Abstract

We present a detailed study of the performance of the Astro-E x-ray telescope (XRT) onboard the Astro-E satellite. As described in preceding papers the ground-based calibrations of the Astro-E XRT revealed that its image quality and effective area are somewhat worse than that expected from the original design. Conceivable causes for such performance degradation are examined by x-ray and optical microscopic measurements at various levels, such as individual reflectors, sectors, and quadrants of the XRT and their alignments. We can attribute, based on detailed measurements, the degradation of the image quality to a slope error in the individual reflectors and the positioning error of reflectors. As for the deficit of the effective area, the shadowing of x rays within the XRT body is the dominant factor. Error budgets for the performance degradation of the Astro-E XRT are summarized. The ray-tracing simulator, which is needed to construct the response function for arbitrary off-axis angles and spatial distributions of any celestial x-ray sources, has been developed and tuned based on the results of detailed measurements. The ray-tracing simulation provides results that are consistent within 3% with the real measurement except for large off-axis angles and higher energies. We propose, based on knowledge obtained from all the measurements and simulations, several plans for future developments to improve the performance of the nested thin-foil mirrors.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2001 (2)

1996 (1)

P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space. Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

P. Z. Takacs, E. L. Church, “Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 291, 253–264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aschenbach, B.

P. Gon, B. Aschenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight Mirror Module I—image quality,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Awaki, H.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Beijersbergen, M.

P. Gon, B. Aschenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight Mirror Module I—image quality,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K.-W.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001) (Paper II).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001) (Paper I).
[CrossRef]

K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, P. J. Serlemitsos, “The x-ray mirrors for the Astro-E2 mission,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 451–458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Church, E. L.

P. Z. Takacs, E. L. Church, “Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 291, 253–264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Egger, R.

P. Gon, B. Aschenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight Mirror Module I—image quality,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

Furuzawa, A.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001) (Paper I).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001) (Paper II).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gon, P.

P. Gon, B. Aschenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight Mirror Module I—image quality,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goto, A.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haba, Y.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, H. Mori, Y. Maeda, K. Misaki, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, R. Iizuka, T. Morihisa, H. Kunieda, A. Hayakawa, M. Ishida, “Astro-E2 XRT precollimator for stray-light protection I.—Design and expected performance,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 684–695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haga, K.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001) (Paper I).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hayakawa, A.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, H. Mori, Y. Maeda, K. Misaki, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, R. Iizuka, T. Morihisa, H. Kunieda, A. Hayakawa, M. Ishida, “Astro-E2 XRT precollimator for stray-light protection I.—Design and expected performance,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 684–695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hayakawa, S.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, A.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hayashida, K.

Hidaka, Y.

Hirano, T.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Honda, H.

Ichimaru, S.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iizuka, R.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, H. Mori, Y. Maeda, K. Misaki, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, R. Iizuka, T. Morihisa, H. Kunieda, A. Hayakawa, M. Ishida, “Astro-E2 XRT precollimator for stray-light protection I.—Design and expected performance,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 684–695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Imamura, K.

Inoue, C.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, J.

Ishida, M.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001) (Paper I).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001) (Paper II).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, H. Mori, Y. Maeda, K. Misaki, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, R. Iizuka, T. Morihisa, H. Kunieda, A. Hayakawa, M. Ishida, “Astro-E2 XRT precollimator for stray-light protection I.—Design and expected performance,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 684–695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, A.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, H. Mori, Y. Maeda, K. Misaki, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, R. Iizuka, T. Morihisa, H. Kunieda, A. Hayakawa, M. Ishida, “Astro-E2 XRT precollimator for stray-light protection I.—Design and expected performance,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 684–695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalota, L.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Jansen, F.

P. Gon, B. Aschenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight Mirror Module I—image quality,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kato, S.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kii, T.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kito, H.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kunieda, H.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001) (Paper I).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001) (Paper II).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, H. Mori, Y. Maeda, K. Misaki, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, R. Iizuka, T. Morihisa, H. Kunieda, A. Hayakawa, M. Ishida, “Astro-E2 XRT precollimator for stray-light protection I.—Design and expected performance,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 684–695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lehan, J. P.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

Maeda, Y.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, H. Mori, Y. Maeda, K. Misaki, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, R. Iizuka, T. Morihisa, H. Kunieda, A. Hayakawa, M. Ishida, “Astro-E2 XRT precollimator for stray-light protection I.—Design and expected performance,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 684–695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Makino, F.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Misaki, K.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001) (Paper II).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001) (Paper I).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, H. Mori, Y. Maeda, K. Misaki, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, R. Iizuka, T. Morihisa, H. Kunieda, A. Hayakawa, M. Ishida, “Astro-E2 XRT precollimator for stray-light protection I.—Design and expected performance,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 684–695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, E.

