Abstract

A stack of liquid-crystal displays is expected to reduce visual fatigue caused by a flat-panel three-dimensional (3D) display. We previously developed a compact depth-fused 3D (DFD) display by using a stack of two twisted-nematic (liquid-crystal) LC panels, but its viewing-angle characteristics and color reproducibility were not so good. Therefore recent wide-view LC panels should be used. We report calculated and measured luminance addition characteristics, which are essential for evaluating 3D display characteristics, of a stack of two multidomain LC panels. We found that LC panels with super in-plane switching, patterned vertical alignment, multiple vertical alignment, and continuous pinwheel alignment modes are suitable for DFD display application.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  13. S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Ohtsuka, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 1911–1915 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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2004 (1)

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44, 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Ohtsuka, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 1911–1915 (2002).

2000 (1)

S. Suyama, M. Date, H. Takada, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. H. H. Klausmann, S. Aratani, K. Kondo, “Optical characterization of the in-plane switching effect utilizing multidomain structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1854–1862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. R. L. Travis, “The display of three-dimensional video images,” Proc. IEEE 85, 1817–1832 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

T. Ohkoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548–564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, R. B. Mcghee, “A true three-dimensional display,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 724–732 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

1948 (1)

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161, 777–778 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1908 (1)

M. G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 821–825 (1908).

Akaike, A.

N. Sekimoto, M. Mizuno, K. Okai, A. Akaike, Y. Takami, S. Asonuma, J. Hosohata, S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Sakai, T. Fujikado, “A development of stereotest using luminance modulation,” in Proceedings of Progress in Strabismus, Ninth Meeting of International Strabismological Association, J.-T. de Faber, ed. (Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands, 2003), pp. 117–119.

Aratani, S.

H. H. H. Klausmann, S. Aratani, K. Kondo, “Optical characterization of the in-plane switching effect utilizing multidomain structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1854–1862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Asonuma, S.

N. Sekimoto, M. Mizuno, K. Okai, A. Akaike, Y. Takami, S. Asonuma, J. Hosohata, S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Sakai, T. Fujikado, “A development of stereotest using luminance modulation,” in Proceedings of Progress in Strabismus, Ninth Meeting of International Strabismological Association, J.-T. de Faber, ed. (Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands, 2003), pp. 117–119.

Buzak, T. S.

T. S. Buzak, “A field-sequential discrete-depth-plane three-dimensional display,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1985), pp. 345–348.

Chida, H.

Y. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, Y. Koike, T. Sasabayashi, K. Okamoto, “A super-high-image-quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Technical Digest of Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1078–1081.

Date, M.

S. Suyama, M. Date, H. Takada, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Date, H. Takada, S. Suyama, K. Nakazawa, “Luminance additivity in compact depth-fused-3D display using a stack of two TN-LCDs,” in Proceedings of the Tenth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), pp. 1409–1412.

Fujikado, T.

Y. Ishigure, S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue relative in the viewing of a depth-fused 3D display and 2D display,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2004), pp. 1627–1630.

N. Sekimoto, M. Mizuno, K. Okai, A. Akaike, Y. Takami, S. Asonuma, J. Hosohata, S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Sakai, T. Fujikado, “A development of stereotest using luminance modulation,” in Proceedings of Progress in Strabismus, Ninth Meeting of International Strabismological Association, J.-T. de Faber, ed. (Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands, 2003), pp. 117–119.

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161, 777–778 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, C.

P. Yeh, C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Hiruma, K.

H. Takada, S. Suyama, K. Hiruma, K. Nakazawa, “A compact depth-fused 3-D LCD,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), pp. 1526–1529.
[CrossRef]

Hosohata, J.

Y. Ishigure, S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue relative in the viewing of a depth-fused 3D display and 2D display,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2004), pp. 1627–1630.

N. Sekimoto, M. Mizuno, K. Okai, A. Akaike, Y. Takami, S. Asonuma, J. Hosohata, S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Sakai, T. Fujikado, “A development of stereotest using luminance modulation,” in Proceedings of Progress in Strabismus, Ninth Meeting of International Strabismological Association, J.-T. de Faber, ed. (Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands, 2003), pp. 117–119.

