Abstract

Eye tracking is one of the latest technologies that has shown potential in several areas, including biometrics; human–computer interactions for people with and without disabilities; and noninvasive monitoring, detection, and even diagnosis of physiological and neurological problems in individuals. Current noninvasive eye-tracking methods achieve a 30-Hz rate with a low accuracy in gaze estimation, which is insufficient for many applications. We propose a new noninvasive optical eye-tracking system that is capable of operating at speeds as high as 6–12 kHz. A new CCD video camera and hardware architecture are used, and a novel fast algorithm leverages specific features of the input CCD camera to yield a real-time eye-tracking system. A field-programmable gate array is used to control the CCD camera and to execute the operations. Initial results show the excellent performance of our system under severe head-motion and low-contrast conditions.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Rabiner, B.-H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition (Prentice-Hall, N.J., 1993).
  2. G. Yang, T. S. Huang, “Human face detection in a complex background,” Pattern Recogn. 27, 53–63 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Talukder, D. Casasent, “Adaptive activation function neural net for face recognition,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 549–552.
  4. Y. Tian, T. Kanade, J. Cohn, “Recognizing action units for facial expression analysis,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 97–115 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Starner, J. Weaver, A. Pentland, “Real-time American sign language recognition using desk and wearable computer based video,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 1371–1375 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Kimmig, M. W. Greenlee, F. Huethe, T. Mergner, “MR-Eyetracker: A new method for eye movement recording in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),” Exp. Brain Res. 126, 443–449 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Collewijn, “Eye movement recording,” in Vision Research: A Practical Guide to Laboratory Methods, R. H. S. Carpenter, J. G. Robson, eds. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1999), pp. 245–285.
  8. S. Baluja, D. Pomerleau, “Non-intrusive gaze tracking using artificial neural networks,” (School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).
  9. P. U. Müller, D. Cavegn, G. Dewalle, R. Groner, “A comparison of a new limbus tracker, corneal reflection technique, Purkinje eye tracking and electro-oculography,” in Perception and Cognition, G. dYdewalle, J. V. Rensbergen, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993), pp. 393–401.
  10. K. Yana, F. Okuyama, H. Yoshida, S. Fukushima, T. Tokoro, “An evidence of blood pressure and respiration originated variations in fluctuations of pupil diameter of the human eye,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), Vol. 13, pp. 472–272.
  11. G. Calcagnini, F. Miraglia, F. Censi, S. Lino, “Cardiovascular rhythms in spontaneous pupil diameter fluctuation,” IEEE Comput. Cardiology 1, 133–136 (1997).
  12. C. J. Lueck, S. Tanyeri, T. J. Crawford, L. Henderson, C. Kennard, “Antisaccades and remembered saccades in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 53, 284–288 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. P. Reulen, E. A. Sander, L. A. Hogenhuis, “Eye movement disorders in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis,” Brain 106, 121–140 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. D. Yee, S. M. Whitcup, I. M. Williams, “Saccadic eye movements in myasthenia gravis,” Ophthalmol. 94, 219–225 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. J. Ciuffreda, B. Tannen, Eye Movement Basics for the Clinician (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1995).
  16. S. P. Monacos, A. A. Portillo, W. Liu, J. W. Alexander, G. Ortiz, “A high frame rate CCD camera with region-of-interest capability,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 3, pp. 1513–1522.
  17. D. H. Ballard, “Generalizing the Hough transform to detect arbitrary shapes,” Pattern Recogn. 13, 111–122 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 679–698 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Y. Tian, T. Kanade, J. Cohn, “Recognizing action units for facial expression analysis,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 97–115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Kimmig, M. W. Greenlee, F. Huethe, T. Mergner, “MR-Eyetracker: A new method for eye movement recording in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),” Exp. Brain Res. 126, 443–449 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. Starner, J. Weaver, A. Pentland, “Real-time American sign language recognition using desk and wearable computer based video,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 1371–1375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. Calcagnini, F. Miraglia, F. Censi, S. Lino, “Cardiovascular rhythms in spontaneous pupil diameter fluctuation,” IEEE Comput. Cardiology 1, 133–136 (1997).

1994 (1)

G. Yang, T. S. Huang, “Human face detection in a complex background,” Pattern Recogn. 27, 53–63 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. J. Lueck, S. Tanyeri, T. J. Crawford, L. Henderson, C. Kennard, “Antisaccades and remembered saccades in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 53, 284–288 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. D. Yee, S. M. Whitcup, I. M. Williams, “Saccadic eye movements in myasthenia gravis,” Ophthalmol. 94, 219–225 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 679–698 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

J. P. Reulen, E. A. Sander, L. A. Hogenhuis, “Eye movement disorders in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis,” Brain 106, 121–140 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

D. H. Ballard, “Generalizing the Hough transform to detect arbitrary shapes,” Pattern Recogn. 13, 111–122 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, J. W.

