Abstract

We describe experimental results with a diode-pumped, intracavity-doubled cw Nd:YLF laser in multilongitudinal mode and TEM00 spatial transverse mode with a critical phase-matched lithium triborate crystal. Taking into account the thermal effects of Nd:YLF, energy-transfer upconversion, and the thermal fracture limit, we set up a power-scaling model to optimize and design a fundamental diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser. A highly efficient second-harmonic laser was achieved, based on the optimized cavity design. A second-harmonic-generation output power of 20.5 W at a wavelength of 527 nm was obtained at an incident pump power of 60 W, corresponding to an optical-to-optical efficiency of 34.2%. The TEM00 mode green laser operates at a measured M2 parameter of 1.2. The instability of the green laser power is less than ±1% RMS.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2005 (1)

X. Peng, L. Xu, A. Asundi, “Highly efficient high-repetition-rate tunable all-solid-state optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 53–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

X. Peng, L. Xu, A. Asundi, “Power scaling of diode-pumped Nd:YVO4lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38, 1291–1299 (2002).

2001 (3)

X. Peng, A. Asundi, Y. Chen, Z. Xiong, “Combination study on mechanical properties of Nd:YVO4crystal with laser interferometry and finite-element analysis,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1396–1403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34, 2381–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, C. Zhu, V. Gaebler, B. Liu, H. J. Eichler, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Li, J. Qiu, “Theoretical and experimental studies of noise suppression for intracavity frequency doubled lasers with phase matching type I or II,” Opt. Commun. 189, 357–364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Kojima, S. Fujikawa, K. Yasui, “Stabilization of a high-power diode-side-pumped intracavity-frequency-doubled cw Nd:YAG laser by compensating for thermal lensing of a KTP crystal and Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 377–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, L. J. Lee, S. C. Wang, “Theoretical and experimental studies of single-mode operation in diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser: influence of KTP length,” Opt. Commun. 152, 319–323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Clarkson, P. J. Hardman, D. C. Hanna, “High-power diode-bar end-pumped Nd:YLF laser at 1.053 μm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1363–1365 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1993 (2)

Y. Kitaoka, S. Ohmori, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, T. Sasaki, “Stable and efficient green light generation by intracavity frequency doubling of Nd:YVO4lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 299–301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Magni, G. Gerullo, S. D. Silverstri, O. Svelto, L. J. Qian, M. Danailov, “Intracavity frequency doubling of a cw high-power TEM00Nd:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2111–2113 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

T. Y. Fan, “Single-axial mode, intracavity doubled Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2091–2093 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1968 (1)

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Asundi, A.

X. Peng, L. Xu, A. Asundi, “Highly efficient high-repetition-rate tunable all-solid-state optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 53–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, L. Xu, A. Asundi, “Power scaling of diode-pumped Nd:YVO4lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38, 1291–1299 (2002).

X. Peng, A. Asundi, Y. Chen, Z. Xiong, “Combination study on mechanical properties of Nd:YVO4crystal with laser interferometry and finite-element analysis,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1396–1403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, L. Xu, A. Asundi, “Compact broadband tunable short pulse high-repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator,” in Environmental Monitoring and Remediation III, V. Tuan, G. Gauglitz, R. A. Lieberman, K. Schaefer, K. Dennis, eds., Proc. SPIE5270, 214–222 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baer, T.

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Busac, C.

G. Feugnet, C. Busac, C. Larat, M. Schwarz, J. P. Pocholle, “High efficiency intracavity doubled diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4laser,” in Solid State Lasers V, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE2698, 105–114 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, L. J. Lee, S. C. Wang, “Theoretical and experimental studies of single-mode operation in diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser: influence of KTP length,” Opt. Commun. 152, 319–323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

W. A. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34, 2381–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Clarkson, P. J. Hardman, D. C. Hanna, “High-power diode-bar end-pumped Nd:YLF laser at 1.053 μm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1363–1365 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cole, J.

W. L. Nighan, J. Cole, “6W of stable, 532 nm, TEM00output at 30% efficiency from an intracavity-doubled, diode-pumped multiaxial mode N:YVO4laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, S. A. Payne, C. R. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper PD4.

Danailov, M.

Eichler, H. J.

D. Li, C. Zhu, V. Gaebler, B. Liu, H. J. Eichler, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Li, J. Qiu, “Theoretical and experimental studies of noise suppression for intracavity frequency doubled lasers with phase matching type I or II,” Opt. Commun. 189, 357–364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, “Single-axial mode, intracavity doubled Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2091–2093 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Feugnet, G.

