Abstract

A second-generation absolute cryogenic radiometer (ACR II) was developed for use at the Low Background Infrared calibration facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The need for spectral calibrations of very sensitive [D* = 1014 cm (Hz)1/2W−1] infrared detectors necessitated the use of a cryogenic infrared monochromator and a more sensitive radiometer. The improved low-power performance of the ACR II compared with the older absolute cryogenic radiometer (ACR) has also made it useful as the primary standard for the calibration of cryogenic blackbody sources that are used as low-power infrared sources. The responsivity of the new radiometer’s receiver is 210 K/mW with a type A (random component) standard uncertainty of at most 7 pW when making power measurements of less than 10 nW. The original ACR has a responsivity of 29 K/mW and has a type A standard uncertainty of approximately 100 pW when making a similar low-noise-power measurement. Other properties of the radiometers are also described and compared.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. U. Datla, M. C. Croarkin, A. C. Parr, “Cryogenic blackbody calibrations at the National Institute of Standards and Technology low background infrared calibration facility,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 99, 77–87 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. U. Datla, K. Stock, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, P. J. Miller, P. V. Foukal, “Characterization of an absolute cryogenic radiometer as a standard detector for radiant-power measurements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7219–7225 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. R. Lorentz, S. C. Ebner, J. H. Walker, R. U. Datla, “NIST low-background infrared spectral calibration facility,” Metrologia 32, 621–624 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. M. Zhang, R. U. Datla, S. R. Lorentz, H. C. Tang, “Thermal modeling of absolute cryogenic radiometers,” J. Heat Transfer 116, 993–998 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. The identification in this paper of particular commercial items does not imply endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
  6. Z. M. Zhang, S. R. Lorentz, J. P. Rice, R. U. Datla, “Measurement of thermophysical properties for future development of cryogenic radiometers,” Metrologia 35, 511–515 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. C. Ebner, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, “Update on the low background IR calibration facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” in Imaging Infrared: Scene Simulation, Modeling, and Real Image Tracking, A. J. Huber, M. J. Triplett, J. R. Wolverton, eds., Proc. SPIE1110, 49–60 (1989).
  8. A. C. Carter, T. M. Jung, A. W. Smith, S. R. Lorentz, R. Datla, “Improved broadband blackbody calibrations at NIST for low-background infrared applications,” Metrologia 40, S1–S4 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. R. Lorentz, R. U. Datla, “Intercomparison between the NIST LBIR absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical trap detector,” Metrologia 30, 341–344 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, J. E. Hardis, C. L. Cromer, A. C. Parr, “National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1056–1068 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. C. Carter, T. M. Jung, A. W. Smith, S. R. Lorentz, R. Datla, “Improved broadband blackbody calibrations at NIST for low-background infrared applications,” Metrologia 40, S1–S4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Z. M. Zhang, S. R. Lorentz, J. P. Rice, R. U. Datla, “Measurement of thermophysical properties for future development of cryogenic radiometers,” Metrologia 35, 511–515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, J. E. Hardis, C. L. Cromer, A. C. Parr, “National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1056–1068 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Lorentz, S. C. Ebner, J. H. Walker, R. U. Datla, “NIST low-background infrared spectral calibration facility,” Metrologia 32, 621–624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

Z. M. Zhang, R. U. Datla, S. R. Lorentz, H. C. Tang, “Thermal modeling of absolute cryogenic radiometers,” J. Heat Transfer 116, 993–998 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. U. Datla, M. C. Croarkin, A. C. Parr, “Cryogenic blackbody calibrations at the National Institute of Standards and Technology low background infrared calibration facility,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 99, 77–87 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. R. Lorentz, R. U. Datla, “Intercomparison between the NIST LBIR absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical trap detector,” Metrologia 30, 341–344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Carter, A. C.

A. C. Carter, T. M. Jung, A. W. Smith, S. R. Lorentz, R. Datla, “Improved broadband blackbody calibrations at NIST for low-background infrared applications,” Metrologia 40, S1–S4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Croarkin, M. C.

R. U. Datla, M. C. Croarkin, A. C. Parr, “Cryogenic blackbody calibrations at the National Institute of Standards and Technology low background infrared calibration facility,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 99, 77–87 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cromer, C. L.

Datla, R.

A. C. Carter, T. M. Jung, A. W. Smith, S. R. Lorentz, R. Datla, “Improved broadband blackbody calibrations at NIST for low-background infrared applications,” Metrologia 40, S1–S4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Datla, R. U.

Z. M. Zhang, S. R. Lorentz, J. P. Rice, R. U. Datla, “Measurement of thermophysical properties for future development of cryogenic radiometers,” Metrologia 35, 511–515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lorentz, S. C. Ebner, J. H. Walker, R. U. Datla, “NIST low-background infrared spectral calibration facility,” Metrologia 32, 621–624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Zhang, R. U. Datla, S. R. Lorentz, H. C. Tang, “Thermal modeling of absolute cryogenic radiometers,” J. Heat Transfer 116, 993–998 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. U. Datla, M. C. Croarkin, A. C. Parr, “Cryogenic blackbody calibrations at the National Institute of Standards and Technology low background infrared calibration facility,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 99, 77–87 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lorentz, R. U. Datla, “Intercomparison between the NIST LBIR absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical trap detector,” Metrologia 30, 341–344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. U. Datla, K. Stock, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, P. J. Miller, P. V. Foukal, “Characterization of an absolute cryogenic radiometer as a standard detector for radiant-power measurements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7219–7225 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebner, S. C.

S. R. Lorentz, S. C. Ebner, J. H. Walker, R. U. Datla, “NIST low-background infrared spectral calibration facility,” Metrologia 32, 621–624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Ebner, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, “Update on the low background IR calibration facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” in Imaging Infrared: Scene Simulation, Modeling, and Real Image Tracking, A. J. Huber, M. J. Triplett, J. R. Wolverton, eds., Proc. SPIE1110, 49–60 (1989).

