Abstract

Detection of apples contaminated with feces is a public health concern. We found that time-resolved imaging of apples artificially contaminated with feces allowed optimization of timing parameters for detection. Dairy feces were applied to Red Delicious and Golden Delicious apples. Laser-induced fluorescence responses were imaged by use of a gated intensified camera. We developed algorithms to automatically detect contamination iteratively by using one half of the apples and validated them by applying the optimized algorithms to the remaining apples. Results show that consideration of the timing of fluorescence responses to pulsed-laser excitation can enhance detection of feces on apples.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. D. Krizek, E. M. Middleton, R. Sandhu, M. S. Kim, “Evaluating UV-B effects and EDU protection in cucumber leaves using fluorescence images and fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Plant Physiol. 158, 41–53 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, “Multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for large biological samples,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3927–3934 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. R. Weeks, Fundamentals of Electronic Image Processing (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1996).

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II. Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2038 (2002).

2001 (3)

D. Krizek, E. M. Middleton, R. Sandhu, M. S. Kim, “Evaluating UV-B effects and EDU protection in cucumber leaves using fluorescence images and fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Plant Physiol. 158, 41–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Food and Drug Administration, “Hazard analysis and critical control point (HAACP); procedures for the safe and sanitary processing and importing of juices,” Fed. Regist. 66, 6137–6202 (2001).

1999 (2)

R. E. Brackett, “Incidence, contributing factors, and control of bacterial pathogens in produce,” Postharv. Biol. Technol. 15, 305–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Buchanan, M. P. Doyle, “Foodborne disease significance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli,” Food Technol. 51, 69–76 (1997).

1996 (1)

G. L. Armstrong, J. Hollingsworth, J. G. Morris, “Emerging foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model of entry of a new pathogen into the food supply of the developed world,” Epidemiol. Rev. 18, 29–51 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

E. W. Chappelle, J. E. McMurtrey, M. S. Kim, “Identification of the pigment responsible for the blue fluorescence band in laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of green plants, and the potential use of this band in remotely estimating rates of photosynthesis,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36, 213–218 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

P. J. Harris, R. D. Hartley, “Detection of bound ferulic acid in cell walls of the Gramineae by ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy,” Nature 259, 508–510 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Allen, J. W.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aprahamian, M.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, G. L.

G. L. Armstrong, J. Hollingsworth, J. G. Morris, “Emerging foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model of entry of a new pathogen into the food supply of the developed world,” Epidemiol. Rev. 18, 29–51 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brackett, R. E.

R. E. Brackett, “Incidence, contributing factors, and control of bacterial pathogens in produce,” Postharv. Biol. Technol. 15, 305–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bresee, J. S.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchanan, R. L.

R. L. Buchanan, M. P. Doyle, “Foodborne disease significance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli,” Food Technol. 51, 69–76 (1997).

Chan, D.

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II. Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2038 (2002).

Chao, K.

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II. Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2038 (2002).

Chappelle, E. W.

E. W. Chappelle, J. E. McMurtrey, M. S. Kim, “Identification of the pigment responsible for the blue fluorescence band in laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of green plants, and the potential use of this band in remotely estimating rates of photosynthesis,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36, 213–218 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. R.

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, “Optimal fluorescence excitation and emission bands for detection of fecal contamination,” J. Food Protection 66, 1198–1207 (2003).

A. M. Lefcourt, M. S. Kim, Y. R. Chen, “Automated detection of fecal contamination of apples by multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3935–3943 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, “Multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for large biological samples,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3927–3934 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II. Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2038 (2002).

Cheng, L. Q.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decker, T.

M. Sowinska, T. Decker, C. Eckert, F. Heisel, R. Valcke, J. Miehe, “Evaluation of nitrogen fertilization effect on apple-tree leaves and fruit by fluorescence imaging,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing for Terrestrial and Hydrographic Applications, R. M. Narayanan, J. E. Kalshoven, eds., Proc. SPIE3382, 100–111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, V.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doyle, M. P.

R. L. Buchanan, M. P. Doyle, “Foodborne disease significance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli,” Food Technol. 51, 69–76 (1997).

Eckert, C.

M. Sowinska, T. Decker, C. Eckert, F. Heisel, R. Valcke, J. Miehe, “Evaluation of nitrogen fertilization effect on apple-tree leaves and fruit by fluorescence imaging,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing for Terrestrial and Hydrographic Applications, R. M. Narayanan, J. E. Kalshoven, eds., Proc. SPIE3382, 100–111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evrard, S.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, J.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffin, P. M.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hajri, A.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, P. J.

P. J. Harris, R. D. Hartley, “Detection of bound ferulic acid in cell walls of the Gramineae by ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy,” Nature 259, 508–510 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hartley, R. D.