Mori, H.

R. Shibata, H. Mori, Y. Maeda, K. Misaki, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, R. Iizuka, T. Morihisa, H. Kunieda, A. Hayakawa, M. Ishida, “Astro-E2 XRT precollimator for stray-light protection I.—Design and expected performance,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 684–695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morihisa, T.

R. Shibata, H. Mori, Y. Maeda, K. Misaki, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, R. Iizuka, T. Morihisa, H. Kunieda, A. Hayakawa, M. Ishida, “Astro-E2 XRT precollimator for stray-light protection I.—Design and expected performance,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 684–695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagase, F.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Naitou, M.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nomoto, K.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nomoto, S.

Ogasaka, Y.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001) (Paper I).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001) (Paper II).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okada, S.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okajima, T.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001) (Paper II).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001) (Paper I).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sakima, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Satake, H.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sato, N.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Serlemitsos, P. J.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001) (Paper I).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001) (Paper II).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space. Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, P. J. Serlemitsos, “The x-ray mirrors for the Astro-E2 mission,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 451–458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, R.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001) (Paper II).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001) (Paper I).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, H. Mori, Y. Maeda, K. Misaki, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, R. Iizuka, T. Morihisa, H. Kunieda, A. Hayakawa, M. Ishida, “Astro-E2 XRT precollimator for stray-light protection I.—Design and expected performance,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 684–695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soong, Y.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001) (Paper II).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001) (Paper I).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space. Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, P. J. Serlemitsos, “The x-ray mirrors for the Astro-E2 mission,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 451–458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, Y.

P. Gon, B. Aschenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight Mirror Module I—image quality,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Takacs, P. Z.

P. Z. Takacs, E. L. Church, “Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 291, 253–264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tawara, Y.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001) (Paper II).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001) (Paper I).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Terashima, Y.

Tock, J. P.

P. Gon, B. Aschenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight Mirror Module I—image quality,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsunemi, H.

Tsusaka, Y.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Tueller, J.

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uchibori, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, M.

Watanabe, M.

Yamashita, K.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Kunieda, T. Endo, H. Honda, K. Misaki, J. Ishida, K. Imamura, Y. Hidaka, M. Maeda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, A. Furuzawa, M. Watanabe, Y. Terashima, T. Yoshioka, T. Okajima, K. Yamashita, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: II. Ground-based x-ray characterization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3762–3783 (2001) (Paper II).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001) (Paper I).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, T.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Yokoyama, Y.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Yoshioka, T.

Zissa, D. E.

D. E. Zissa, “AXAF-I high resolution mirror assembly image model and comparison with an x-ray ground-test image,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3766, 36–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astrophys. Space. Sci. (1)

P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, “Foil x-ray mirrors,” Astrophys. Space. Sci. 239, 177–196 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, “Roughness measurement of x-ray mirror surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292–1299 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

P. Z. Takacs, E. L. Church, “Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 291, 253–264 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. (1)

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope onboard ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Other (7)

