Abstract

The radiometric calibration of the Sea-Viewing Wide-Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) in the near infrared (band 8, centered on 865 nm) is evaluated by use of ground-based radiometer measurements of solar extinction and sky radiance in the Sun’s principal plane at two sites, one located 13 km off Venice, Italy, and the other on the west coast of Lanai Island, Hawaii. The aerosol optical thickness determined from solar extinction is used in an iterative scheme to retrieve the pseudo aerosol phase function, i.e., the product of single-scattering albedo and phase function, in which sky radiance is corrected for multiple scattering effects. No assumption about the aerosol model is required. The aerosol parameters are the inputs into a radiation-transfer code used to compute the SeaWiFS radiance. The calibration method has a theoretical inaccuracy of plus or minus 2.0–3.6%, depending on the solar zenith angle and the SeaWiFS geometry. The major source of error is in the calibration of the ground-based radiometer operated in radiance mode, assumed to be accurate to ±2%. The establishment of strict criteria for atmospheric stability, angular geometry, and surface conditions resulted in selection of only 26 days for the analysis during 1999–2000 (Venice site) and 1998–2001 (Lanai site). For these days the measured level-1B radiance from the SeaWiFS Project Office was generally lower than the corresponding simulated radiance in band 8 by 7.0% on average, ±2.8%.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2005 (1)

N. Martiny, R. Santer, I. Smolskaia, “Vicarious calibration of MERIS over dark water in the near infrared,” Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 475–490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, R. Frouin, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Maritime component in aerosol optical models derived from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4033, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Santer, N. Martiny, “Sky radiance measurements for ocean-color calibration validation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 896–907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, S. McLean, “An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 19, 486–515 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: how much error is acceptable in the near infrared?” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497–504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lafrance, H. Hagolle, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, G. Brogniez, “Interband calibration over clouds for POLDER space sensor,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 131–142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Shafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. F. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Husar, D. M. Tratt, B. A. Schichtel, S. R. Falke, F. Li, D. Jaffe, S. Gassó, T. Gill, N. S. Laulainen, F. Lu, M. L. Reheis, Y. Chun, D. Westphal, B. N. Holben, C. Gueymard, L. McKendry, N. Kuring, G. C. Feldman, C. McClain, R. J. Frouin, J. Merrill, D. DuBois, F. Vignola, T. Murayama, S. Nickovic, W. E. Wilson, K. Sassen, N. Sugimoto, W. C. Malm, “Asian dust events of April 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,317–18,330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. 1. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “The calibration of SeaWiFS. 2. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, C. R. McClain, “Changes in the radiometric sensitivity of SeaWiFS determined from solar and lunar measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4649–4664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J.-M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (6)

B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J.-P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. N. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 417–430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean colour sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, “Science quality data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–15 (1998).

M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,919–24,935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Chomko, H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: use of the Junge power law aerosol size distribution with variable refractive index to handle aerosol absorption,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5560–5572 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,081–17,106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of the atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209–17,217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, T. Zhang, “Remote sensing of ocean color and aerosol properties: resolving the issue of aerosol absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6949–6959 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in-situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer, R. L. Wildey, “Establishing the Moon as a spectral radiance standard,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 360–375 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Land, J. D. Haigh, “Atmospheric correction over Case 2 waters using an iterative fitting algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5443–5451 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, T. Zhang, “How well can radiance reflected from the ocean-atmosphere system be predicted from measurements at the surface?” Appl. Opt. 35, 6527–6543 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

E. Vermote, Y. Kaufman, “Absolute calibration of AVHRR in the visible and near infrared using ocean and cloud views,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 2317–2340 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner system calibration: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

E. Vermote, R. Santer, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Herman, “In-flight calibration of large field-of-view sensors at short wavelengths using Rayleigh scattering,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 3409–3429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Fourier series expansion of the transfer equation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 41, 483–494 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. Morel, “Optical modelling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 water),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

H. R. Gordon, “Calibration requirements and methodology for remote sensors viewing the ocean in the visible,” Remote Sens. Environ. 22, 103–126 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1954 (1)

Abel, P.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Abuhassan, N.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Shafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. F. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ainsworth, E. J.

E. J. Ainsworth, C. Pietras, S. Bailey, “Analysis of match-up results”, in In situ Aerosol Optical Thickness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997–2000): Protocols, Data QC, and Analysis, G. S. Fargion, R. Barnes, C. McClain, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2001), pp. 73–87.

Alberotanza, L.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. W. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, “Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 1. A long-term measurement program,” (Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

Anderson, J. M.

