, P.

K. Ruddick, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, G. Becu, J.-P. D. Blauwe, E. D. Vreker, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Knockaert, B. Nechad, A. Pollentier, P. Roose, D. Saudemont, D. V. Tuyckom, “Preliminary validation of MERIS water products for Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, SP-531 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Ruddick, K.

K. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, M. Rijkeboer, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters,” Appl. Opt. 39, 897–912 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Ruddick, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, G. Becu, J.-P. D. Blauwe, E. D. Vreker, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Knockaert, B. Nechad, A. Pollentier, P. Roose, D. Saudemont, D. V. Tuyckom, “Preliminary validation of MERIS water products for Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, SP-531 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

B. Nechad, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, K. Ruddick, “Suspended particulate matter (SPM) mapping from MERIS imagery. Calibration of a regional algorithm for the Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of the MERIS User Workshop, ESA-SP 549 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), Session 3.

Ruddick, K. G.

H. J. Gons, M. Rijkeboer, K. G. Ruddick, “A chlorophyll-retrieval algorithm for satellite imagery (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) of inland and coastal waters,” J. Plankton Res. 24, 947–951 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

Saudemont, D.

K. Ruddick, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, G. Becu, J.-P. D. Blauwe, E. D. Vreker, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Knockaert, B. Nechad, A. Pollentier, P. Roose, D. Saudemont, D. V. Tuyckom, “Preliminary validation of MERIS water products for Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, SP-531 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Shybanov, E. B.

V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, E. B. Shybanov, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, V. I. Mankovsky, W. S. Pegau, S. D. Ladner, “Relationship between backscattering and beam scattering coefficients derived from new measurements of light scattering phase functions,” in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XII (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1994).

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Karder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1998).

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sagasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steward, R. G.

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote-sensing reflectance measurements and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 2 (National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 98–107.

Stramski, D.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. C 108, 4-1–4-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sundman, L. K.

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, Hydrolight 4.2 Technical Documentation (Sequoia Scientific, Redmond, Wash., 2001).

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), Chap. 15.

Tuyckom, D. V.

K. Ruddick, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, G. Becu, J.-P. D. Blauwe, E. D. Vreker, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Knockaert, B. Nechad, A. Pollentier, P. Roose, D. Saudemont, D. V. Tuyckom, “Preliminary validation of MERIS water products for Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, SP-531 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Twardowski, M. S.

M. S. Twardowski, M. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implication for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. C 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ulloa, O.

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), Chap. 15.

Vreker, E. D.

K. Ruddick, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, G. Becu, J.-P. D. Blauwe, E. D. Vreker, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Knockaert, B. Nechad, A. Pollentier, P. Roose, D. Saudemont, D. V. Tuyckom, “Preliminary validation of MERIS water products for Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, SP-531 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Weidemann, A. D.

V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, E. B. Shybanov, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, V. I. Mankovsky, W. S. Pegau, S. D. Ladner, “Relationship between backscattering and beam scattering coefficients derived from new measurements of light scattering phase functions,” in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XII (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1994).

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, M. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implication for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. C 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the noncorrelation of the vertical structure of light scattering and chlorophyll a in case I waters,” J. Geophys. Res. C 95, 20237–20246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zibordi, G.

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McClean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Effect of the particle-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7070–7077 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angles as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, P. M. Martinolich, “Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2377–2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, M. Rijkeboer, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters,” Appl. Opt. 39, 897–912 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Simple calculation of the diffuse reflectance of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2803–2804 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Remote Sens.

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275–295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, S. J. Lavender, “The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in Case II waters: application to MERIS,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713–1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McClean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Karder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1998).

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sagasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. C

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. C 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the noncorrelation of the vertical structure of light scattering and chlorophyll a in case I waters,” J. Geophys. Res. C 95, 20237–20246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. C 108, 4-1–4-19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, M. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implication for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. C 106, 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24955–24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. C 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. D

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res.

A. Morel, Y. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates: a tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared to those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res. 49, 177–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Plankton Res.

H. J. Gons, M. Rijkeboer, K. G. Ruddick, “A chlorophyll-retrieval algorithm for satellite imagery (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) of inland and coastal waters,” J. Plankton Res. 24, 947–951 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanogr.