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, H. Kito, A. Goto, K. Nomoto, H. Satake, S. Kato, H. Kunieda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, “Development of a balloon borne hard x-ray telescope using a multilayer supermirror,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE4138, 111–119 (2000).
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P. Gon, B. Aschenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight Mirror Module I—image quality,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 278–289 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Zissa, “AXAF-I high resolution mirror assembly image model and comparison with an x-ray ground-test image,” in X-ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3766, 36–50 (1999).
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B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E= 50–30, 000 eV, Z= 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables54, 181–342 (1993). The updated data are available at http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants .
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K.-W. Chan, Y. Soong, P. J. Serlemitsos, “The x-ray mirrors for the Astro-E2 mission,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 451–458 (2003).
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K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, Y. Maeda, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, H. Mori, R. Iizuka, A. Itoh, H. Inoue, S. Okada, Y. Yokoyama, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, R. Shibata, T. Tanaka, M. Naitou, M. Ishida, A. Hayakawa, C. Inoue, A. Hayashi, T. Shimizu, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, T. Okajima, J. P. Lehan, “Ground-based x-ray calibration of the telescopes onboard the Astro-E2 satellite,” in Optics for EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy, O. Citterio, S. L. O’Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE5168, 294–305 (2004).
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R. Shibata, H. Mori, Y. Maeda, K. Misaki, Y. Haba, K. Itoh, R. Iizuka, T. Morihisa, H. Kunieda, A. Hayakawa, M. Ishida, “Astro-E2 XRT precollimator for stray-light protection I.—Design and expected performance,” in X-ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, J. E. Trümper, H. D. Tananbaum, eds., Proc. SPIE4851, 684–695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (36)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Definition of the angles used in the measurements. θi, θd, and θs denote incident angle, diffraction angle, and scattered angle, respectively. θd = θs − θi.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray reflected profiles (left, Astro-E; right, ASCA). The abscissa shows diffraction angle θd. The intensity is normalized by total reflectivity: crosses, 1.49 keV, solid circles, 4.51 keV, open circles, 8.04 keV.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power spectral density of the Astro-E and the ASCA reflector surface. They are derived from the scattered tail of the reflected x-ray profiles by using Eqs. (1) and (3).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular distributions of reflected x rays at energies of Cu-Kα, Ti-Kα, and Al-Kα (top, middle, and bottom, respectively): dotted curves, scattering component evaluated from the PSD [Eq. (1)]; solid curves fitted model including the scattered component and the figure-error component [Eqs. (1) and (5)]. The sharp drop seen at the core (θd ~ 0) in the scattering component is due to the exponential cutoff that indicates the boundary between the scatter and the specular components (see text for detail).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Examples of Wyko measurement results on the surface of the Astro-E and ASCA reflectors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Power spectral density of the Astro-E and the ASCA reflector surface (from Wyko measurements).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Angular distribution of reflected x rays on the Astro-E reflector (solid curve). The incident angle is 0.5°. The x-ray energy is 8.0 keV (Cu-Kα). The profile of the incident x rays collimated with a 0.1-mm slit is shown by the dotted curve. The intensity is normalized and corrected by the reflectivity (see text for more explanation).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflected profile after deconvolution of the contribution of the profile of the incident beam. It shows the point-spread function due to the submillimeter to the millimeter scale surface waviness (psfshort in the text): smooth curves, fitted functions; dotted line, Gaussian only; solid curve, Eq. (8), Gaussian plus exponential. The Lorentzian expressing the extended tail is included in both fittings. Note that the extended tail (|θd| > 1.5), indicated by the dashed curve, is well represented with the scattering and the Lorentzian, as described in Subsection 2.A.1.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Examples of the axial surface-height profile of the Astro-E reflector, as measured with the laser profilometer.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Power spectral density of the Astro-E and ASCA reflector surface derived from profilometer measurements. Two types of measuring device are applied. The laser profilometer developed by Keyence is suitable for a lower spatial frequency (below 3 × 10−4 μm−1) (equal to longer surface wavelengths, 3 mm). For a higher spatial frequency, we used the profilometer NH-3 developed by Mitaka. The height resolution of NH-3 is 0.01 μm, which is 10 times better than the Keyence laser profilometer.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Population distribution of the reflection direction due to the surface waviness of long surface wavelengths (psflong), obtained from the distribution of the normal vector of the reflector surface as measured by the laser profilometer. Compared with psfshort (Fig. 8), psflong has a wider distribution.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Point-spread function of the specular core for the Astro-E reflector, obtained by the convolution of psfshort (Fig. 8) and psflong (Fig. 11): Dashed curve, best-fit model composed of the Gaussian, the exponential function, and the Lorentzian. Residuals from the fitted function are indicated in the lower panel.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Overall PSD of the Astro-E and ASCA reflector surfaces: solid circles (Astro-E), crosses (ASCA), data derived from the Keyence laser profilometer, Mitaka NH-3, and the scattered tail of reflected x rays; solid curves, those estimated from Wyko; dotted curve, PSD of the Chandra reflector, estimated from Fig. 5 in Ref. 9.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Examples of reflected x-ray profiles: left, focal-plane images; right, their projected profiles onto the x axis. As for the measurement method, see Paper II for a detailed description.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Averaged profile of a pair of reflectors (solid curve): dotted curve, point-spread function of reflected x rays on the Astro-E reflector (Fig. 12); dashed curve, self-convolution of the PSF representing a double reflection. As marked in the figure, the HPD and the root mean square of the averaged profile (solid curve) are 2.10 and 1.59 arc min, respectively.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Variation of the SD of the radial positions of x-ray photons in the focal plane versus the reflector position. SD, image quality of the reflectors. We plotted the averaged SD every 10 reflectors. The data in the same sector are indicated by the same marks: solid lines, linking the data of Sectors 6, 8, and 9 (middle part of the quadrant); dotted lines, linking the data of Sectors 3 and 12 (closer to the edge of the reflectors).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Close-up view of a reflector in a groove of the alignment bar. All the numbers are the designed values in micrometers.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Distribution of the foci: left, radial direction (detector-Y); right, azimuthal direction (detector-Z). Note that the scales of the horizontal axes are not the same.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Examples of the deviations of the foci in the radial direction: top, reflectors from 20 to 50; bottom, reflectors from 120 to 150. The data of the same sector are indicated by the same symbols. The data of the sector close to the quadrant boundaries are linked by dotted lines, while the others are linked by solid lines.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Positioning error of the reflectors: top, deviation of the position of the reflectors versus the number of the reflector; bottom, distribution of the deviations. The fitted functions, a Gaussian and a box function, are also indicated in the upper panel. The residuals (data minus model) for the Gaussian and the box function are shown in the lower two panels.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Detail of the microscopic reflectivity measurements on reflectors 71–80. The abscissa shows the radial position of the beam from the center of the XRT. The ordinate shows the reflectivity at the beam-illuminating point: crosses, data points; dotted lines, histogram showing the expected reflectivity for an ideal XRT. Top, Al-Kα; middle, Ti-Kα; bottom, Cu-Kα.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Reflectivity of each pair of reflectors as a function of the incident angle of x rays for each pair of reflectors. The results for Al-Kα, Ti-Kα, and Cu-Kα are shown separately for clarity: dotted curves, ideal reflectivity; solid curves, best-fit reflectivity curve taking into account surface roughness [Eq. (15)].