G. Feugnet, C. Busac, C. Larat, M. Schwarz, J. P. Pocholle, “High efficiency intracavity doubled diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4laser,” in Solid State Lasers V, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE2698, 105–114 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frangineas, G.

M. D. Selker, T. J. Johnston, G. Frangineas, J. L. Nightingale, D. K. Negus, “8.5 watts of single frequency 532-nm light from a diode pumped intracavity ring laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1966Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CPD21.

Fujikawa, S.

T. Kojima, S. Fujikawa, K. Yasui, “Stabilization of a high-power diode-side-pumped intracavity-frequency-doubled cw Nd:YAG laser by compensating for thermal lensing of a KTP crystal and Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 377–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaebler, V.

D. Li, C. Zhu, V. Gaebler, B. Liu, H. J. Eichler, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Li, J. Qiu, “Theoretical and experimental studies of noise suppression for intracavity frequency doubled lasers with phase matching type I or II,” Opt. Commun. 189, 357–364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gerullo, G.

Hanna, D. C.

Hardman, P. J.

Huang, T. M.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, L. J. Lee, S. C. Wang, “Theoretical and experimental studies of single-mode operation in diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser: influence of KTP length,” Opt. Commun. 152, 319–323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Johnston, T. J.

M. D. Selker, T. J. Johnston, G. Frangineas, J. L. Nightingale, D. K. Negus, “8.5 watts of single frequency 532-nm light from a diode pumped intracavity ring laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1966Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CPD21.

Kato, M.

Y. Kitaoka, S. Ohmori, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, T. Sasaki, “Stable and efficient green light generation by intracavity frequency doubling of Nd:YVO4lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 299–301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kitaoka, Y.

Y. Kitaoka, S. Ohmori, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, T. Sasaki, “Stable and efficient green light generation by intracavity frequency doubling of Nd:YVO4lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 299–301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, T.

T. Kojima, S. Fujikawa, K. Yasui, “Stabilization of a high-power diode-side-pumped intracavity-frequency-doubled cw Nd:YAG laser by compensating for thermal lensing of a KTP crystal and Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 377–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, S.

W. Weichmann, L. Y. Liy, S. Kubota, “Efficient 1W single frequency cw green generation from an intracavity-doubled diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 96–98.

Larat, C.

G. Feugnet, C. Busac, C. Larat, M. Schwarz, J. P. Pocholle, “High efficiency intracavity doubled diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4laser,” in Solid State Lasers V, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE2698, 105–114 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

L. Yan, C. H. Lee, “Thermal effects in end pumped Nd: phosphate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1286–1292 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. J.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, L. J. Lee, S. C. Wang, “Theoretical and experimental studies of single-mode operation in diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser: influence of KTP length,” Opt. Commun. 152, 319–323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

D. Li, C. Zhu, V. Gaebler, B. Liu, H. J. Eichler, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Li, J. Qiu, “Theoretical and experimental studies of noise suppression for intracavity frequency doubled lasers with phase matching type I or II,” Opt. Commun. 189, 357–364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

D. Li, C. Zhu, V. Gaebler, B. Liu, H. J. Eichler, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Li, J. Qiu, “Theoretical and experimental studies of noise suppression for intracavity frequency doubled lasers with phase matching type I or II,” Opt. Commun. 189, 357–364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

D. Li, C. Zhu, V. Gaebler, B. Liu, H. J. Eichler, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Li, J. Qiu, “Theoretical and experimental studies of noise suppression for intracavity frequency doubled lasers with phase matching type I or II,” Opt. Commun. 189, 357–364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liy, L. Y.

W. Weichmann, L. Y. Liy, S. Kubota, “Efficient 1W single frequency cw green generation from an intracavity-doubled diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 96–98.

Magni, V.

Meyn, J.-P.

Negus, D. K.

M. D. Selker, T. J. Johnston, G. Frangineas, J. L. Nightingale, D. K. Negus, “8.5 watts of single frequency 532-nm light from a diode pumped intracavity ring laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1966Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CPD21.

Nighan, W. L.

W. L. Nighan, J. Cole, “6W of stable, 532 nm, TEM00output at 30% efficiency from an intracavity-doubled, diode-pumped multiaxial mode N:YVO4laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, S. A. Payne, C. R. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper PD4.

Nightingale, J. L.

M. D. Selker, T. J. Johnston, G. Frangineas, J. L. Nightingale, D. K. Negus, “8.5 watts of single frequency 532-nm light from a diode pumped intracavity ring laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1966Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CPD21.

Ohmori, S.

Y. Kitaoka, S. Ohmori, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, T. Sasaki, “Stable and efficient green light generation by intracavity frequency doubling of Nd:YVO4lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 299–301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X.