P. J. Harris, R. D. Hartley, “Detection of bound ferulic acid in cell walls of the Gramineae by ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy,” Nature 259, 508–510 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Heisel, F.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sowinska, T. Decker, C. Eckert, F. Heisel, R. Valcke, J. Miehe, “Evaluation of nitrogen fertilization effect on apple-tree leaves and fruit by fluorescence imaging,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing for Terrestrial and Hydrographic Applications, R. M. Narayanan, J. E. Kalshoven, eds., Proc. SPIE3382, 100–111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hewett, J.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollingsworth, J.

G. L. Armstrong, J. Hollingsworth, J. G. Morris, “Emerging foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model of entry of a new pathogen into the food supply of the developed world,” Epidemiol. Rev. 18, 29–51 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibbotson, S.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. H.

Kim, I.

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II. Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2038 (2002).

Kim, M. S.

A. M. Lefcourt, M. S. Kim, Y. R. Chen, “Automated detection of fecal contamination of apples by multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3935–3943 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, “Multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for large biological samples,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3927–3934 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, “Optimal fluorescence excitation and emission bands for detection of fecal contamination,” J. Food Protection 66, 1198–1207 (2003).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II. Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2038 (2002).

D. Krizek, E. M. Middleton, R. Sandhu, M. S. Kim, “Evaluating UV-B effects and EDU protection in cucumber leaves using fluorescence images and fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Plant Physiol. 158, 41–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Chappelle, J. E. McMurtrey, M. S. Kim, “Identification of the pigment responsible for the blue fluorescence band in laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of green plants, and the potential use of this band in remotely estimating rates of photosynthesis,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36, 213–218 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Krizek, D.

D. Krizek, E. M. Middleton, R. Sandhu, M. S. Kim, “Evaluating UV-B effects and EDU protection in cucumber leaves using fluorescence images and fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Plant Physiol. 158, 41–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lefcourt, A. M.

A. M. Lefcourt, M. S. Kim, Y. R. Chen, “Automated detection of fecal contamination of apples by multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3935–3943 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, “Multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for large biological samples,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3927–3934 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, “Optimal fluorescence excitation and emission bands for detection of fecal contamination,” J. Food Protection 66, 1198–1207 (2003).

M. S. Kim, A. M. Lefcourt, Y. R. Chen, I. Kim, K. Chao, D. Chan, “Multispectral detection of fecal contamination on apples based on hyperspectral imagery. II. Application of fluorescence imaging,” Trans. ASAE 45, 2027–2038 (2002).

Marescaux, J.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCaig, L. F.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMurtrey, J. E.

E. W. Chappelle, J. E. McMurtrey, M. S. Kim, “Identification of the pigment responsible for the blue fluorescence band in laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of green plants, and the potential use of this band in remotely estimating rates of photosynthesis,” Remote Sens. Environ. 36, 213–218 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mead, P. S.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Middleton, E. M.

D. Krizek, E. M. Middleton, R. Sandhu, M. S. Kim, “Evaluating UV-B effects and EDU protection in cucumber leaves using fluorescence images and fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Plant Physiol. 158, 41–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mieh, J. A.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miehe, J.

M. Sowinska, T. Decker, C. Eckert, F. Heisel, R. Valcke, J. Miehe, “Evaluation of nitrogen fertilization effect on apple-tree leaves and fruit by fluorescence imaging,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing for Terrestrial and Hydrographic Applications, R. M. Narayanan, J. E. Kalshoven, eds., Proc. SPIE3382, 100–111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morris, J. G.

G. L. Armstrong, J. Hollingsworth, J. G. Morris, “Emerging foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model of entry of a new pathogen into the food supply of the developed world,” Epidemiol. Rev. 18, 29–51 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moseley, H.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadeau, V.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padgett, M.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandhu, R.

D. Krizek, E. M. Middleton, R. Sandhu, M. S. Kim, “Evaluating UV-B effects and EDU protection in cucumber leaves using fluorescence images and fluorescence emission spectra,” J. Plant Physiol. 158, 41–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, C.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

J. Hewett, V. Nadeau, J. Ferguson, H. Moseley, S. Ibbotson, J. W. Allen, W. Sibbett, M. Padgett, “The application of a compact multispectral imaging system with integrated excitation source to in vivo monitoring of fluorescence during topical photodynamic therapy of superficial skin cancers,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 278–282 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slutsker, L.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sowinska, M.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sowinska, T. Decker, C. Eckert, F. Heisel, R. Valcke, J. Miehe, “Evaluation of nitrogen fertilization effect on apple-tree leaves and fruit by fluorescence imaging,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing for Terrestrial and Hydrographic Applications, R. M. Narayanan, J. E. Kalshoven, eds., Proc. SPIE3382, 100–111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tassetti, V.

V. Tassetti, A. Hajri, M. Sowinska, S. Evrard, F. Heisel, L. Q. Cheng, J. A. Mieh, J. Marescaux, M. Aprahamian, “In vivo laser-induced fluorescence imaging of a rat pancreatic cancer with pheophorbide-a,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 997–1006 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tauxe, R. V.

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valcke, R.