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy

A. W. Harrison, C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 41, 387–392 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), Chap. 15.

R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Unpolarized irradiance reflectances and glitter patterns of random capillary waves on lakes and seas, by Monte Carlo simulation,” (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, Wash., 1985).

V. I. Haltrin, M. E. Lee, E. B. Shybanov, R. A. Arnone, A. D. Weidemann, V. I. Mankovsky, W. S. Pegau, S. D. Ladner, “Relationship between backscattering and beam scattering coefficients derived from new measurements of light scattering phase functions,” in Proceedings of Ocean Optics XII (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1994).

Y.-J. Park, M. Kahru, B. Mitchell, “Inversion modeling optimization using CalCOFI data set,” in Hypespectral Remote Sensing of the Ocean, R. Frouin, H. Kawamura, M. Kishino, eds., Proc. SPIE4154, 105–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Fournier, J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 194–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Haltrin, “An analytic Fourier–Forand scattering phase function as an alternative to the Henyey–Greenstein phase function in hydrologic optics,” in 1998 IEEE International Geo-science and Remote Sensing Symposium II, T. I. Stein, ed. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), pp. 910–912.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, Hydrolight 4.2 Technical Documentation (Sequoia Scientific, Redmond, Wash., 2001).

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 1.

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, “Remote assessment of ocean color for satellite visible imagery. A review,” in Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies, R. T. Barber, C. N. K. Mooers, M. J. Bowman, B. Zeizschel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), pp. 1–114.
[CrossRef]

B. Nechad, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, K. Ruddick, “Suspended particulate matter (SPM) mapping from MERIS imagery. Calibration of a regional algorithm for the Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of the MERIS User Workshop, ESA-SP 549 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2004), Session 3.

A. Albert, C. D. Mobley, “An analytical model for subsurface irradiance and remote sensing reflectance in deep and shallow case-2 waters,” Opt. Express11, 2873–2890 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

K. Ruddick, V. D. Cauwer, Y. Park, G. Becu, J.-P. D. Blauwe, E. D. Vreker, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Knockaert, B. Nechad, A. Pollentier, P. Roose, D. Saudemont, D. V. Tuyckom, “Preliminary validation of MERIS water products for Belgian coastal waters,” in Proceedings of Envisat Validation Workshop, SP-531 (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

J. L. Mueller, C. Davis, R. Arnone, R. Frouin, K. Carder, Z. P. Lee, R. G. Steward, S. Hooker, C. D. Mobley, S. McLean, “Above-water radiance and remote-sensing reflectance measurements and analysis protocols,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Rev. 2 (National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 98–107.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SPFs of pure seawater and particles used in simulations: (a) SPFs for the entire range of scattering angles and (b) NSPFs for scattering angles of 80° to 180°. Pw is the SPF for pure seawater, PC is the SPF for phytoplankton and related particles, and PNC is the SPF for noncovarying particles; PFF1 and PFF2 are Fournier and Forand phase functions with backscattering ratios 0.03 and 0.002, respectively. PC and PNC are generated from PFF1 and PFF2 with appropriate mixing ratios to give the target backscattering ratios, b ˜ b= bb/b (see text for details). The average of Petzold particle SPFs, PPETZOLD, is also shown for comparison.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation conditions: absorption coefficients versus Chl. The symbols connected by the diagonal line show the case 1 average model with fa = 0 and bNC = 0 (see text for details).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation conditions: backscattering coefficients versus Chl. Symbols connected by the diagonal line show a case 1 water model. See text for details.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation conditions: γb versus ωb. Solid curves, fb = 1 (case 1 waters); dotted curves, fb = 4 (see text). Either solid or dotted curves are, from the bottom, for Chl = 0.03, 0.3, 3.0, 30 mg/m3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Rrs versus ωb for four Sun–sensor geometries. The values of Sun and sensor angles and corresponding scattering angles in water are given above the figures. Left, 0 < ωb < 0.5; right, 0 < ωb < 0.1. Simulated Rrs data are shown as symbols, and fitting curves are shown as solid curves. Different colors are for different values of γb, and different symbols are for different wavelengths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Percentage difference of simulation from model Rrs (top) as a function of Rrs and (bottom) its histogram for a Sun-sensor geometry as shown.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Two contrasting examples of the Rrs variation as a function of rFF1 for certain values of ωb and γb. The Sun and sensor angles are the same as those of Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Directional variation of Rrs for (a), (b) case 1 water and for (c) turbid water. Values of solar zenith (θo = 30°), wavelength (λ = 565 nm), and wind speed (W = 5.0 m/s) are the same for (a)–(c). Solid curves, data from Hydrolight simulations, dashed curves, data computed with the model of Eq. (5). For comparison, the QSSAs are shown as dotted curves.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effects of wind speed on the Rrs variation in the principal plane. Solid, dashed, and dashed–dotted curves, W = 0, 5, 10 m/s, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Effects of cloud cover on Rrs. Solid, dashed, and dashed–dotted curves, 0, 50%, and 100% cloud cover, respectively.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of Eqs. (1) and (2) with the present model for subsurface remote-sensing reflectance rrs. Thin curves are shown for three γb values; Eq. (1), as a thick dashed curve; and Eq. (2), as symbols. The data for symbols were computed with the f/Q table (without Raman scattering) of Morel et al.2 for θo = 60° and θ = 0° and with the a and bb model of Morel and Maritorena.44

