Abstract

We determined the respective pressure-broadening coefficients of HCl, HBr, Cl2, and O2 (expressed relative to that of the reference gas N2) for the (ν123)JKa,Kc = (0,0,0)30,3 → (1,0,1)20,2 rovibrational transition of H2 16O that occurs at 1.39253 μm. The experiment used a continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy analyzer to measure the peak absorption losses as a function of added moisture concentration. The measured pressure-broadening coefficients for HCl, HBr, Cl2, and O2 are, respectively, 2.76, 2.48, 1.39, and 0.49 times that of the N2 pressure-broadening coefficient, and detection limits for water vapor range from 0.22 nmol mol−1 for O2 matrix gas to 2.3 nmol mol−1 for HBr matrix gas. The degradation of the detection limit (relative to the N2 matrix gas) is ascribed to a pressure-broadening-induced reduction in peak absorption cross section and to elevated background loss from the matrix gas.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004

S. Y. Lehman, K. A. Bertness, J. T. Hodges, “Optimal spectral region for real-time monitoring of sub-ppm levels of water in phosphine using cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. of Cryst. Growth 261, 225–230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. M. Miller, G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Gamache, J. M. Hartmann, “Collisional parameters of H2O lines: effects of vibration,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 83, 119–147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. Phelan, M. Lynch, J. F. Donegan, V. Weldon, “Absorption line shift with temperature and pressure: impact on laser-diode-based H2O sensing at 1.39 μm,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4968–4974 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. van Leeuwen, J. C. Diettrich, A. C. Wilson, “Periodically locked continuous-wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3670–3677 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowictz, K. K. Lehmann, “Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4599–4605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Funke, B. L. Grissom, C. E. McGrew, M. W. Raynor, “Techniques for the measurement of trace moisture in high-purity electronic specialty gases,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3909–3933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lehman, K. A. Bertness, J. T. Hodges, “Detection of trace water in phosphine with cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. of Cryst. Growth 250, 262–268 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Mitchell, V. Vorsa, J. A. Milanowicz, D. J. Ragsdale, K. L. Marhefa, M. D. Wagner, S. N. Ketkar, T. M. Booth, T. E. Conway, “Trace impurity detection in ammonia for the semiconductor market,” Gases Technol. 2(4), 8–13 (2003).

P. Rosenthal, M. L. Spartz, “Instrumentation for real-time trace impurity detection of bulk ammonia in production environments,” Gases Technol. 2(5), 8–12 (2003).

2002

W. Yan, “Parts-per-trillion moisture measurement using cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Gases Technol. 1(4), 21–24 (2002).

D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, M. E. Twigg, “Influence of MOVPE growth conditions on carbon and silicon concentrations in GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 242, 55–69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Hardtdegen, R. Schmidt, K. Wirtz, A. Mueck, S. Guadagnuolo, G. Vergani, “On the suitability of getter-purified hydrogen for the LP-MOVPE of (AlGa)As: a comparison to Pd-diffused hydrogen,” J. Electron. Mater. 30, 1397–1401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hovde, J. T. Hodges, G. E. Scace, J. A. Silver, “Wavelength-modulation laser hygrometer for ultra-sensitive detection of water vapor in semiconductor gases,” Appl. Opt. 40, 829–839 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Lepère, A. Henry, A. Valentin, C. Camy-Peret, “Diode-laser spectroscopy: line profiles of H2O in the region of 1.39 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 208, 25–31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Gandouzi, J. C. Bourgoin, J. Mimila-Arroyo, Cl. Grattepain, Ch. Grattepain, “Impurity incorporation during epitaxial growth of GaAs by chemical reaction,” J. Cryst. Growth 218, 167–172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. D. van Zee, J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, “Pulsed, single-mode cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3951–3960 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. T. do N. Varella, M. H. F. Bettega, M. A. P. Lima, L. G. Ferreira, “Low-energy electron scattering by H2O, H2S, H2Se and H2Te,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6396–6406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. Maroulis, “A systematic study of basis set, electron correlation, and geometry effects on the electric multipole moments, polarizability, and hyperpolarizability of HCl,” J. Chem. Phys. 108, 5432–5448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. N. Ketkar, A. D. Scott, J. V. Martinez de Pinillos, “Dynamic dilution calibration system for calibrating analytical instruments used in gas analysis,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 141, 184–187 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Inman, J. J. F. McAndrew, “Application of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy to trace moisture measurements in gases,” Anal. Chem. 66, 2471–2479 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. Maroulis, “Electric quadrupole moment and quadrupole polarizability of hydrogen bromide,” J. Phys. B 26, 2957–2964 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Maroulis, “Electric properties of chlorine,” J. Mol. Struct.: THEOCHEM 98, 79–84 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988

