Abstract

A compact fiber-coupled bulk acousto-optical multiwavelength variable optical attenuator module design that uses a retroreflective double-pass geometry within a single bulk acousto-optic tunable filter device is presented. The proposed attenuator module demonstrates a high 17-dB notch dynamic range at a low 100-mW drive power and uses a single bulk collinear-interaction acousto-optic tunable-filter device. Experiments show a low (<1.8-dB) fiber-to-fiber insertion loss with a fast 34-μs speed within a wide 1520–1640-nm agile multinotch band. The basic broadband attenuator module design is extended to allow for efficient architectures for routing modules such as agile drop filters, analog hitless tap filters, and digital add–drop switches.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  4. J. E. Ford, J. A. Walker, “Dynamic spectral power equalization using micro-optomechanics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1440–1442 (1998).
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  21. N. A. Riza, “Polarization-based fiber-optic switch,” U.S. patent6,360,037 (19March2002).
  22. N. A. Riza, M. J. Mughal, “Fiber-optic multi-wavelength variable attenuator using bulk acousto-optics,” presented at the International Conference on Photonics Switching, Versailles, France, 26 September–2 October 2003.
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    [CrossRef]
  24. V. B. Voloshinov, “Close to collinear acousto-optical interaction in paratellurite,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2089–2094 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. van Buren, N. A. Riza, “Foundations for low-loss fiber gradient-index lens pair coupling with the self-imaging mechanism,” Appl. Opt. 42, 550–565 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2003 (2)

2002 (2)

M. J. Mughal, N. A. Riza, “Compact acousto-optic high speed variable attenuator for high power applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 510–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Sapriel, D. Charissoux, V. Voloshinov, V. Molchanov, “Tunable acoustooptic filters and equalizers for WDM applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 892–899 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. A. Riza, Z. Yaqoob, “Submicrosecond speed variable optical attenuator using acousto-optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 693–695 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. M. J. Schiffer, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. J. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. T. Gomez, “Smart dynamic wavelength equalizer with on-chip spectrum analyzer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1019–1021 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (5)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S.-M. Hwang, A. E. Willner, Z. Bao, D. A. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of dynamic network equalization of three 2.5 Gb/s WDM channels over 100 km using acousto-optic tunable filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1243–1245 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

I. C. Chang, “Collinear beam acousto-optic tunable filters,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1255–1256 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Voloshinov, “Close to collinear acousto-optical interaction in paratellurite,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2089–2094 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abe, S.

S. Wada, S. Abe, Y. Ota, B. Reichman, T. Imura, C. A. Daza, “Variable gain equalizer using magneto-optics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 324–326.
[CrossRef]

Bao, Z.

S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S.-M. Hwang, A. E. Willner, Z. Bao, D. A. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of dynamic network equalization of three 2.5 Gb/s WDM channels over 100 km using acousto-optic tunable filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1243–1245 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barge, M.

Burgmeier, J.

Cappuzzo, M. A.

P. M. J. Schiffer, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. J. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. T. Gomez, “Smart dynamic wavelength equalizer with on-chip spectrum analyzer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1019–1021 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, I. C.

I. C. Chang, “Collinear beam acousto-optic tunable filters,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1255–1256 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Charissoux, D.

J. Sapriel, D. Charissoux, V. Voloshinov, V. Molchanov, “Tunable acoustooptic filters and equalizers for WDM applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 892–899 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Jian

Chevallier, R.

Cohen, A. D.

M. C. Parker, A. D. Cohen, R. J. Mears, “Dynamic digital holographic wavelength filtering,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1259–1270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cords, A.

Daza, C. A.

S. Wada, S. Abe, Y. Ota, B. Reichman, T. Imura, C. A. Daza, “Variable gain equalizer using magneto-optics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 324–326.
[CrossRef]

de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J. L.

Doerr, C. R.

P. M. J. Schiffer, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. J. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. T. Gomez, “Smart dynamic wavelength equalizer with on-chip spectrum analyzer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1019–1021 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J. E.

J. E. Ford, J. A. Walker, “Dynamic spectral power equalization using micro-optomechanics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1440–1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, L. T.

P. M. J. Schiffer, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. J. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. T. Gomez, “Smart dynamic wavelength equalizer with on-chip spectrum analyzer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1019–1021 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herman, H.

H. Herman, A. Modlich, Th. Müller, W. Sohler, F. Wehrmann, “Advanced integrated, acousto-optical switches add–drop multiplexers and WDM cross-connects in LiNbO3,” in Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, N.Y., 1997), pp. 578–581.

Huang, S. H.

S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S.-M. Hwang, A. E. Willner, Z. Bao, D. A. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of dynamic network equalization of three 2.5 Gb/s WDM channels over 100 km using acousto-optic tunable filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1243–1245 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.-M.

S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S.-M. Hwang, A. E. Willner, Z. Bao, D. A. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of dynamic network equalization of three 2.5 Gb/s WDM channels over 100 km using acousto-optic tunable filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1243–1245 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Imura, T.