S. P. Monacos, A. A. Portillo, W. Liu, J. W. Alexander, G. Ortiz, “A high frame rate CCD camera with region-of-interest capability,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 3, pp. 1513–1522.

Ballard, D. H.

D. H. Ballard, “Generalizing the Hough transform to detect arbitrary shapes,” Pattern Recogn. 13, 111–122 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Baluja, S.

S. Baluja, D. Pomerleau, “Non-intrusive gaze tracking using artificial neural networks,” (School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).

Calcagnini, G.

G. Calcagnini, F. Miraglia, F. Censi, S. Lino, “Cardiovascular rhythms in spontaneous pupil diameter fluctuation,” IEEE Comput. Cardiology 1, 133–136 (1997).

Canny, J.

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 679–698 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casasent, D.

A. Talukder, D. Casasent, “Adaptive activation function neural net for face recognition,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 549–552.

Cavegn, D.

P. U. Müller, D. Cavegn, G. Dewalle, R. Groner, “A comparison of a new limbus tracker, corneal reflection technique, Purkinje eye tracking and electro-oculography,” in Perception and Cognition, G. dYdewalle, J. V. Rensbergen, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993), pp. 393–401.

Censi, F.

G. Calcagnini, F. Miraglia, F. Censi, S. Lino, “Cardiovascular rhythms in spontaneous pupil diameter fluctuation,” IEEE Comput. Cardiology 1, 133–136 (1997).

Ciuffreda, K. J.

K. J. Ciuffreda, B. Tannen, Eye Movement Basics for the Clinician (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1995).

Cohn, J.

Y. Tian, T. Kanade, J. Cohn, “Recognizing action units for facial expression analysis,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 97–115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Collewijn, H.

H. Collewijn, “Eye movement recording,” in Vision Research: A Practical Guide to Laboratory Methods, R. H. S. Carpenter, J. G. Robson, eds. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1999), pp. 245–285.

Crawford, T. J.

C. J. Lueck, S. Tanyeri, T. J. Crawford, L. Henderson, C. Kennard, “Antisaccades and remembered saccades in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 53, 284–288 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dewalle, G.

P. U. Müller, D. Cavegn, G. Dewalle, R. Groner, “A comparison of a new limbus tracker, corneal reflection technique, Purkinje eye tracking and electro-oculography,” in Perception and Cognition, G. dYdewalle, J. V. Rensbergen, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993), pp. 393–401.

Fukushima, S.

K. Yana, F. Okuyama, H. Yoshida, S. Fukushima, T. Tokoro, “An evidence of blood pressure and respiration originated variations in fluctuations of pupil diameter of the human eye,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), Vol. 13, pp. 472–272.

Greenlee, M. W.

H. Kimmig, M. W. Greenlee, F. Huethe, T. Mergner, “MR-Eyetracker: A new method for eye movement recording in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),” Exp. Brain Res. 126, 443–449 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groner, R.

P. U. Müller, D. Cavegn, G. Dewalle, R. Groner, “A comparison of a new limbus tracker, corneal reflection technique, Purkinje eye tracking and electro-oculography,” in Perception and Cognition, G. dYdewalle, J. V. Rensbergen, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993), pp. 393–401.

Henderson, L.

C. J. Lueck, S. Tanyeri, T. J. Crawford, L. Henderson, C. Kennard, “Antisaccades and remembered saccades in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 53, 284–288 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogenhuis, L. A.

J. P. Reulen, E. A. Sander, L. A. Hogenhuis, “Eye movement disorders in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis,” Brain 106, 121–140 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, T. S.

G. Yang, T. S. Huang, “Human face detection in a complex background,” Pattern Recogn. 27, 53–63 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huethe, F.

H. Kimmig, M. W. Greenlee, F. Huethe, T. Mergner, “MR-Eyetracker: A new method for eye movement recording in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),” Exp. Brain Res. 126, 443–449 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juang, B.-H.

L. Rabiner, B.-H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition (Prentice-Hall, N.J., 1993).

Kanade, T.

Y. Tian, T. Kanade, J. Cohn, “Recognizing action units for facial expression analysis,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 97–115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kennard, C.

C. J. Lueck, S. Tanyeri, T. J. Crawford, L. Henderson, C. Kennard, “Antisaccades and remembered saccades in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 53, 284–288 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimmig, H.