1984

1983

1973

O. B. Dabbousi, W. L. Meerts, F. H. De Leeuw, A. Dymanus, “Stark–Zeeman hyperfine structure of H 79Br and H 81Br by molecular-beam electric-resonance spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. 2, 473–477 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Eubank, “The effective quadrupole moment of water,” J. Phys. Chem. 77, 2670–2671 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

G. Yamamoto, T. Aoki, “Line broadening theory of asymmetric-top molecule,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 227–241 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968

1967

J. S. Murphy, J. E. Boggs, “Collision broadening of rotational absorption lines. I. Theoretical formulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 691–702 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966

D. E. Stogryn, A. P. Stogryn, “Molecular multiple moments,” Mol. Phys. 11, 371–393 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, N.

N. Verma, A. Athalye, D. Precourt, N. Anderson, in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Institute of Environmental Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (Institute of Environmental Sciences, Mount Prospect, Ill., 1997), p. 351.

Aoki, T.

G. Yamamoto, T. Aoki, “Line broadening theory of asymmetric-top molecule,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 227–241 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Athalye, A.

C. Ma, A. Athalye, B. Fruhberger, E. Ezell, “Moisture dry-down in high purity hydrogen chloride,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Meeting of the Institute of Environmental Sciences, Phoenix, AZ (Institute of Environmental Sciences, Mount Prospect, Ill, 1998), pp. 285–293.

N. Verma, A. Athalye, D. Precourt, N. Anderson, in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Institute of Environmental Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (Institute of Environmental Sciences, Mount Prospect, Ill., 1997), p. 351.

Bach, D. R.

Bachmann, M.

S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, M. Bachmann, “Collisional broadening of absorption lines in water vapor and atomic iodine relevant to COIL diagnostics,” in Gas and Chemical Lasers and Intense Beam Applications II, E. A. Dorko, ed., Proc. SPIE3612, 157–166 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bertness, K. A.

S. Y. Lehman, K. A. Bertness, J. T. Hodges, “Optimal spectral region for real-time monitoring of sub-ppm levels of water in phosphine using cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. of Cryst. Growth 261, 225–230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lehman, K. A. Bertness, J. T. Hodges, “Detection of trace water in phosphine with cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. of Cryst. Growth 250, 262–268 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bettega, M. H. F.

M. T. do N. Varella, M. H. F. Bettega, M. A. P. Lima, L. G. Ferreira, “Low-energy electron scattering by H2O, H2S, H2Se and H2Te,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6396–6406 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boggs, J. E.

J. S. Murphy, J. E. Boggs, “Collision broadening of rotational absorption lines. I. Theoretical formulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 691–702 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Booth, T. M.

G. M. Mitchell, V. Vorsa, J. A. Milanowicz, D. J. Ragsdale, K. L. Marhefa, M. D. Wagner, S. N. Ketkar, T. M. Booth, T. E. Conway, “Trace impurity detection in ammonia for the semiconductor market,” Gases Technol. 2(4), 8–13 (2003).

Bourgoin, J. C.