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Model predicted relation of Rrs versus γb for ωb = 0.01 (solid curve), 0.1 (dotted curve), and 0.3 (dashed curve).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Correction for the Rrs bidirectional effects: Rrso = 30°, θ = 80°, Δϕ = 90°) simulated with Chl = 0.3 mg/m3 and fb = 1 (bottom curves) and Rrso = 30°, θ = 60°, Δϕ = 90°) simulated with Chl = 3 and fb = 8 (upper curves).

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r rs = l 1 b b a + b b + l 2 ( b b a + b b ) 2
r rs = f Q b b a = f Q b b a + b b ,
r rs ( θ o ,     θ ,     Δ ϕ ) = 1 cos θ o + cos θ b b b P ( Θ ) b b a + b b ,
R rs = ( 1 - ρ ) ( 1 - ρ ¯ ) n w 2 ( 1 - r ¯ R ) r rs ,
R rs = ( surface and angular factor ) × ( phase function factor ) ω b .
R rs ( θ o ,     θ ,     Δ ϕ ) = i = 1 4 g i ( θ o ,     θ ,     Δ ϕ ,     γ b ) ω b i ,
a ( λ ) = a w ( λ ) + a C ( λ ) + a CDOM ( λ ) + a NC ( λ ) .
a CDOM ( λ ) = a CDOM ( 443 ) exp [ - S CDOM ( λ - 443 ) ] , S CDOM = 0.014 nm - 1 ,
a CDOM ( 443 ) = ( 0.2 + 0.8 f a ) a C ( 443 ) ,
a NC ( λ ) = a NC ( 443 ) exp [ - S NC ( λ - 443 ) ] , S NC = 0.011 nm - 1 ,
a NC ( 443 ) = ( 0.5 + 0.5 f a ) ( 0.041 / 0.5 ) b NC ( 555 ) .
β ( Θ ) = β w ( Θ ) + β C ( Θ ) + β NC ( Θ ) .
b P ( Θ ) = b w P w ( Θ ) + b c P c ( Θ ) + b NC P NC ( Θ ) .
b C ( λ ) = 0.3 C h l 0.62 ( 550 / λ ) n .
b ˜ bC = 0.012 C h l - 0.19 ,
P C ( Θ ) = r 1 P FF 1 ( Θ ) + ( 1 - r 1 ) P FF 2 ( Θ ) ,
0.03 r 1 + 0.002 ( 1 - r 1 ) = b ˜ bC .
b NC ( λ ) = b NC ( 550 ) ( 550 / λ ) n .
b C ( 550 ) = 0.3 C h l 0.62 f b , b NC ( 550 ) = 0             ( 0 < f b 1 ) , b C ( 550 ) = 0.3 C h l 0.62 , b NC ( 550 ) = 0.3 C h l 0.62 ( f b - 1 )             ( f b > 1 ) .
Δ R rs / R rs 0.3 / 0.8 Δ γ b .

Metrics