H. Kimmig, M. W. Greenlee, F. Huethe, T. Mergner, “MR-Eyetracker: A new method for eye movement recording in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),” Exp. Brain Res. 126, 443–449 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lino, S.

G. Calcagnini, F. Miraglia, F. Censi, S. Lino, “Cardiovascular rhythms in spontaneous pupil diameter fluctuation,” IEEE Comput. Cardiology 1, 133–136 (1997).

Liu, W.

S. P. Monacos, A. A. Portillo, W. Liu, J. W. Alexander, G. Ortiz, “A high frame rate CCD camera with region-of-interest capability,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 3, pp. 1513–1522.

Lueck, C. J.

C. J. Lueck, S. Tanyeri, T. J. Crawford, L. Henderson, C. Kennard, “Antisaccades and remembered saccades in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 53, 284–288 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mergner, T.

H. Kimmig, M. W. Greenlee, F. Huethe, T. Mergner, “MR-Eyetracker: A new method for eye movement recording in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),” Exp. Brain Res. 126, 443–449 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miraglia, F.

G. Calcagnini, F. Miraglia, F. Censi, S. Lino, “Cardiovascular rhythms in spontaneous pupil diameter fluctuation,” IEEE Comput. Cardiology 1, 133–136 (1997).

Monacos, S. P.

S. P. Monacos, A. A. Portillo, W. Liu, J. W. Alexander, G. Ortiz, “A high frame rate CCD camera with region-of-interest capability,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 3, pp. 1513–1522.

Müller, P. U.

P. U. Müller, D. Cavegn, G. Dewalle, R. Groner, “A comparison of a new limbus tracker, corneal reflection technique, Purkinje eye tracking and electro-oculography,” in Perception and Cognition, G. dYdewalle, J. V. Rensbergen, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993), pp. 393–401.

Okuyama, F.

K. Yana, F. Okuyama, H. Yoshida, S. Fukushima, T. Tokoro, “An evidence of blood pressure and respiration originated variations in fluctuations of pupil diameter of the human eye,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), Vol. 13, pp. 472–272.

Ortiz, G.

S. P. Monacos, A. A. Portillo, W. Liu, J. W. Alexander, G. Ortiz, “A high frame rate CCD camera with region-of-interest capability,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 3, pp. 1513–1522.

Pentland, A.

T. Starner, J. Weaver, A. Pentland, “Real-time American sign language recognition using desk and wearable computer based video,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 1371–1375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pomerleau, D.

S. Baluja, D. Pomerleau, “Non-intrusive gaze tracking using artificial neural networks,” (School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).

Portillo, A. A.

S. P. Monacos, A. A. Portillo, W. Liu, J. W. Alexander, G. Ortiz, “A high frame rate CCD camera with region-of-interest capability,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 3, pp. 1513–1522.

Rabiner, L.

L. Rabiner, B.-H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition (Prentice-Hall, N.J., 1993).

Reulen, J. P.

J. P. Reulen, E. A. Sander, L. A. Hogenhuis, “Eye movement disorders in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis,” Brain 106, 121–140 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sander, E. A.

J. P. Reulen, E. A. Sander, L. A. Hogenhuis, “Eye movement disorders in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis,” Brain 106, 121–140 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starner, T.

T. Starner, J. Weaver, A. Pentland, “Real-time American sign language recognition using desk and wearable computer based video,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 1371–1375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Talukder, A.

A. Talukder, D. Casasent, “Adaptive activation function neural net for face recognition,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 549–552.

Tannen, B.

K. J. Ciuffreda, B. Tannen, Eye Movement Basics for the Clinician (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1995).

Tanyeri, S.

C. J. Lueck, S. Tanyeri, T. J. Crawford, L. Henderson, C. Kennard, “Antisaccades and remembered saccades in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 53, 284–288 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, Y.

Y. Tian, T. Kanade, J. Cohn, “Recognizing action units for facial expression analysis,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 97–115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tokoro, T.

K. Yana, F. Okuyama, H. Yoshida, S. Fukushima, T. Tokoro, “An evidence of blood pressure and respiration originated variations in fluctuations of pupil diameter of the human eye,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), Vol. 13, pp. 472–272.

Weaver, J.

T. Starner, J. Weaver, A. Pentland, “Real-time American sign language recognition using desk and wearable computer based video,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 1371–1375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Whitcup, S. M.

R. D. Yee, S. M. Whitcup, I. M. Williams, “Saccadic eye movements in myasthenia gravis,” Ophthalmol. 94, 219–225 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Williams, I. M.