X. Peng, L. Xu, A. Asundi, “Highly efficient high-repetition-rate tunable all-solid-state optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 53–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, L. Xu, A. Asundi, “Power scaling of diode-pumped Nd:YVO4lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38, 1291–1299 (2002).

X. Peng, A. Asundi, Y. Chen, Z. Xiong, “Combination study on mechanical properties of Nd:YVO4crystal with laser interferometry and finite-element analysis,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1396–1403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, L. Xu, A. Asundi, “Compact broadband tunable short pulse high-repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator,” in Environmental Monitoring and Remediation III, V. Tuan, G. Gauglitz, R. A. Lieberman, K. Schaefer, K. Dennis, eds., Proc. SPIE5270, 214–222 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pocholle, J. P.

G. Feugnet, C. Busac, C. Larat, M. Schwarz, J. P. Pocholle, “High efficiency intracavity doubled diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4laser,” in Solid State Lasers V, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE2698, 105–114 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Qian, L. J.

Qiu, J.

D. Li, C. Zhu, V. Gaebler, B. Liu, H. J. Eichler, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Li, J. Qiu, “Theoretical and experimental studies of noise suppression for intracavity frequency doubled lasers with phase matching type I or II,” Opt. Commun. 189, 357–364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

Y. Kitaoka, S. Ohmori, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, T. Sasaki, “Stable and efficient green light generation by intracavity frequency doubling of Nd:YVO4lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 299–301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, M.

G. Feugnet, C. Busac, C. Larat, M. Schwarz, J. P. Pocholle, “High efficiency intracavity doubled diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4laser,” in Solid State Lasers V, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE2698, 105–114 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Selker, M. D.

M. D. Selker, T. J. Johnston, G. Frangineas, J. L. Nightingale, D. K. Negus, “8.5 watts of single frequency 532-nm light from a diode pumped intracavity ring laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1966Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CPD21.

Silverstri, S. D.

Svelto, O.

Wang, C. L.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, L. J. Lee, S. C. Wang, “Theoretical and experimental studies of single-mode operation in diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser: influence of KTP length,” Opt. Commun. 152, 319–323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, L. J. Lee, S. C. Wang, “Theoretical and experimental studies of single-mode operation in diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser: influence of KTP length,” Opt. Commun. 152, 319–323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

D. Li, C. Zhu, V. Gaebler, B. Liu, H. J. Eichler, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Li, J. Qiu, “Theoretical and experimental studies of noise suppression for intracavity frequency doubled lasers with phase matching type I or II,” Opt. Commun. 189, 357–364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weichmann, W.

W. Weichmann, L. Y. Liy, S. Kubota, “Efficient 1W single frequency cw green generation from an intracavity-doubled diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 96–98.

Xiong, Z.

Xu, L.

X. Peng, L. Xu, A. Asundi, “Highly efficient high-repetition-rate tunable all-solid-state optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 53–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, L. Xu, A. Asundi, “Power scaling of diode-pumped Nd:YVO4lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38, 1291–1299 (2002).

X. Peng, L. Xu, A. Asundi, “Compact broadband tunable short pulse high-repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator,” in Environmental Monitoring and Remediation III, V. Tuan, G. Gauglitz, R. A. Lieberman, K. Schaefer, K. Dennis, eds., Proc. SPIE5270, 214–222 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

Y. Kitaoka, S. Ohmori, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, T. Sasaki, “Stable and efficient green light generation by intracavity frequency doubling of Nd:YVO4lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 299–301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.

L. Yan, C. H. Lee, “Thermal effects in end pumped Nd: phosphate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1286–1292 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yasui, K.

T. Kojima, S. Fujikawa, K. Yasui, “Stabilization of a high-power diode-side-pumped intracavity-frequency-doubled cw Nd:YAG laser by compensating for thermal lensing of a KTP crystal and Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 377–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

D. Li, C. Zhu, V. Gaebler, B. Liu, H. J. Eichler, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Li, J. Qiu, “Theoretical and experimental studies of noise suppression for intracavity frequency doubled lasers with phase matching type I or II,” Opt. Commun. 189, 357–364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C.

D. Li, C. Zhu, V. Gaebler, B. Liu, H. J. Eichler, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Li, J. Qiu, “Theoretical and experimental studies of noise suppression for intracavity frequency doubled lasers with phase matching type I or II,” Opt. Commun. 189, 357–364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Kitaoka, S. Ohmori, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, T. Sasaki, “Stable and efficient green light generation by intracavity frequency doubling of Nd:YVO4lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 299–301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

T. Y. Fan, “Single-axial mode, intracavity doubled Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2091–2093 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Kojima, S. Fujikawa, K. Yasui, “Stabilization of a high-power diode-side-pumped intracavity-frequency-doubled cw Nd:YAG laser by compensating for thermal lensing of a KTP crystal and Nd:YAG rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 377–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, L. Xu, A. Asundi, “Power scaling of diode-pumped Nd:YVO4lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38, 1291–1299 (2002).