Ishigure, Y.

Y. Ishigure, S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue relative in the viewing of a depth-fused 3D display and 2D display,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2004), pp. 1627–1630.

Ishii, Y.

Y. Yamada, K. Miyachi, M. Kubo, S. Mizushima, Y. Ishii, “Fast response and wide-viewing angle technologies for LC-TV applocation,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2002), pp. 203–207.

Ives, F. E.

F. E. Ives, “Parallax stereogram and process of making same,” U.S. patent725,567 (April14, 1903).

Kataoka, S.

Y. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, Y. Koike, T. Sasabayashi, K. Okamoto, “A super-high-image-quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Technical Digest of Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1078–1081.

Kim, K. H.

K. H. Kim, K. Y. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. S. Kim, J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” in Proceedings of the 18th International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 383–386.

Kim, S. S.

K. H. Kim, K. Y. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. S. Kim, J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” in Proceedings of the 18th International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 383–386.

Klausmann, H. H. H.

H. H. H. Klausmann, S. Aratani, K. Kondo, “Optical characterization of the in-plane switching effect utilizing multidomain structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1854–1862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koike, Y.

Y. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, Y. Koike, T. Sasabayashi, K. Okamoto, “A super-high-image-quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Technical Digest of Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1078–1081.

Kondo, K.

H. H. H. Klausmann, S. Aratani, K. Kondo, “Optical characterization of the in-plane switching effect utilizing multidomain structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1854–1862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, M.

Y. Yamada, K. Miyachi, M. Kubo, S. Mizushima, Y. Ishii, “Fast response and wide-viewing angle technologies for LC-TV applocation,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2002), pp. 203–207.

Lee, K. Y.

K. H. Kim, K. Y. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. S. Kim, J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” in Proceedings of the 18th International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 383–386.

Lewis, J. D.

J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, R. B. Mcghee, “A true three-dimensional display,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 724–732 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lippmann, M. G.

M. G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 821–825 (1908).

Mcghee, R. B.

J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, R. B. Mcghee, “A true three-dimensional display,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 724–732 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Miyachi, K.

Y. Yamada, K. Miyachi, M. Kubo, S. Mizushima, Y. Ishii, “Fast response and wide-viewing angle technologies for LC-TV applocation,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2002), pp. 203–207.

Mizuno, M.

N. Sekimoto, M. Mizuno, K. Okai, A. Akaike, Y. Takami, S. Asonuma, J. Hosohata, S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Sakai, T. Fujikado, “A development of stereotest using luminance modulation,” in Proceedings of Progress in Strabismus, Ninth Meeting of International Strabismological Association, J.-T. de Faber, ed. (Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands, 2003), pp. 117–119.

Mizushima, S.

Y. Yamada, K. Miyachi, M. Kubo, S. Mizushima, Y. Ishii, “Fast response and wide-viewing angle technologies for LC-TV applocation,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2002), pp. 203–207.

Nakazawa, K.

M. Date, H. Takada, S. Suyama, K. Nakazawa, “Luminance additivity in compact depth-fused-3D display using a stack of two TN-LCDs,” in Proceedings of the Tenth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), pp. 1409–1412.

H. Takada, S. Suyama, K. Hiruma, K. Nakazawa, “A compact depth-fused 3-D LCD,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), pp. 1526–1529.
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishigure, S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue relative in the viewing of a depth-fused 3D display and 2D display,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2004), pp. 1627–1630.

Ohkoshi, T.

T. Ohkoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548–564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ohmuro, K.

Y. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, Y. Koike, T. Sasabayashi, K. Okamoto, “A super-high-image-quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Technical Digest of Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1078–1081.

Ohtsuka, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44, 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Ohtsuka, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 1911–1915 (2002).

S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, S. Ohtsuka, “A new method for protruding apparent 3-D images in the DFD (depth-fused 3-D) display,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), pp. 1300–1303.
[CrossRef]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Ohtsuka, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “A novel direct-vision 3-D display using luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 1208–1211.
[CrossRef]

Okai, K.