M. Gandouzi, J. C. Bourgoin, J. Mimila-Arroyo, Cl. Grattepain, Ch. Grattepain, “Impurity incorporation during epitaxial growth of GaAs by chemical reaction,” J. Cryst. Growth 218, 167–172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peret, C.

M. Lepère, A. Henry, A. Valentin, C. Camy-Peret, “Diode-laser spectroscopy: line profiles of H2O in the region of 1.39 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 208, 25–31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Conway, T. E.

G. M. Mitchell, V. Vorsa, J. A. Milanowicz, D. J. Ragsdale, K. L. Marhefa, M. D. Wagner, S. N. Ketkar, T. M. Booth, T. E. Conway, “Trace impurity detection in ammonia for the semiconductor market,” Gases Technol. 2(4), 8–13 (2003).

Dabbousi, O. B.

O. B. Dabbousi, W. L. Meerts, F. H. De Leeuw, A. Dymanus, “Stark–Zeeman hyperfine structure of H 79Br and H 81Br by molecular-beam electric-resonance spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. 2, 473–477 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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C. Ma, A. Athalye, B. Fruhberger, E. Ezell, “Moisture dry-down in high purity hydrogen chloride,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Meeting of the Institute of Environmental Sciences, Phoenix, AZ (Institute of Environmental Sciences, Mount Prospect, Ill, 1998), pp. 285–293.

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M. Gandouzi, J. C. Bourgoin, J. Mimila-Arroyo, Cl. Grattepain, Ch. Grattepain, “Impurity incorporation during epitaxial growth of GaAs by chemical reaction,” J. Cryst. Growth 218, 167–172 (2000).
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H. H. Funke, B. L. Grissom, C. E. McGrew, M. W. Raynor, “Techniques for the measurement of trace moisture in high-purity electronic specialty gases,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3909–3933 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, M. Bachmann, “Collisional broadening of absorption lines in water vapor and atomic iodine relevant to COIL diagnostics,” in Gas and Chemical Lasers and Intense Beam Applications II, E. A. Dorko, ed., Proc. SPIE3612, 157–166 (1999).
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G. M. Mitchell, V. Vorsa, J. A. Milanowicz, D. J. Ragsdale, K. L. Marhefa, M. D. Wagner, S. N. Ketkar, T. M. Booth, T. E. Conway, “Trace impurity detection in ammonia for the semiconductor market,” Gases Technol. 2(4), 8–13 (2003).

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D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, M. E. Twigg, “Influence of MOVPE growth conditions on carbon and silicon concentrations in GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 242, 55–69 (2002).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. M. Miller, G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849–863 (2004).
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S. Y. Lehman, K. A. Bertness, J. T. Hodges, “Optimal spectral region for real-time monitoring of sub-ppm levels of water in phosphine using cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. of Cryst. Growth 261, 225–230 (2004).
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J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowictz, K. K. Lehmann, “Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4599–4605 (2003).
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C. Ma, A. Athalye, B. Fruhberger, E. Ezell, “Moisture dry-down in high purity hydrogen chloride,” in Proceedings of the 44th Annual Meeting of the Institute of Environmental Sciences, Phoenix, AZ (Institute of Environmental Sciences, Mount Prospect, Ill, 1998), pp. 285–293.

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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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G. M. Mitchell, V. Vorsa, J. A. Milanowicz, D. J. Ragsdale, K. L. Marhefa, M. D. Wagner, S. N. Ketkar, T. M. Booth, T. E. Conway, “Trace impurity detection in ammonia for the semiconductor market,” Gases Technol. 2(4), 8–13 (2003).