S. Wada, S. Abe, Y. Ota, B. Reichman, T. Imura, C. A. Daza, “Variable gain equalizer using magneto-optics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 324–326.
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

H. S. Park, K. Y. Song, S. H. Yun, B. Y. Kim, “All-fiber wavelength-tunable acousto-optic switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. WJ4/1–WJ4/36.

Kondis, J. P.

J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, A. R. Ranalli, R. Lindquist, “Liquid crystals in bulk optics-based DWDM optical switches and spectral equalizers,” in Proceedings of the 14th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS’01) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 292–293.

Kump, J.

J. Kump, Crystal Technology, Inc., Palo Alto, Calif. 94303–4230 (personal communications).

Laskowski, E. J.

P. M. J. Schiffer, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. J. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. T. Gomez, “Smart dynamic wavelength equalizer with on-chip spectrum analyzer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1019–1021 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lindquist, R.

J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, A. R. Ranalli, R. Lindquist, “Liquid crystals in bulk optics-based DWDM optical switches and spectral equalizers,” in Proceedings of the 14th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS’01) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 292–293.

Loukina, T.

Madamopoulos, N.

Marz, R.

Mears, R. J.

M. C. Parker, A. D. Cohen, R. J. Mears, “Dynamic digital holographic wavelength filtering,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1259–1270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Modlich, A.

H. Herman, A. Modlich, Th. Müller, W. Sohler, F. Wehrmann, “Advanced integrated, acousto-optical switches add–drop multiplexers and WDM cross-connects in LiNbO3,” in Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, N.Y., 1997), pp. 578–581.

Molchanov, V.

J. Sapriel, D. Charissoux, V. Voloshinov, V. Molchanov, “Tunable acoustooptic filters and equalizers for WDM applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 892–899 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mughal, M. J.

M. J. Mughal, N. A. Riza, “Compact acousto-optic high speed variable attenuator for high power applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 510–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, M. J. Mughal, “Fiber-optic multi-wavelength variable attenuator using bulk acousto-optics,” presented at the International Conference on Photonics Switching, Versailles, France, 26 September–2 October 2003.

Müller, Th.

H. Herman, A. Modlich, Th. Müller, W. Sohler, F. Wehrmann, “Advanced integrated, acousto-optical switches add–drop multiplexers and WDM cross-connects in LiNbO3,” in Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, N.Y., 1997), pp. 578–581.

Ota, Y.

S. Wada, S. Abe, Y. Ota, B. Reichman, T. Imura, C. A. Daza, “Variable gain equalizer using magneto-optics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 324–326.
[CrossRef]

Park, H. S.

H. S. Park, K. Y. Song, S. H. Yun, B. Y. Kim, “All-fiber wavelength-tunable acousto-optic switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. WJ4/1–WJ4/36.

Parker, M. C.

M. C. Parker, A. D. Cohen, R. J. Mears, “Dynamic digital holographic wavelength filtering,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1259–1270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paunescu, A.

P. M. J. Schiffer, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. J. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. T. Gomez, “Smart dynamic wavelength equalizer with on-chip spectrum analyzer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1019–1021 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ranalli, A. R.

J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, A. R. Ranalli, R. Lindquist, “Liquid crystals in bulk optics-based DWDM optical switches and spectral equalizers,” in Proceedings of the 14th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS’01) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 292–293.

Reichman, B.

S. Wada, S. Abe, Y. Ota, B. Reichman, T. Imura, C. A. Daza, “Variable gain equalizer using magneto-optics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 324–326.
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

M. van Buren, N. A. Riza, “Foundations for low-loss fiber gradient-index lens pair coupling with the self-imaging mechanism,” Appl. Opt. 42, 550–565 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Mughal, N. A. Riza, “Compact acousto-optic high speed variable attenuator for high power applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 510–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, Z. Yaqoob, “Submicrosecond speed variable optical attenuator using acousto-optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 693–695 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, S. Sumriddetchkajorn, “Digitally controlled fault tolerant multiwavelength programmable fiber-optic attenuator using a two-dimensional digital micromirror devices,” Opt. Lett. 24, 282–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, S. Sumriddetchkajorn, “Fault-tolerant dense multiwavelength add–drop filter with a two-dimensional digital micromirror device,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6355–6361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, Jian Chen, “Ultra-high 347-dB optical drop rejection multiwavelength add–drop filter using spatial filtering and dual bulk acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Lett. 23, 945–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, N. Madamopoulos, “Phased array antenna maximum compression reversible photonic beamformer using ternary designs and multiple wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 36, 983–996 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Riza, “Ferroelectric crystal polarization switching-based high speed multiwavelength add/drop filter and array waveguide gratings,” in Optics in Computing’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. B. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 335–338 (1998).

N. A. Riza, “Polarization-based fiber-optic switch,” U.S. patent6,360,037 (19March2002).

N. A. Riza, M. J. Mughal, “Fiber-optic multi-wavelength variable attenuator using bulk acousto-optics,” presented at the International Conference on Photonics Switching, Versailles, France, 26 September–2 October 2003.

Sapriel, J.

J. Sapriel, D. Charissoux, V. Voloshinov, V. Molchanov, “Tunable acoustooptic filters and equalizers for WDM applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 892–899 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C.

Schaumann, R.

