Abstract

Harmonic phase-dispersion microscopy (PDM) is a new imaging technique in which contrast is provided by differences in refractive index at two harmonically related wavelengths. We report a new configuration of the harmonic phase-dispersion microscope in a Mach–Zehnder geometry as an instrument for imaging biological samples. Several improvements on the earlier design are demonstrated, including a single-pass configuration and acousto-optic modulators for generating the heterodyne signals without mechanical arm scanning. We demonstrate quantitative phase-dispersion images of test structures and biological samples.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Yang, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, E. B. Hanlon, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Interferometric phase-dispersion microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1526–1528 (2000), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Zernike, “How I discovered phase contrast,” Science 121, 345–349 (1955).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Bass, ed., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 2,Chap. 17.
  4. C. Yang, A. Wax, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Phase-dispersion optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 26, 686–688 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001

2000

1955

F. Zernike, “How I discovered phase contrast,” Science 121, 345–349 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

Dasari, R. R.

Feld, M. S.

Georgakoudi, I.

Hanlon, E. B.

Wax, A.

Yang, C.

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, “How I discovered phase contrast,” Science 121, 345–349 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mach–Zehnder phase-dispersion microscope setup: M1–M4, mirrors; FCs, fiber couplers; O1, O2, microscope objectives; other abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross section of the phase image of a BK7 grating. The sharp peaks may be due to beam misalignment. Dashed lines indicate averages over regions between peaks.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Phase-dispersion image of a 40-μm-diameter polystyrene sphere in glycerol. (b) Vertical cross section through the center of the sphere. (c) Image after the phase-unwrapping algorithm was applied. (d) Vertical cross section of the unwrapped image through the center of the sphere.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase-dispersion image of cells of an onion skin.

Equations (2)

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V 1 ( t ) cos [ Δ Ω t + k 1 ( Δ L 1 + δ s ( t ) ] , V 2 ( t ) cos [ 2 Δ Ω t + 2 k 1 ( Δ L 2 + δ s ( t ) ] ,
V 1 d ( t ) cos [ 2 Δ Ω t + 2 k 1 ( Δ L 1 + δ s ( t ) ] .

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