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Schematic view of microscopic reflectivity measurements: (A), ideal histogram (indicated by the solid line); (B), reflectivity reduced because of surface roughness (dotted line); (C) measured data (solid lines with marks). As described in the text the histogram (C) is reduced compared with (A) because of the surface roughness of the reflector and the shadowing of x rays within the XRT.

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

Left, example image of the quadrant Q3 of XRT-S (Au); right, schematic view of the decomposition of the quadrant image. The quadrant image consists of sector images, each of which appears along a straight line, referred to as the sector image locus, which passes through the quadrant focus.

Fig. 25
Fig. 25

Focal-plane images of the sectors of XRT-S (Au) Q3 along the sector image locus. The origin of the abscissa is taken at the quadrant focus. Values at the top right of each panel indicate the position of the centroid of each image (equaling the sector focus) measured from the quadrant focus.

Fig. 26
Fig. 26

Distribution of the sector foci of XRT-S (Au) Q3 on the focal plane: 1 arc min corresponds to 1.31 mm. Lines with arrowheads on both sides, sector image locus of each sector. The SD of foci in the radial direction is σ = 0.20 arc min, which is smaller than the quadrant HPD of 1.8–2.2 arc min (Paper II).

Fig. 27
Fig. 27

(a) Schematic view of the systems of the optical parallel-light source at Nagoya University. The light source consists of a lamp, a pinhole of ϕ = 30–200 μm, and a curved mirror to generate a parallel optical beam of ϕ ≃ 300 mm. The XRT mount normal is aligned with the optical beam when one looks at the reference mirror with the autocollimator. (b) Measurement configuration. The CCD camera is located at the focus of the XRT.

Fig. 28
Fig. 28

Focus positions of the quadrants in each XRT. The origin of the panels is the average of the focus positions of the four quadrants. For all the XRTs, Q1 and Q3 are assumed to be placed in the Satellite-Y positive and negative sides, respectively.

Fig. 29
Fig. 29

Distribution of the optical axes of the quadrants.

Fig. 30
Fig. 30

Outline of our ray-tracing simulation. The two square rectangular boxes are the programs; XRRTRT is for making the reflectivity table, and XRRTRAY is the main program. Round rectangular boxes and hexagons indicate the major parameters and the outputs of the programs, respectively. The parameters in italics are the parameters tuned according to the measured results (see text for detail; Subsection 5.B). The updated Henke optical constants11 are used to compute reflectivity.

Fig. 31
Fig. 31

Measured (diamonds) and calculated (open circles) effective area of the XRT-I quadrant versus energy. The effective area is normalized by the designed value (ideal case, 1). The error bars at the measured value indicate the SDs of the 16 quadrants. In these ray-tracing calculations all the parameters except roughness σ are fixed at the appropriately tuned value. Calculations with a σ of 3 Å are in good agreement with the measurements.

