Abstract

The effect of design and fabrication parameters on the polarization dependence of the splitting ratio in directional couplers produced in LiTaO3 by Zn diffusion has been investigated experimentally at a wavelength of 1558 nm. The directional couplers featured various combinations of waveguide width, separation gaps between waveguides, bending angle, and diffusion conditions. In each case the coupling region was 3.5 mm long. Of particular interest was the identification of parameter sets for which the sum of power splitting ratios from TE and TM inputs equals unity at the output, as needed for electro-optic tunable filters with relaxed beam-splitter requirements.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. C. Alferness, L. H. Buhl, “Polarization independent optical filter using interwaveguide TE↔TM conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 131–134 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Ping, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Polarisation-independent tunable bandpass filter utilising symmetric branch beam splitters,” Electron. Lett. 40, 960–962 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. Eknoyan, D. W. Yoon, H. F. Taylor, “Low-loss optical waveguides in lithium tantalate by vapor diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 384–386 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. W. Yoon, O. Eknoyan, “Characterization of vapor diffused Zn:LiTaO3optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 877–880 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2004

Y. Ping, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Polarisation-independent tunable bandpass filter utilising symmetric branch beam splitters,” Electron. Lett. 40, 960–962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

2000

H. F. Taylor, O. Eknoyan, “Guided wave acousto-optic and electro-optic tunable filter designs with relaxed beam-splitter requirements,” Appl. Opt. 39, 124–128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. H. Elmirghani, H. T. Mouftah, “Technologies and architectures for scalable dynamic dense WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 58–66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. Sadot, E. Boimovich, “Tunable optical filters for dense WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 50–55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

Z. Tang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Polarisation-independent electro-optically tunable wavelength filter in LiTaO3,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1758–1759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heismann, R. C. Alferness, “Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13–15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Yoon, O. Eknoyan, “Characterization of vapor diffused Zn:LiTaO3optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 877–880 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

O. Eknoyan, D. W. Yoon, H. F. Taylor, “Low-loss optical waveguides in lithium tantalate by vapor diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 384–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981

R. C. Alferness, L. H. Buhl, “Polarization independent optical filter using interwaveguide TE↔TM conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 131–134 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

1976

Alferness, R. C.

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heismann, R. C. Alferness, “Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13–15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, L. H. Buhl, “Polarization independent optical filter using interwaveguide TE↔TM conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 131–134 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, R. V. Schmidt, E. H. Turner, “Characteristics of Ti-diffused lithium niobate optical directional couplers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 4012–4016 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boimovich, E.

D. Sadot, E. Boimovich, “Tunable optical filters for dense WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 50–55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. H.

R. C. Alferness, L. H. Buhl, “Polarization independent optical filter using interwaveguide TE↔TM conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 131–134 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Eknoyan, O.

Y. Ping, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Polarisation-independent tunable bandpass filter utilising symmetric branch beam splitters,” Electron. Lett. 40, 960–962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Rapidly tunable optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM) using a static-strain-induced grating in LiNbO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 236–245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Gu, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Polarization dependence in Ti-diffused LiNbO3directional couplers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 74–77 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Taylor, O. Eknoyan, “Guided wave acousto-optic and electro-optic tunable filter designs with relaxed beam-splitter requirements,” Appl. Opt. 39, 124–128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Polarisation-independent electro-optically tunable wavelength filter in LiTaO3,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1758–1759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Yoon, O. Eknoyan, “Characterization of vapor diffused Zn:LiTaO3optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 877–880 (1988).
[CrossRef]

O. Eknoyan, D. W. Yoon, H. F. Taylor, “Low-loss optical waveguides in lithium tantalate by vapor diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 384–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Elmirghani, J. M. H.

J. M. H. Elmirghani, H. T. Mouftah, “Technologies and architectures for scalable dynamic dense WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 58–66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giallorenzi, T. G.

Gu, D.

Heismann, F.