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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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R. S. Inman, J. J. F. McAndrew, “Application of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy to trace moisture measurements in gases,” Anal. Chem. 66, 2471–2479 (1994).
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H. H. Funke, B. L. Grissom, C. E. McGrew, M. W. Raynor, “Techniques for the measurement of trace moisture in high-purity electronic specialty gases,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3909–3933 (2003).
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O. B. Dabbousi, W. L. Meerts, F. H. De Leeuw, A. Dymanus, “Stark–Zeeman hyperfine structure of H 79Br and H 81Br by molecular-beam electric-resonance spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. 2, 473–477 (1973).
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G. M. Mitchell, V. Vorsa, J. A. Milanowicz, D. J. Ragsdale, K. L. Marhefa, M. D. Wagner, S. N. Ketkar, T. M. Booth, T. E. Conway, “Trace impurity detection in ammonia for the semiconductor market,” Gases Technol. 2(4), 8–13 (2003).

Miller, W. M.

J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. M. Miller, G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849–863 (2004).
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Mimila-Arroyo, J.

M. Gandouzi, J. C. Bourgoin, J. Mimila-Arroyo, Cl. Grattepain, Ch. Grattepain, “Impurity incorporation during epitaxial growth of GaAs by chemical reaction,” J. Cryst. Growth 218, 167–172 (2000).
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G. M. Mitchell, V. Vorsa, J. A. Milanowicz, D. J. Ragsdale, K. L. Marhefa, M. D. Wagner, S. N. Ketkar, T. M. Booth, T. E. Conway, “Trace impurity detection in ammonia for the semiconductor market,” Gases Technol. 2(4), 8–13 (2003).

Mueck, A.

H. Hardtdegen, R. Schmidt, K. Wirtz, A. Mueck, S. Guadagnuolo, G. Vergani, “On the suitability of getter-purified hydrogen for the LP-MOVPE of (AlGa)As: a comparison to Pd-diffused hydrogen,” J. Electron. Mater. 30, 1397–1401 (2001).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowictz, K. K. Lehmann, “Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4599–4605 (2003).
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G. M. Mitchell, V. Vorsa, J. A. Milanowicz, D. J. Ragsdale, K. L. Marhefa, M. D. Wagner, S. N. Ketkar, T. M. Booth, T. E. Conway, “Trace impurity detection in ammonia for the semiconductor market,” Gases Technol. 2(4), 8–13 (2003).

Raynor, M. W.

H. H. Funke, B. L. Grissom, C. E. McGrew, M. W. Raynor, “Techniques for the measurement of trace moisture in high-purity electronic specialty gases,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3909–3933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rosenthal, P.

P. Rosenthal, M. L. Spartz, “Instrumentation for real-time trace impurity detection of bulk ammonia in production environments,” Gases Technol. 2(5), 8–12 (2003).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rudder, R. R.

Scace, G. E.

J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. M. Miller, G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hovde, J. T. Hodges, G. E. Scace, J. A. Silver, “Wavelength-modulation laser hygrometer for ultra-sensitive detection of water vapor in semiconductor gases,” Appl. Opt. 40, 829–839 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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H. Hardtdegen, R. Schmidt, K. Wirtz, A. Mueck, S. Guadagnuolo, G. Vergani, “On the suitability of getter-purified hydrogen for the LP-MOVPE of (AlGa)As: a comparison to Pd-diffused hydrogen,” J. Electron. Mater. 30, 1397–1401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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S. N. Ketkar, A. D. Scott, J. V. Martinez de Pinillos, “Dynamic dilution calibration system for calibrating analytical instruments used in gas analysis,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 141, 184–187 (1994).
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Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowictz, K. K. Lehmann, “Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4599–4605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Twigg, M. E.