H. H. Kieffer, J. M. Anderson, K. J. Becker, “Radiometric calibration of spacecraft using lunar images,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 193–205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer, J. M. Anderson, “Use of the Moon for spacecraft calibration,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellites II, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3498, 325–336 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, M. Chami, “Vicarious calibration of MERIS level-1B observations: early results obtained at the Villefranche AERONET site,” presented at the Working Meeting on MERIS and AATSR Calibration and Geophysical Validation, Frascati, Italy, 20–24 October 2003; presentation available at http://envisat.esa.int/workshops/maut_2003 .

Asanuma, I.

J. Nieke, M. Hori, R. Höller, I. Asanuma, “Satellite sensor inter-calibration: a case study for 28 March 2002,” presented at the Working Meeting on MERIS and AATSR Calibration and Geophysical Validation, Frascati, Italy, 20–24 October 2003; proceedings available at http://envisat.esa.int/workshops/maut_2003 .

Bailey, S.

E. J. Ainsworth, C. Pietras, S. Bailey, “Analysis of match-up results”, in In situ Aerosol Optical Thickness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997–2000): Protocols, Data QC, and Analysis, G. S. Fargion, R. Barnes, C. McClain, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2001), pp. 73–87.

Bailey, S. W.

Bailleul, T.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J.-M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “SeaWiFS calibration and validation plan,” in , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 3.

R. Barnes, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (personal communication, 2005).

Barnes, R. A.

Barnes, W.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “SeaWiFS calibration and validation plan,” in , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 3.

Becker, K. J.

H. H. Kieffer, J. M. Anderson, K. J. Becker, “Radiometric calibration of spacecraft using lunar images,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 193–205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berthon, J. F.

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berthon, J.-F.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. W. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, “Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 1. A long-term measurement program,” (Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

Biggar, S. F.

Bonnel, B.

B. Lafrance, H. Hagolle, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, G. Brogniez, “Interband calibration over clouds for POLDER space sensor,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 131–142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bourg, L.

S. Delwart, L. Bourg, J. P. Huot, “MERIS 1st year: early calibration results,” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellite VII, R. Meynart, S. P. Neeck, H. Shimoda, J. B. Lurie, eds., Proc. SPIE5234, 379–390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Briottet, X.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J.-M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Broenkow, W.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of the atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209–17,217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, G.

B. Lafrance, H. Hagolle, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, G. Brogniez, “Interband calibration over clouds for POLDER space sensor,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 131–142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

Buis, J.-P.

B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J.-P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cabot, F.

O. Hagolle, F. Cabot, “Absolute calibration of MERIS using natural targets,” presented at the Working Meeting on MERIS and AATSR Calibration and Geophysical Validation, Frascati, Italy, 20–24 October 2003; proceedings available at http: //envisat.esa.int/workshops/maut_2003 .

Caffrey, R. T.

B. C. Johnson, E. A. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, “The 1997 prelaunch calibration of SeaWiFS,” in , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1999), Vol. 4.

Chami, M.

D. Antoine, M. Chami, “Vicarious calibration of MERIS level-1B observations: early results obtained at the Villefranche AERONET site,” presented at the Working Meeting on MERIS and AATSR Calibration and Geophysical Validation, Frascati, Italy, 20–24 October 2003; presentation available at http://envisat.esa.int/workshops/maut_2003 .

Chatenet, B.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Shafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. F. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chomko, R.

Chun, Y.

R. B. Husar, D. M. Tratt, B. A. Schichtel, S. R. Falke, F. Li, D. Jaffe, S. Gassó, T. Gill, N. S. Laulainen, F. Lu, M. L. Reheis, Y. Chun, D. Westphal, B. N. Holben, C. Gueymard, L. McKendry, N. Kuring, G. C. Feldman, C. McClain, R. J. Frouin, J. Merrill, D. DuBois, F. Vignola, T. Murayama, S. Nickovic, W. E. Wilson, K. Sassen, N. Sugimoto, W. C. Malm, “Asian dust events of April 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,317–18,330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Shafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. F. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

Cleave, M. L.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, “Science quality data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–15 (1998).

Clerici, M.

Y. M. Govaerts, M. Clerici, “Comparison of MSG/SEVIRI calibration reference with MERIS BRF over bright desert calibration targets,” presented at the Working Meeting on MERIS and AATSR Calibration and Geophysical Validation, Frascati, Italy, 20–24 October 2003; presentation available at http://envisat.esa.int/workshops/maut_2003 .

Cooper, J.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cosnefroy, H.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J.-M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

D’Alimonte, D.

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delwart, S.