M. Sowinska, T. Decker, C. Eckert, F. Heisel, R. Valcke, J. Miehe, “Evaluation of nitrogen fertilization effect on apple-tree leaves and fruit by fluorescence imaging,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing for Terrestrial and Hydrographic Applications, R. M. Narayanan, J. E. Kalshoven, eds., Proc. SPIE3382, 100–111 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weeks, A. R.

A. R. Weeks, Fundamentals of Electronic Image Processing (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1996).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Emerg. Infect. Dis. (1)

P. S. Mead, L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L. F. McCaig, J. S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P. M. Griffin, R. V. Tauxe, “Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5, 607–625 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Epidemiol. Rev. (1)

G. L. Armstrong, J. Hollingsworth, J. G. Morris, “Emerging foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model of entry of a new pathogen into the food supply of the developed world,” Epidemiol. Rev. 18, 29–51 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Application sites for 1:2, 1:20, and 1:200 serial dilutions of dairy feces. The order of the applications followed a clockwise rotation based on concentration. The initial quadrant for application of the 1:2 dilution was incremented one quadrant clockwise every fourth apple.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of a representative Red Delicious apple acquired at 682 nm. The gate delay time for sequential images was (a) 10 ns, (b) 12 ns, (c) 14 ns, (d) 16 ns, (e) 18 ns, (f) 20 ns; however, the gate width remained constant at 2 ns. Each image is scaled to its maximum intensity. Locations of areas where the 1:2, 1:20, and 1:200 feces treatments were applied are as indicated. Note that the treated areas are visible at all gate delays, but visibility of the apple decreases as the gate delay increases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of a representative Golden Delicious apple acquired at 682 nm. The gate delay time for sequential images was (a) 10 ns, (b) 12 ns, (c) 14 ns, (d) 16 ns, (e) 18 ns, (f) 20 ns; however, the gate width remained constant at 2 ns. Each image is scaled to its maximum intensity. Locations of areas where the 1:2, 1:20, and 1:200 feces treatments were applied are as indicated. Note that the treated areas are visible at all gate delays, but visibility of the apple decreases as the gate delay increases.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of representative (a) Red Delicious and (b) Golden Delicious apples acquired at 590 nm by using a 10-ns gate delay and a 2-ns gate width. Each image is scaled to its maximum intensity. Locations of areas where feces treatments were applied are as indicated. Note that the 1:2 treated area is brighter than the surrounding apple surface in the image of the Red Delicious apple and that it is darker in the image of the Golden Delicious apple.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average intensities of 9 × 9 pixel areas for treatment spots on the (a) Red Delicious and (b) Golden Delicious apple images in Fig. 4. Calculated intensities were derived from images acquired by use of gate delay times incremented sequentially by 1 ns; gate width was kept constant at 2 ns. Note the reduced fluorescence responses of the Red Delicious apple compared with the Golden Delicious apple and that, for the Golden Delicious apple, the intensity of the 1:2 treatment spot is consistently lower than the corresponding intensity of the control.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Average intensities of 9 × 9 pixel areas for treatment spots on the (a) Red Delicious and (b) Golden Delicious images in Figs. 2 and 3, respectively. Calculated intensities were derived from images acquired by use of gate delay times incremented sequentially by 1 ns; gate width was kept constant at 2 ns. Note that for both (a) Red Delicious and (b) Golden Delicious apples, at 10-ns gate delay, intensities for 1:2 treatment areas are less than corresponding responses for control areas, and, at gate delays greater than 10 ns, intensities for 1:2 treatment areas are greater than corresponding responses for control surfaces.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Images of (a) Red Delicious and (b) Golden Delicious apples acquired with the 682-nm filter with a gate interval of 15 – 34 ns (high range). Locations of feces treatment sites are as indicated. Images on the left are of the apples before detection, and the images on the right show detected pixels in light gray. The detection algorithm used was based on edge detection, hence the circular aspect of detected areas. The images were selected for presentation due to the natural contamination sites that appear in the images.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Number of Red Delicious Apples from a Total of 48 Apples for Testing, for which the Contamination Site Was Successfully Detected by Filter (682 or 700 nm), Treatment (1:2, 1:20, and 1:200 Dilutions of Dairy Feces), and Image Seta

Tables Icon

Table 2 Number of Golden Delicious Apples from a Total of 48 Apples for Testing, for which the Contamination Site Was Successfully Detected by Filter (682 or 700 nm), Treatment (1:2, 1:20, and 1:200 Dilutions of Dairy Feces), and Image Seta

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Table 3 Number of Red Delicious Apples from a Total of 48 Apples for Validation, for which the Contamination Site Was Successfully Detected by Filter (682 or 700 nm), Treatment (1:2, 1:20, and 1:200 Dilutions of Dairy Feces), and Image Seta

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Table 4 Number of Golden Delicious Apples from a Total of 48 Apples for Validation, for which the Contamination Site Was Successfully Detected by Filter (682 or 700 nm), Treatment (1:2, 1:20, and 1:200 Dilutions of Dairy Feces), and Image Seta

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