D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, M. E. Twigg, “Influence of MOVPE growth conditions on carbon and silicon concentrations in GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 242, 55–69 (2002).
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M. Lepère, A. Henry, A. Valentin, C. Camy-Peret, “Diode-laser spectroscopy: line profiles of H2O in the region of 1.39 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 208, 25–31 (2001).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowictz, K. K. Lehmann, “Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4599–4605 (2003).
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H. Hardtdegen, R. Schmidt, K. Wirtz, A. Mueck, S. Guadagnuolo, G. Vergani, “On the suitability of getter-purified hydrogen for the LP-MOVPE of (AlGa)As: a comparison to Pd-diffused hydrogen,” J. Electron. Mater. 30, 1397–1401 (2001).
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G. M. Mitchell, V. Vorsa, J. A. Milanowicz, D. J. Ragsdale, K. L. Marhefa, M. D. Wagner, S. N. Ketkar, T. M. Booth, T. E. Conway, “Trace impurity detection in ammonia for the semiconductor market,” Gases Technol. 2(4), 8–13 (2003).

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G. M. Mitchell, V. Vorsa, J. A. Milanowicz, D. J. Ragsdale, K. L. Marhefa, M. D. Wagner, S. N. Ketkar, T. M. Booth, T. E. Conway, “Trace impurity detection in ammonia for the semiconductor market,” Gases Technol. 2(4), 8–13 (2003).

Weldon, V.

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D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, M. E. Twigg, “Influence of MOVPE growth conditions on carbon and silicon concentrations in GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 242, 55–69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Wirtz, K.

H. Hardtdegen, R. Schmidt, K. Wirtz, A. Mueck, S. Guadagnuolo, G. Vergani, “On the suitability of getter-purified hydrogen for the LP-MOVPE of (AlGa)As: a comparison to Pd-diffused hydrogen,” J. Electron. Mater. 30, 1397–1401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowictz, K. K. Lehmann, “Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4599–4605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Wright, M. Lyons, C. Wood, “Description and performance of a tunable laser based absorption analyzer for sub-ppb moisture detection,” Presented at the SEMICON West 2002 Standards Workshop, San Francisco, Calif., 22–24 July 2002.

Wright, A.

A. Wright, M. Lyons, C. Wood, “Description and performance of a tunable laser based absorption analyzer for sub-ppb moisture detection,” Presented at the SEMICON West 2002 Standards Workshop, San Francisco, Calif., 22–24 July 2002.

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G. Yamamoto, T. Aoki, “Line broadening theory of asymmetric-top molecule,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 227–241 (1972).
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W. Yan, “Parts-per-trillion moisture measurement using cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Gases Technol. 1(4), 21–24 (2002).

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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Anal. Chem.

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[CrossRef]

J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowictz, K. K. Lehmann, “Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 75, 4599–4605 (2003).
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Chem. Phys.

O. B. Dabbousi, W. L. Meerts, F. H. De Leeuw, A. Dymanus, “Stark–Zeeman hyperfine structure of H 79Br and H 81Br by molecular-beam electric-resonance spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. 2, 473–477 (1973).
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Gases Technol.

G. M. Mitchell, V. Vorsa, J. A. Milanowicz, D. J. Ragsdale, K. L. Marhefa, M. D. Wagner, S. N. Ketkar, T. M. Booth, T. E. Conway, “Trace impurity detection in ammonia for the semiconductor market,” Gases Technol. 2(4), 8–13 (2003).

P. Rosenthal, M. L. Spartz, “Instrumentation for real-time trace impurity detection of bulk ammonia in production environments,” Gases Technol. 2(5), 8–12 (2003).

W. Yan, “Parts-per-trillion moisture measurement using cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Gases Technol. 1(4), 21–24 (2002).

J. Chem. Phys.

M. T. do N. Varella, M. H. F. Bettega, M. A. P. Lima, L. G. Ferreira, “Low-energy electron scattering by H2O, H2S, H2Se and H2Te,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6396–6406 (1999).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, M. E. Twigg, “Influence of MOVPE growth conditions on carbon and silicon concentrations in GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 242, 55–69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Gandouzi, J. C. Bourgoin, J. Mimila-Arroyo, Cl. Grattepain, Ch. Grattepain, “Impurity incorporation during epitaxial growth of GaAs by chemical reaction,” J. Cryst. Growth 218, 167–172 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

S. N. Ketkar, A. D. Scott, J. V. Martinez de Pinillos, “Dynamic dilution calibration system for calibrating analytical instruments used in gas analysis,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 141, 184–187 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater.