N. Sekimoto, M. Mizuno, K. Okai, A. Akaike, Y. Takami, S. Asonuma, J. Hosohata, S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Sakai, T. Fujikado, “A development of stereotest using luminance modulation,” in Proceedings of Progress in Strabismus, Ninth Meeting of International Strabismological Association, J.-T. de Faber, ed. (Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands, 2003), pp. 117–119.

Okamoto, K.

Y. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, Y. Koike, T. Sasabayashi, K. Okamoto, “A super-high-image-quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Technical Digest of Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1078–1081.

Park, S. B.

K. H. Kim, K. Y. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. S. Kim, J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” in Proceedings of the 18th International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 383–386.

Sakai, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44, 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Ohtsuka, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “A novel direct-vision 3-D display using luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 1208–1211.
[CrossRef]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, S. Ohtsuka, “A new method for protruding apparent 3-D images in the DFD (depth-fused 3-D) display,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), pp. 1300–1303.
[CrossRef]

N. Sekimoto, M. Mizuno, K. Okai, A. Akaike, Y. Takami, S. Asonuma, J. Hosohata, S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Sakai, T. Fujikado, “A development of stereotest using luminance modulation,” in Proceedings of Progress in Strabismus, Ninth Meeting of International Strabismological Association, J.-T. de Faber, ed. (Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands, 2003), pp. 117–119.

Sasabayashi, T.

Y. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, Y. Koike, T. Sasabayashi, K. Okamoto, “A super-high-image-quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Technical Digest of Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1078–1081.

Sasaki, T.

Y. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, Y. Koike, T. Sasabayashi, K. Okamoto, “A super-high-image-quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Technical Digest of Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1078–1081.

Sekimoto, N.

N. Sekimoto, M. Mizuno, K. Okai, A. Akaike, Y. Takami, S. Asonuma, J. Hosohata, S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Sakai, T. Fujikado, “A development of stereotest using luminance modulation,” in Proceedings of Progress in Strabismus, Ninth Meeting of International Strabismological Association, J.-T. de Faber, ed. (Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands, 2003), pp. 117–119.

Song, J. K.

K. H. Kim, K. Y. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. S. Kim, J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” in Proceedings of the 18th International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 383–386.

Souk, J. H.

K. H. Kim, K. Y. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. S. Kim, J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” in Proceedings of the 18th International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 383–386.

Suyama, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44, 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Ohtsuka, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 1911–1915 (2002).

S. Suyama, M. Date, H. Takada, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, S. Ohtsuka, “A new method for protruding apparent 3-D images in the DFD (depth-fused 3-D) display,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), pp. 1300–1303.
[CrossRef]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Ohtsuka, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “A novel direct-vision 3-D display using luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 1208–1211.
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishigure, S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue relative in the viewing of a depth-fused 3D display and 2D display,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2004), pp. 1627–1630.

N. Sekimoto, M. Mizuno, K. Okai, A. Akaike, Y. Takami, S. Asonuma, J. Hosohata, S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Sakai, T. Fujikado, “A development of stereotest using luminance modulation,” in Proceedings of Progress in Strabismus, Ninth Meeting of International Strabismological Association, J.-T. de Faber, ed. (Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands, 2003), pp. 117–119.

M. Date, H. Takada, S. Suyama, K. Nakazawa, “Luminance additivity in compact depth-fused-3D display using a stack of two TN-LCDs,” in Proceedings of the Tenth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), pp. 1409–1412.

H. Takada, S. Suyama, K. Hiruma, K. Nakazawa, “A compact depth-fused 3-D LCD,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), pp. 1526–1529.
[CrossRef]

Takada, H.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44, 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Ohtsuka, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 1911–1915 (2002).

S. Suyama, M. Date, H. Takada, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Ohtsuka, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “A novel direct-vision 3-D display using luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 1208–1211.
[CrossRef]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, S. Ohtsuka, “A new method for protruding apparent 3-D images in the DFD (depth-fused 3-D) display,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), pp. 1300–1303.
[CrossRef]

N. Sekimoto, M. Mizuno, K. Okai, A. Akaike, Y. Takami, S. Asonuma, J. Hosohata, S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Sakai, T. Fujikado, “A development of stereotest using luminance modulation,” in Proceedings of Progress in Strabismus, Ninth Meeting of International Strabismological Association, J.-T. de Faber, ed. (Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands, 2003), pp. 117–119.