R. Schaumann, M. E. Van Valkenburg, Design of Analog Filters (Oxford U. Press, New York, 2001).

Schiffer, P. M. J.

P. M. J. Schiffer, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. J. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. T. Gomez, “Smart dynamic wavelength equalizer with on-chip spectrum analyzer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1019–1021 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scott, B. A.

J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, A. R. Ranalli, R. Lindquist, “Liquid crystals in bulk optics-based DWDM optical switches and spectral equalizers,” in Proceedings of the 14th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS’01) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), Vol. 1, pp. 292–293.

Smith, D. A.

S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S.-M. Hwang, A. E. Willner, Z. Bao, D. A. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of dynamic network equalization of three 2.5 Gb/s WDM channels over 100 km using acousto-optic tunable filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1243–1245 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

H. Herman, A. Modlich, Th. Müller, W. Sohler, F. Wehrmann, “Advanced integrated, acousto-optical switches add–drop multiplexers and WDM cross-connects in LiNbO3,” in Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, N.Y., 1997), pp. 578–581.

Song, K. Y.

H. S. Park, K. Y. Song, S. H. Yun, B. Y. Kim, “All-fiber wavelength-tunable acousto-optic switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. WJ4/1–WJ4/36.

Stulz, L. W.

P. M. J. Schiffer, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. J. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. T. Gomez, “Smart dynamic wavelength equalizer with on-chip spectrum analyzer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1019–1021 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stummer, B.

Sumriddetchkajorn, S.

van Buren, M.

Van Valkenburg, M. E.

R. Schaumann, M. E. Van Valkenburg, Design of Analog Filters (Oxford U. Press, New York, 2001).

Voloshinov, V.

J. Sapriel, D. Charissoux, V. Voloshinov, V. Molchanov, “Tunable acoustooptic filters and equalizers for WDM applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 892–899 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Voloshinov, V. B.

V. B. Voloshinov, “Close to collinear acousto-optical interaction in paratellurite,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2089–2094 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wada, S.

S. Wada, S. Abe, Y. Ota, B. Reichman, T. Imura, C. A. Daza, “Variable gain equalizer using magneto-optics,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 324–326.
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. A.

J. E. Ford, J. A. Walker, “Dynamic spectral power equalization using micro-optomechanics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1440–1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wehrmann, F.

H. Herman, A. Modlich, Th. Müller, W. Sohler, F. Wehrmann, “Advanced integrated, acousto-optical switches add–drop multiplexers and WDM cross-connects in LiNbO3,” in Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, N.Y., 1997), pp. 578–581.

Willner, A. E.

S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S.-M. Hwang, A. E. Willner, Z. Bao, D. A. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of dynamic network equalization of three 2.5 Gb/s WDM channels over 100 km using acousto-optic tunable filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1243–1245 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yaqoob, Z.

N. A. Riza, Z. Yaqoob, “Submicrosecond speed variable optical attenuator using acousto-optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 693–695 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yaqoob, “Grating-based real-time smart optics for biomedicine and communications,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., 2003).

Yun, S. H.

H. S. Park, K. Y. Song, S. H. Yun, B. Y. Kim, “All-fiber wavelength-tunable acousto-optic switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. WJ4/1–WJ4/36.

Zou, X. Y.

S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S.-M. Hwang, A. E. Willner, Z. Bao, D. A. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of dynamic network equalization of three 2.5 Gb/s WDM channels over 100 km using acousto-optic tunable filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1243–1245 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (1)

I. C. Chang, “Collinear beam acousto-optic tunable filters,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1255–1256 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. C. Parker, A. D. Cohen, R. J. Mears, “Dynamic digital holographic wavelength filtering,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1259–1270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

S. H. Huang, X. Y. Zou, S.-M. Hwang, A. E. Willner, Z. Bao, D. A. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of dynamic network equalization of three 2.5 Gb/s WDM channels over 100 km using acousto-optic tunable filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1243–1245 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ford, J. A. Walker, “Dynamic spectral power equalization using micro-optomechanics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1440–1442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, Z. Yaqoob, “Submicrosecond speed variable optical attenuator using acousto-optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 693–695 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Mughal, N. A. Riza, “Compact acousto-optic high speed variable attenuator for high power applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 510–512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Proposed bulk AOTF-based MVOA design with collinear AO interaction. Here and for the figures below, abbreviations are defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured AOTF device efficiency versus drive power data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured AOTF device rf-versus-tunable-wavelength data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Proposed MVOA measured attenuation data for two-wavelength suppression.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Proposed MVOA data, showing a single-wavelength notch depth and spectral 3-dB resolution.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Proposed tunable MVOA data, showing programmed attenuation curves, one at a time, for four notches across the wavelength band.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Top, AOTF drive signal. Bottom, 34.2-μs reset time for the proposed MVOA.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Extension of the proposed MVOA to the design of a polarization-independent drop filter.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Extension of the proposed MVOA to the design of a polarization-independent reconfigurable digital add–drop filter.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Extension of the proposed MVOA to the design of a polarization-independent bandpass filter.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Extension of the proposed MVOA to the design of a polarization-independent agile hitless tap filter.

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