H. Hardtdegen, R. Schmidt, K. Wirtz, A. Mueck, S. Guadagnuolo, G. Vergani, “On the suitability of getter-purified hydrogen for the LP-MOVPE of (AlGa)As: a comparison to Pd-diffused hydrogen,” J. Electron. Mater. 30, 1397–1401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

M. Lepère, A. Henry, A. Valentin, C. Camy-Peret, “Diode-laser spectroscopy: line profiles of H2O in the region of 1.39 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 208, 25–31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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S. Y. Lehman, K. A. Bertness, J. T. Hodges, “Optimal spectral region for real-time monitoring of sub-ppm levels of water in phosphine using cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” J. of Cryst. Growth 261, 225–230 (2004).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Yamamoto, T. Aoki, “Line broadening theory of asymmetric-top molecule,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 227–241 (1972).
[CrossRef]

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D. E. Stogryn, A. P. Stogryn, “Molecular multiple moments,” Mol. Phys. 11, 371–393 (1966).
[CrossRef]

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J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. M. Miller, G. E. Scace, “Frequency-stabilized single-mode cavity ring-down apparatus for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849–863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Manufacturers and product names are listed solely for completeness. These specific citations neither constitute an endorsement of the products nor imply that similar products from other companies would be less suitable.

S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, M. Bachmann, “Collisional broadening of absorption lines in water vapor and atomic iodine relevant to COIL diagnostics,” in Gas and Chemical Lasers and Intense Beam Applications II, E. A. Dorko, ed., Proc. SPIE3612, 157–166 (1999).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration showing flow dilution system for controlled addition of trace water vapor in corrosive gas streams and the CRDS instrument for measurement of the sample absorption coefficient.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated H2O absorption spectra at T = 296 K and P = 117.3 kPa (880 Torrσ, corresponding to experimental conditions. Zero detuning corresponds to line center of the λ = 1.39253 μm transition. Inset, total and local losses at 0 detuning.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MTO-1001-H2O CRDS response to moisture changes in HBr from 138 to 0 nmol mol−1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured CRDS losses (symbols) and least-squares fits to Eq. (2) (curves). Error bars, standard deviation of the measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated water-vapor absorption cross sections at zero detuning for the λ = 1.39253 μm absorption transition based on a Voigt line shape, assuming S = 1.8 × 10−20 cm2 cm−1 molecule−1, T = 296 K, and measured pressure-broadening parameters. Vertical dashed lines, system pressures in the present experiment.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Minimum resolvable change in water-vapor mole fraction for the indicated pure gases based on d = 50 cm, S = 1.8 × 10−20 cm2 cm−1 molecule−1, P = 117.3 kPa, T = 296 K, and α0 = 3.8 × 10−7 cm−1.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Pressure-Broadening Coefficient Relative to N2 and Derived Values of γ Based on γN2 = γair/0.9, Where γair Is Given by the HITRAN Databasea

Tables Icon

Table 2 Permanent Electric Dipole Moments and Permanent Electric Quadrupole Moments of Gases Considered in the Present Studya

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( c τ ) - 1 = α 0 + i α i ,
α 1 + α 2 = n w j S j γ j P π [ ( γ j P ) 2 + ( ν - ν j ) 2 ] = n w ( σ 1 + σ 2 ) ,
( c τ ) - 1 = α 0 + n w { S π P γ N 2 [ x β + ( 1 - x ) ] + σ 2 } + n x σ b ,
σ 1 ( P ) = S g ( ν - ν i = 0 , Δ ν D , Δ ν L ) ,
Δ x w = 2 ɛ τ α base ( n σ 1 ) - 1 ,

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