Y. Ishigure, S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue relative in the viewing of a depth-fused 3D display and 2D display,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2004), pp. 1627–1630.

H. Takada, S. Suyama, K. Hiruma, K. Nakazawa, “A compact depth-fused 3-D LCD,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), pp. 1526–1529.
[CrossRef]

M. Date, H. Takada, S. Suyama, K. Nakazawa, “Luminance additivity in compact depth-fused-3D display using a stack of two TN-LCDs,” in Proceedings of the Tenth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), pp. 1409–1412.

Takami, Y.

N. Sekimoto, M. Mizuno, K. Okai, A. Akaike, Y. Takami, S. Asonuma, J. Hosohata, S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Sakai, T. Fujikado, “A development of stereotest using luminance modulation,” in Proceedings of Progress in Strabismus, Ninth Meeting of International Strabismological Association, J.-T. de Faber, ed. (Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands, 2003), pp. 117–119.

Takao, Y.

Y. Ishigure, S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue relative in the viewing of a depth-fused 3D display and 2D display,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2004), pp. 1627–1630.

Takeda, Y.

Y. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, Y. Koike, T. Sasabayashi, K. Okamoto, “A super-high-image-quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Technical Digest of Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1078–1081.

Tamura, S.

Tanaka, K.

Traub, A. C.

Travis, A. R. L.

A. R. L. Travis, “The display of three-dimensional video images,” Proc. IEEE 85, 1817–1832 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, H.

Y. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, Y. Koike, T. Sasabayashi, K. Okamoto, “A super-high-image-quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Technical Digest of Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1078–1081.

Uehira, K.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44, 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, S. Ohtsuka, “A new method for protruding apparent 3-D images in the DFD (depth-fused 3-D) display,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), pp. 1300–1303.
[CrossRef]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Ohtsuka, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “A novel direct-vision 3-D display using luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 1208–1211.
[CrossRef]

Verber, C. M.

J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, R. B. Mcghee, “A true three-dimensional display,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 724–732 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

Y. Yamada, K. Miyachi, M. Kubo, S. Mizushima, Y. Ishii, “Fast response and wide-viewing angle technologies for LC-TV applocation,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2002), pp. 203–207.

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, R. B. Mcghee, “A true three-dimensional display,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 724–732 (1971).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Ohtsuka, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 1911–1915 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. H. H. Klausmann, S. Aratani, K. Kondo, “Optical characterization of the in-plane switching effect utilizing multidomain structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1854–1862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

M. G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 821–825 (1908).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Suyama, M. Date, H. Takada, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161, 777–778 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (2)

T. Ohkoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548–564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. R. L. Travis, “The display of three-dimensional video images,” Proc. IEEE 85, 1817–1832 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (1)

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44, 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (13)

N. Sekimoto, M. Mizuno, K. Okai, A. Akaike, Y. Takami, S. Asonuma, J. Hosohata, S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Sakai, T. Fujikado, “A development of stereotest using luminance modulation,” in Proceedings of Progress in Strabismus, Ninth Meeting of International Strabismological Association, J.-T. de Faber, ed. (Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands, 2003), pp. 117–119.

Y. Ishigure, S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Nakazawa, J. Hosohata, Y. Takao, T. Fujikado, “Evaluation of visual fatigue relative in the viewing of a depth-fused 3D display and 2D display,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2004), pp. 1627–1630.

H. Takada, S. Suyama, K. Hiruma, K. Nakazawa, “A compact depth-fused 3-D LCD,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), pp. 1526–1529.
[CrossRef]

M. Date, H. Takada, S. Suyama, K. Nakazawa, “Luminance additivity in compact depth-fused-3D display using a stack of two TN-LCDs,” in Proceedings of the Tenth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), pp. 1409–1412.

T. S. Buzak, “A field-sequential discrete-depth-plane three-dimensional display,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1985), pp. 345–348.