Foukal, P. V.

Gentile, T. R.

Hardis, J. E.

Houston, J. M.

Hoyt, C. C.

R. U. Datla, K. Stock, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, P. J. Miller, P. V. Foukal, “Characterization of an absolute cryogenic radiometer as a standard detector for radiant-power measurements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7219–7225 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Ebner, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, “Update on the low background IR calibration facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” in Imaging Infrared: Scene Simulation, Modeling, and Real Image Tracking, A. J. Huber, M. J. Triplett, J. R. Wolverton, eds., Proc. SPIE1110, 49–60 (1989).

Jung, T. M.

A. C. Carter, T. M. Jung, A. W. Smith, S. R. Lorentz, R. Datla, “Improved broadband blackbody calibrations at NIST for low-background infrared applications,” Metrologia 40, S1–S4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lorentz, S. R.

A. C. Carter, T. M. Jung, A. W. Smith, S. R. Lorentz, R. Datla, “Improved broadband blackbody calibrations at NIST for low-background infrared applications,” Metrologia 40, S1–S4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Zhang, S. R. Lorentz, J. P. Rice, R. U. Datla, “Measurement of thermophysical properties for future development of cryogenic radiometers,” Metrologia 35, 511–515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lorentz, S. C. Ebner, J. H. Walker, R. U. Datla, “NIST low-background infrared spectral calibration facility,” Metrologia 32, 621–624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Zhang, R. U. Datla, S. R. Lorentz, H. C. Tang, “Thermal modeling of absolute cryogenic radiometers,” J. Heat Transfer 116, 993–998 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lorentz, R. U. Datla, “Intercomparison between the NIST LBIR absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical trap detector,” Metrologia 30, 341–344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P. J.

Parr, A. C.

T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, J. E. Hardis, C. L. Cromer, A. C. Parr, “National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1056–1068 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. U. Datla, M. C. Croarkin, A. C. Parr, “Cryogenic blackbody calibrations at the National Institute of Standards and Technology low background infrared calibration facility,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 99, 77–87 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. U. Datla, K. Stock, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, P. J. Miller, P. V. Foukal, “Characterization of an absolute cryogenic radiometer as a standard detector for radiant-power measurements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7219–7225 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Ebner, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, “Update on the low background IR calibration facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” in Imaging Infrared: Scene Simulation, Modeling, and Real Image Tracking, A. J. Huber, M. J. Triplett, J. R. Wolverton, eds., Proc. SPIE1110, 49–60 (1989).

Rice, J. P.

Z. M. Zhang, S. R. Lorentz, J. P. Rice, R. U. Datla, “Measurement of thermophysical properties for future development of cryogenic radiometers,” Metrologia 35, 511–515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. W.

A. C. Carter, T. M. Jung, A. W. Smith, S. R. Lorentz, R. Datla, “Improved broadband blackbody calibrations at NIST for low-background infrared applications,” Metrologia 40, S1–S4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stock, K.

Tang, H. C.

Z. M. Zhang, R. U. Datla, S. R. Lorentz, H. C. Tang, “Thermal modeling of absolute cryogenic radiometers,” J. Heat Transfer 116, 993–998 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. H.

S. R. Lorentz, S. C. Ebner, J. H. Walker, R. U. Datla, “NIST low-background infrared spectral calibration facility,” Metrologia 32, 621–624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. M.

Z. M. Zhang, S. R. Lorentz, J. P. Rice, R. U. Datla, “Measurement of thermophysical properties for future development of cryogenic radiometers,” Metrologia 35, 511–515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Zhang, R. U. Datla, S. R. Lorentz, H. C. Tang, “Thermal modeling of absolute cryogenic radiometers,” J. Heat Transfer 116, 993–998 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Heat Transfer (1)

Z. M. Zhang, R. U. Datla, S. R. Lorentz, H. C. Tang, “Thermal modeling of absolute cryogenic radiometers,” J. Heat Transfer 116, 993–998 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (1)

R. U. Datla, M. C. Croarkin, A. C. Parr, “Cryogenic blackbody calibrations at the National Institute of Standards and Technology low background infrared calibration facility,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 99, 77–87 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (4)

S. R. Lorentz, S. C. Ebner, J. H. Walker, R. U. Datla, “NIST low-background infrared spectral calibration facility,” Metrologia 32, 621–624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Carter, T. M. Jung, A. W. Smith, S. R. Lorentz, R. Datla, “Improved broadband blackbody calibrations at NIST for low-background infrared applications,” Metrologia 40, S1–S4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lorentz, R. U. Datla, “Intercomparison between the NIST LBIR absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical trap detector,” Metrologia 30, 341–344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Zhang, S. R. Lorentz, J. P. Rice, R. U. Datla, “Measurement of thermophysical properties for future development of cryogenic radiometers,” Metrologia 35, 511–515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. C. Ebner, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, “Update on the low background IR calibration facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” in Imaging Infrared: Scene Simulation, Modeling, and Real Image Tracking, A. J. Huber, M. J. Triplett, J. R. Wolverton, eds., Proc. SPIE1110, 49–60 (1989).

The identification in this paper of particular commercial items does not imply endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Line drawing of ACR II and cryostat as it is mounted in the spectral calibration chamber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

100-pW power measurement. The peak-to-peak noise is larger than the fundamental noise floor of the ACR II owing to the background noise from the scene associated with real power measurements. However, statistical analysis of these data still provides a 7-pW type A standard uncertainty.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Design and Performance of the Original versus the Second-Generation Absolute Cryogenic Radiometer

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