Fig. 32
Fig. 32

Same as Fig. 31, but the examined parameter is the reflector thickness, indicating the shadowing effect. The measured on-axis effective area can be explained by the reflector thickness of 220 μm.

Fig. 33
Fig. 33

Top left, measured and, top right, simulated XRT images of a point source on axis. The x-ray energy is 4.5 keV. The contours of the images are drawn on a logarithmic scale. A cusp peak and a widely spread distribution can be recognized. The bottom two panels show, bottom left, the PSF and, bottom right, the EEF, derived from these images: solid curve, the measured PSF and EEF; dashed curve, simulated PSF and EEF. For comparison the ratio (simulated/measured) is indicated in the bottom panels.

Fig. 34
Fig. 34

Simulated off-axis images. Top panels, images calculated for 5- and 10-arc min off-axis incidence. The contour level of these images is the same as that of the on-axis image (Fig. 33). Bottom panels, PSF and EEF derived from these images. Solid, dashed, and dot–dashed curves designate on-axis, 5 arc min, and 10 arc min off-axis, respectively.

Fig. 35
Fig. 35

On-axis effective area of an XRT-I versus x-ray energy: solid curve, ideal design curve; circles, measured results; dashed curve, results from our tuned ray-tracing simulation. The simulated results agree well with the measured results at all energies.

Fig. 36
Fig. 36

Measured (marks) and simulated (solid curve) effective areas of quadrants versus the off-axis angle in ψ = 45° and ψ = 135° at 1.49, 4.51, 8.04, and 9.44 keV. Different marks are used for the data to discriminate between the quadrants.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Wyko (TOPO-2D) Measuring Conditions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Best-Fit Parameters of the Angular Distribution on the Astro-E Reflector

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Table 3 Fractional Ratio of Effective Area

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Table 4 Budgets for the Loss of Effective Area

Equations (20)

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d I d θ s = 16 π 2 λ 3 sin θ i sin 2 θ s [ R ( θ s ) R ( θ i ) ] 1 / 2 PSD ( f ) ,
PSD ( f ) = 1 L | 0 L exp ( 2 π i f x ) Z ( x ) d x | 2 ,
f = cos θ i - cos θ s λ .
PSD ( f ) = a × f n × exp { - 1 f × ξ ( λ ) } ,
d I l 0 d θ d = N l o [ 1 + ( 2 θ d σ l o ) 2 ] - 1
σ 2 = f min f max PSD ( f ) d f .
- 5 + 5 d I d θ d d θ d = R ( θ i ) ,
d I d θ d = I inc d θ d * psf short ( θ d ) R ( θ i + θ s 2 ) ,
d I d θ d / R ( θ i + θ s 2 ) .
psf short ( θ d ) = N gau exp ( - θ d 2 2 σ gau 2 ) + N exp exp ( - θ d σ exp ) .
psf long ( θ d ) = F ( θ d 2 ) ,
psf spec ( θ d ) = psf long ( θ d ) * psf short ( θ d ) ,
d I d θ s = ( d I d θ s ) specular + ( d I d θ s ) scatter .
psf spec ( θ d ) = Gaussian + Exponential + Lorentzian = N gau exp ( - θ d 2 2 σ gau 2 ) + N exp exp ( - θ d σ exp ) + N l o [ 1 + ( 2 θ d σ lo ) 2 ] - 1 .
( d I d θ s ) specular = psf spec R 0 ( θ i ) × exp [ - ( 4 π σ sin θ i λ ) 2 ] R ( θ i + θ s 2 ) R ( θ i ) ,
( d I d θ s ) scatter = 16 π 2 λ 3 sin θ i sin 2 θ s [ R ( θ s ) R ( θ i ) ] 1 / 2 × [ a ( f n ) exp ( - 1 f × ξ ( λ ) ) ] .
Δ θ = 2 2 sin - 1 [ positioning error ( mm ) reflector length 101.6 ( mm ) ] ,
ρ ( θ ) = ρ 0 ( θ ) exp [ - 2 ( 4 π σ sin θ λ ) 2 ] ,
R ( r ,     ϕ ;     E ,     θ ,     ψ ) = S eff ( E ) v ( E ,     θ ,     ψ ) b fp ( r ,     ϕ ;     E , θ ,     ψ ) ,
P ( r ;     E ,     θ ,     ψ ) = 0 r b ¯ fp ( ρ ;     E ,     θ ,     ψ ) 2 π ρ d ρ

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