S. Suyama, H. Takada, S. Ohtsuka, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “A novel direct-vision 3-D display using luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), pp. 1208–1211.
[CrossRef]

S. Suyama, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, S. Ohtsuka, “A new method for protruding apparent 3-D images in the DFD (depth-fused 3-D) display,” in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), pp. 1300–1303.
[CrossRef]

F. E. Ives, “Parallax stereogram and process of making same,” U.S. patent725,567 (April14, 1903).

K. H. Kim, K. Y. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. S. Kim, J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” in Proceedings of the 18th International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 383–386.

Y. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, Y. Koike, T. Sasabayashi, K. Okamoto, “A super-high-image-quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” in Technical Digest of Society for Information Display (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), pp. 1078–1081.

M. Kubo, T. Miyashita, N. Nagashima, E. Nishimura, “Development of high-performance ASV-LCDs using continuous pinwheel alignment (CPA) mode,” Sharp Tech. J.3(2001), see http://sharp-world.com/corporate/rd/tj3/pdf/3.pdf .

Y. Yamada, K. Miyachi, M. Kubo, S. Mizushima, Y. Ishii, “Fast response and wide-viewing angle technologies for LC-TV applocation,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2002), pp. 203–207.

P. Yeh, C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, New York, 1999).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic operation of a DFD display.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images observed by the left and right eyes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Structure of a compact DFD display that uses a stack of two TN-LCDs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculation condition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Luminance additivity calculated by Eq. (16). Solid lines are calculated when c = 0.5. Dashed lines represent linear addition.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contour plot for 3D reproducibility. (a) Luminance addition is linear. (b) Luminance addition is a radial plot as Eq. (16). The frame of the plot is when c = 0.5. As c increases, the right limit of the plot changes, as indicated by the dashed line.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Luminance addition characteristics when two multidomain LCD panels were stacked. The points show measurements. The lines show calculations. (a) S-IPS mode (c = 0.75), (b) PVA mode (c = 0.90), (c) MVA mode (c = 0.99), and (d) CPA mode (c = 1.26).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Luminance addition characteristics and (b) contour plot for 3D reproducibility of a stack of two TN-mode LCDs.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Contour plot for 3D reproducibility of a stack of two multidomain LCD panels. (a) S-IPS mode, (b) PVA mode, (c) MVA mode, and (d) CPA mode.

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E o = B E i .
E o = B F B R E i ,
B ( θ ,     ψ ) = [ cos θ sin θ - sin θ cos θ ] [ exp ( i ψ ) 0 0 1 ] × [ cos θ - sin θ sin θ cos θ ] .
T 1 = 1 n C 1 j = 1 n | ( 0     1 ) B ( θ j ,     ψ j ) ( 1 0 ) | 2 ,
T 2 = 1 n 2 C 2 j = 1 n k = 1 n | ( 0     1 ) B ( θ F j ,     ψ F j ) B ( θ R k ,     ψ R k ) ( 1 0 ) | 2 ,
ψ F 1 = ψ F 2 = ψ R 1 = ψ R 2 = ψ ,
θ p 1 = - θ p 2 = θ p .
T 1 p - sin 2 2 θ p .
T 2 = T 1 F + T 1 R - T 1 F T 1 R ( 1 - cos ψ ) .
θ 11 = - θ 12 = θ 21 = - θ 22 = π / 4 ,
ψ p 1 = ψ p 2 = ψ p .
T 1 p = sin 2 ψ p .
T 2 = T 1 F + T 1 R - 2 T 1 F T 1 R .
T 1 = 1 π θ = 0 2 π | ( 0     1 ) B ( θ ,     ψ ) ( 1 0 ) | 2 d θ ,
T 2 = 1 π 2 θ F = 0 2 π θ R = 0 2 π | ( 0     1 ) B ( θ F ,     ψ F ) × B ( θ R ,     ψ R ) ( 1 0 ) | 2 d θ R d θ F .
T 2 = T 1 F + T 1 R - T 1 R T 1 R c .
T 2 = T 1 F + T 1 R - 2 T 1 F T 1 R + 2 T 1 F T 1 R 1 - T 1 F 1 - T 1 R .

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