R. D. Yee, S. M. Whitcup, I. M. Williams, “Saccadic eye movements in myasthenia gravis,” Ophthalmol. 94, 219–225 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yana, K.

K. Yana, F. Okuyama, H. Yoshida, S. Fukushima, T. Tokoro, “An evidence of blood pressure and respiration originated variations in fluctuations of pupil diameter of the human eye,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), Vol. 13, pp. 472–272.

Yang, G.

G. Yang, T. S. Huang, “Human face detection in a complex background,” Pattern Recogn. 27, 53–63 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yee, R. D.

R. D. Yee, S. M. Whitcup, I. M. Williams, “Saccadic eye movements in myasthenia gravis,” Ophthalmol. 94, 219–225 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

K. Yana, F. Okuyama, H. Yoshida, S. Fukushima, T. Tokoro, “An evidence of blood pressure and respiration originated variations in fluctuations of pupil diameter of the human eye,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), Vol. 13, pp. 472–272.

Brain (1)

J. P. Reulen, E. A. Sander, L. A. Hogenhuis, “Eye movement disorders in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis,” Brain 106, 121–140 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Brain Res. (1)

H. Kimmig, M. W. Greenlee, F. Huethe, T. Mergner, “MR-Eyetracker: A new method for eye movement recording in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),” Exp. Brain Res. 126, 443–449 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Comput. Cardiology (1)

G. Calcagnini, F. Miraglia, F. Censi, S. Lino, “Cardiovascular rhythms in spontaneous pupil diameter fluctuation,” IEEE Comput. Cardiology 1, 133–136 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (3)

Y. Tian, T. Kanade, J. Cohn, “Recognizing action units for facial expression analysis,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 97–115 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Starner, J. Weaver, A. Pentland, “Real-time American sign language recognition using desk and wearable computer based video,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 1371–1375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 679–698 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry (1)

C. J. Lueck, S. Tanyeri, T. J. Crawford, L. Henderson, C. Kennard, “Antisaccades and remembered saccades in Parkinson’s disease,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 53, 284–288 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmol. (1)

R. D. Yee, S. M. Whitcup, I. M. Williams, “Saccadic eye movements in myasthenia gravis,” Ophthalmol. 94, 219–225 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pattern Recogn. (2)

D. H. Ballard, “Generalizing the Hough transform to detect arbitrary shapes,” Pattern Recogn. 13, 111–122 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Yang, T. S. Huang, “Human face detection in a complex background,” Pattern Recogn. 27, 53–63 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

A. Talukder, D. Casasent, “Adaptive activation function neural net for face recognition,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 549–552.

H. Collewijn, “Eye movement recording,” in Vision Research: A Practical Guide to Laboratory Methods, R. H. S. Carpenter, J. G. Robson, eds. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1999), pp. 245–285.

S. Baluja, D. Pomerleau, “Non-intrusive gaze tracking using artificial neural networks,” (School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).

P. U. Müller, D. Cavegn, G. Dewalle, R. Groner, “A comparison of a new limbus tracker, corneal reflection technique, Purkinje eye tracking and electro-oculography,” in Perception and Cognition, G. dYdewalle, J. V. Rensbergen, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993), pp. 393–401.

K. Yana, F. Okuyama, H. Yoshida, S. Fukushima, T. Tokoro, “An evidence of blood pressure and respiration originated variations in fluctuations of pupil diameter of the human eye,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), Vol. 13, pp. 472–272.

L. Rabiner, B.-H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition (Prentice-Hall, N.J., 1993).

K. J. Ciuffreda, B. Tannen, Eye Movement Basics for the Clinician (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1995).

S. P. Monacos, A. A. Portillo, W. Liu, J. W. Alexander, G. Ortiz, “A high frame rate CCD camera with region-of-interest capability,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Aerospace Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 3, pp. 1513–1522.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Software and (b) hardware components of the eye-tracking system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflection-based method(s) for eye tracking.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

IR-illuminated image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FPGA for custom CCD control and image processing.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical images.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Horizontal slicing algorithm for locating the pupil and cornea.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Gaze-point-estimation concept.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results of pupil and corneal detection for different test cases.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 TC237 Maximum Frame Rates for an 8 × 8 Subwindow

Equations (2)

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X screen = a 11 + a 12 d x , Y screen = a 21 + a 22 d y ,
X screen = a 11 + a 12 d x + a 13 d y + a 14 d x d y , Y screen = a 21 + a 22 d y + a 23 d x + a 24 d y d y .

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