X. Peng, L. Xu, A. Asundi, “Highly efficient high-repetition-rate tunable all-solid-state optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 53–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

L. Yan, C. H. Lee, “Thermal effects in end pumped Nd: phosphate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1286–1292 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

W. A. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34, 2381–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

D. Li, C. Zhu, V. Gaebler, B. Liu, H. J. Eichler, Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Li, J. Qiu, “Theoretical and experimental studies of noise suppression for intracavity frequency doubled lasers with phase matching type I or II,” Opt. Commun. 189, 357–364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, L. J. Lee, S. C. Wang, “Theoretical and experimental studies of single-mode operation in diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser: influence of KTP length,” Opt. Commun. 152, 319–323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (6)

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X. Peng, L. Xu, A. Asundi, “Compact broadband tunable short pulse high-repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator,” in Environmental Monitoring and Remediation III, V. Tuan, G. Gauglitz, R. A. Lieberman, K. Schaefer, K. Dennis, eds., Proc. SPIE5270, 214–222 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Selker, T. J. Johnston, G. Frangineas, J. L. Nightingale, D. K. Negus, “8.5 watts of single frequency 532-nm light from a diode pumped intracavity ring laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1966Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper CPD21.

W. Weichmann, L. Y. Liy, S. Kubota, “Efficient 1W single frequency cw green generation from an intracavity-doubled diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai, S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 96–98.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Maximum stress as a function of pump beam radius at four doping concentrations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output power as a function of Nd doping concentration at rod lengths of 10, 20, 30, and 40 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic layout of the intracavity SHG laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser beam propagation inside the cavity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

IR and second-harmonic green output power of the diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

IR and second-harmonic green beam profiles: (a) fundamental beam, (b) green beam.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal behavior of the green laser.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Cavity Parameters of Fundamental-Wave and Intracavity SHG Lasers

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Table 2 Parameters of the LBO Used in Our Experiment

Equations (25)

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σ max = α T E ξ P in α 4 π K [ 1 - 1 2 ( ω p r b ) 2 ] ,
( ω l ω p ) 4 = M q 2 K λ 2 2 P abs ξ Q | d η d T + α T ( n - 1 ) l b * l b | ,
M f 2 = [ ( M i 2 ) 2 + ( M q 2 ) 2 ] .
δ = δ d + δ f + T ,
δ f = δ 0 + Δ δ b l b ,
δ d = 1 - S R = 1 - | 0 r b exp ( i Δ ϕ ) exp ( - r 2 ω l 2 ) r d r | 2 | 0 exp ( - r 2 ω l 2 ) r d r | 2 ,
Δ ϕ = - π D ( r ) r 2 λ = - π D 0 r 2 λ + 3 π ω p 2 D 0 γ 2 λ ( r ω p ) 4 ,
D 0 = D th + ( P in - P th ) ξ Q 2 π ω p 2 K [ d n d T + α T ( n - 1 ) l b * l b ] ,
D th = D max { 1 - 2 ( 1 - ξ Q ) β [ ( 2 ( 1 + β - 1 ) + ln ( 4 β 1 + β - 1 1 + β + 1 ) ] } ,
β = 8 W P th α τ f 2 π ω p 2 h ν p ,
α = α 0 ρ ρ 0 ,
P out = T δ η ( P in - P th ) ,
P th = I sat η p l δ 2 V ,
η = η p η m ,
η p = η abs η t η st η Q ,
η m = ζ ( α , ω l ) 2 ζ [ α , ( ω l / 2 ) ] ,
ζ ( α , ω 1 ) = 1 2 α 1 - exp ( - α l b ) 0 l b [ ω l ω p ( z ) ] 2 × { 1 - exp [ - 2 ω p ( z ) ω i ] 2 } exp ( - α z ) d z .
ω p ( z ) = ω p + θ p n z - z 0 ,
γ SH = 2 ω 1 2 d eff 2 k l l π n L 3 ɛ 0 c 3 h ( B , ξ ) ω y ω x ,
B = 1 2 ρ l k l ,
h ( B , ξ l ) = l a l arctan ξ l ,
l a = π ω 0 ρ ,
ξ l = l b ,
b = k l ω 0 2 .
P 2 ( 2 ω ) = γ SH P c 2 ( ω ) ,

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