Abstract

The effect of external-cavity length on self-mixing signals in a multilongitudinal-mode Fabry–Perot laser diode (FP-LD) was investigated experimentally. It has been shown that the output waveforms of self-mixing signals vary periodically when the length of the external cavity changes. This result agrees well with our theoretical calculations for the self-mixing effect of two adjacent longitudinal modes in a FP-LD. Moreover, the time-averaged output intensities of self-mixing signals has also been measured and compared with theoretical analysis.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. W. Jentink, F. F. M. de Mul, H. E. Suichies, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. Greve, “Small laser Doppler velocimeter based on the self-mixing effect in a diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 27, 379–385 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, W. J. O. Boyle, “Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577–1587 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. H. Churnside, “Laser Doppler velocimetry by modulating a CO2 laser with backscattered light,” Appl. Opt. 23, 61–66 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, T. Bosch, “Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283–294 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Shinohara, A. Mochizuki, H. Yoshida, M. Sumi, “Laser Doppler velocimeter using the self-mixing effect of a semiconductor laser diode,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1417–1419 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. H. Koelink, M. Slot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, J. G. Aarnoudse, “Laser Doppler velocimeter based on the self-mixing effect in a fiber-coupled semiconductor laser: theory,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3401–3408 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. T. Shimizu, “Directional discrimination in a self-mixing type laser Doppler velocimeter,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4541–4544 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Self-mixing interference in a diode laser: experimental observations and theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1551–1558 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Lang, K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347–355 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. C. Addy, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, “Effects of external reflector alignment in sensing applications of optical feedback in laser diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2672–2676 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, T. Bosch, “Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283–294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. C. Addy, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, “Effects of external reflector alignment in sensing applications of optical feedback in laser diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2672–2676 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, W. J. O. Boyle, “Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577–1587 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

1980 (1)

R. Lang, K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347–355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Addy, R. C.

R. C. Addy, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, “Effects of external reflector alignment in sensing applications of optical feedback in laser diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2672–2676 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, T.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, T. Bosch, “Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283–294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boyle, W. J. O.

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, W. J. O. Boyle, “Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577–1587 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Self-mixing interference in a diode laser: experimental observations and theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1551–1558 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Churnside, J. H.

Dassel, A. C. M.

de Mul, F. F. M.

Donati, S.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, T. Bosch, “Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283–294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, G.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, T. Bosch, “Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283–294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Graaff, R.

Grattan, K. T. V.

R. C. Addy, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, “Effects of external reflector alignment in sensing applications of optical feedback in laser diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2672–2676 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, W. J. O. Boyle, “Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577–1587 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Self-mixing interference in a diode laser: experimental observations and theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1551–1558 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

Jentink, H. W.

Kobayashi, K.

R. Lang, K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347–355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Koelink, M. H.

Lang, R.

R. Lang, K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347–355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, A.

Norgia, M.

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, T. Bosch, “Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283–294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, A. W.

R. C. Addy, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, “Effects of external reflector alignment in sensing applications of optical feedback in laser diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2672–2676 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, W. J. O. Boyle, “Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577–1587 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Self-mixing interference in a diode laser: experimental observations and theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1551–1558 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, E. T.

Shinohara, S.

Slot, M.

Suichies, H. E.

Sumi, M.

Wang, W. M.

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, W. J. O. Boyle, “Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577–1587 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wang, W. J. O. Boyle, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, “Self-mixing interference in a diode laser: experimental observations and theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1551–1558 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, H.

Appl. Opt. (6)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Lang, K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 347–355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

R. C. Addy, A. W. Palmer, K. T. V. Grattan, “Effects of external reflector alignment in sensing applications of optical feedback in laser diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2672–2676 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wang, K. T. V. Grattan, A. W. Palmer, W. J. O. Boyle, “Self-mixing interference inside a single-mode diode laser for optical sensing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1577–1587 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Giuliani, M. Norgia, S. Donati, T. Bosch, “Laser diode self-mixing technique for sensing applications,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 283–294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a self-mixing interference system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Changes in time-averaged intensity of a self-mixing signal with different values of Lext and (b) the time-averaged intensity change of the self-mixing signal with different values of Lext in one period.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Waveforms of self-mixing signals for four external-cavity lengths: vertical axis, arbitrary units; horizontal axis, 0.02 ms/division.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of simulations of the waveforms of self-mixing signals for four external-cavity lengths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time-averaged intensity of self-mixing signals for several external-cavity lengths in one period.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Result of the combination of eight longitudinal modes.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( t ) = [ I 0 j = 1 P exp i ( 2 k j L ext ) ] exp i ( ω d t ) + c . c . ,
2 k j L ext = 2 ( ω 0 + 2 π j c / 2 n L 0 ) L ext c ,

Metrics