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heismann, R. C. Alferness, “Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13–15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mouftah, H. T.

J. M. H. Elmirghani, H. T. Mouftah, “Technologies and architectures for scalable dynamic dense WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 58–66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ping, Y.

Y. Ping, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Polarisation-independent tunable bandpass filter utilising symmetric branch beam splitters,” Electron. Lett. 40, 960–962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sadot, D.

D. Sadot, E. Boimovich, “Tunable optical filters for dense WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 50–55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R. V.

Steinberg, R. A.

Tang, P.

Tang, Z.

Z. Tang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Polarisation-independent electro-optically tunable wavelength filter in LiTaO3,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1758–1759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. F.

Y. Ping, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Polarisation-independent tunable bandpass filter utilising symmetric branch beam splitters,” Electron. Lett. 40, 960–962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Rapidly tunable optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM) using a static-strain-induced grating in LiNbO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 236–245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Gu, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Polarization dependence in Ti-diffused LiNbO3directional couplers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 74–77 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Taylor, O. Eknoyan, “Guided wave acousto-optic and electro-optic tunable filter designs with relaxed beam-splitter requirements,” Appl. Opt. 39, 124–128 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Polarisation-independent electro-optically tunable wavelength filter in LiTaO3,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1758–1759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Eknoyan, D. W. Yoon, H. F. Taylor, “Low-loss optical waveguides in lithium tantalate by vapor diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 384–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Turner, E. H.

Warzanskyj, W.

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heismann, R. C. Alferness, “Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13–15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, D. W.

D. W. Yoon, O. Eknoyan, “Characterization of vapor diffused Zn:LiTaO3optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 877–880 (1988).
[CrossRef]

O. Eknoyan, D. W. Yoon, H. F. Taylor, “Low-loss optical waveguides in lithium tantalate by vapor diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 384–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heismann, R. C. Alferness, “Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13–15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, L. H. Buhl, “Polarization independent optical filter using interwaveguide TE↔TM conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 131–134 (1981).
[CrossRef]

O. Eknoyan, D. W. Yoon, H. F. Taylor, “Low-loss optical waveguides in lithium tantalate by vapor diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 384–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

Y. Ping, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Polarisation-independent tunable bandpass filter utilising symmetric branch beam splitters,” Electron. Lett. 40, 960–962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Polarisation-independent electro-optically tunable wavelength filter in LiTaO3,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1758–1759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

J. M. H. Elmirghani, H. T. Mouftah, “Technologies and architectures for scalable dynamic dense WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 58–66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Sadot, E. Boimovich, “Tunable optical filters for dense WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 50–55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

D. W. Yoon, O. Eknoyan, “Characterization of vapor diffused Zn:LiTaO3optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 877–880 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, “Rapidly tunable optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM) using a static-strain-induced grating in LiNbO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 236–245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Four-port directional-coupler beam-splitter configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the sum of the power splitting ratio for TE input polarization plus TM input polarization on the separation gap d for polarization beam splitters produced with 7-μm-wide waveguides and a bending angle of 0.6°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the sum of the power splitting ratio for TE input polarization plus TM input polarization on the separation gap d for polarization beam splitters produced with 7-μm-wide waveguides and a bending angle of 1.0°.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Diffusion Conditions Used for the Formation of Waveguide Channels

Tables Icon

Table 2 FWHM for Horizontal Scans on 7-μm-Wide Straight Channel Waveguides

Tables Icon

Table 3 Fiber-to-Fiber Insertion Loss for 7-μm-Wide Straight Channel Waveguides

Tables Icon

Table 4 Variation of Transmission Loss with Bending Angle for Directional Couplers of Various Separation Gap d Values by use of the 7-μm-Wide Waveguide Channels in Sample S7

Equations (3)

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( f TE ) i j + ( f TM ) i j = 1 ,
f TE + f TM = 1.
f P = P 1 P P 1 P + P 2 P ,

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