S. Delwart, L. Bourg, J. P. Huot, “MERIS 1st year: early calibration results,” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellite VII, R. Meynart, S. P. Neeck, H. Shimoda, J. B. Lurie, eds., Proc. SPIE5234, 379–390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P. Y.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in-situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P.-Y.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J.-M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,919–24,935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Vermote, R. Santer, P.-Y. Deschamps, M. Herman, “In-flight calibration of large field-of-view sensors at short wavelengths using Rayleigh scattering,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 13, 3409–3429 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Deuzé, J. L.

J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Fourier series expansion of the transfer equation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 41, 483–494 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dilligeard, E.

R. Santer, F. Zagolski, E. Dilligeard, “Radiative transfer code comparison for MERIS vicarious calibration,” presented at the Envisat Validation Workshop, Frascati, Italy, 9–13 December 2002; proceedings available at http://www.envisat.esa.int/workshops/validation_12_02/presentation.html .

Doyle, J. P.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J. P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. W. van der Linde, C. Targa, L. Alberotanza, “Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS). Part 1. A long-term measurement program,” (Goddard Space Flight Center, 2002).

Du, T.

DuBois, D.

R. B. Husar, D. M. Tratt, B. A. Schichtel, S. R. Falke, F. Li, D. Jaffe, S. Gassó, T. Gill, N. S. Laulainen, F. Lu, M. L. Reheis, Y. Chun, D. Westphal, B. N. Holben, C. Gueymard, L. McKendry, N. Kuring, G. C. Feldman, C. McClain, R. J. Frouin, J. Merrill, D. DuBois, F. Vignola, T. Murayama, S. Nickovic, W. E. Wilson, K. Sassen, N. Sugimoto, W. C. Malm, “Asian dust events of April 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,317–18,330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, R. Frouin, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Maritime component in aerosol optical models derived from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4033, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Early, E. A.

B. C. Johnson, E. A. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, R. T. Caffrey, “The 1997 prelaunch calibration of SeaWiFS,” in , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1999), Vol. 4.

Eck, T.

B. Holben, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J.-P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. Reagan, Y. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, R. Frouin, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Maritime component in aerosol optical models derived from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4033, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Shafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. F. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Endres, D.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “SeaWiFS calibration and validation plan,” in , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 3.

Eplee, R. E.

Esaias, W. E.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “SeaWiFS calibration and validation plan,” in , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 3.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS ocean color,” in , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 1.

Evans, R. H.

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner system calibration: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, D. K. Clark, “Nimbus-7 CZCS: reduction of its radiometric sensitivity with time,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3929–3931 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falke, S. R.

R. B. Husar, D. M. Tratt, B. A. Schichtel, S. R. Falke, F. Li, D. Jaffe, S. Gassó, T. Gill, N. S. Laulainen, F. Lu, M. L. Reheis, Y. Chun, D. Westphal, B. N. Holben, C. Gueymard, L. McKendry, N. Kuring, G. C. Feldman, C. McClain, R. J. Frouin, J. Merrill, D. DuBois, F. Vignola, T. Murayama, S. Nickovic, W. E. Wilson, K. Sassen, N. Sugimoto, W. C. Malm, “Asian dust events of April 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,317–18,330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fargion, G.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fargion, G. S.

L. Gross-Colzy, R. Frouin, C. M. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, “Non-supervised classification of aerosol mixtures for ocean color remote sensing,” in Ocean Remote Sensing and Applications, R. Frouin, Y. Yuan, H. Kawamura, eds., Proc. SPIE4892, 95–104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

R. B. Husar, D. M. Tratt, B. A. Schichtel, S. R. Falke, F. Li, D. Jaffe, S. Gassó, T. Gill, N. S. Laulainen, F. Lu, M. L. Reheis, Y. Chun, D. Westphal, B. N. Holben, C. Gueymard, L. McKendry, N. Kuring, G. C. Feldman, C. McClain, R. J. Frouin, J. Merrill, D. DuBois, F. Vignola, T. Murayama, S. Nickovic, W. E. Wilson, K. Sassen, N. Sugimoto, W. C. Malm, “Asian dust events of April 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,317–18,330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, “Science quality data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–15 (1998).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS ocean color,” in , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 1.

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, 1979).

Fouquart, Y.

B. Lafrance, H. Hagolle, B. Bonnel, Y. Fouquart, G. Brogniez, “Interband calibration over clouds for POLDER space sensor,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 131–142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, O. Dubovik, R. Frouin, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Maritime component in aerosol optical models derived from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4033, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Shafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. F. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,919–24,935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in-situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,361–14,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Gross-Colzy, R. Frouin, C. M. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, “Non-supervised classification of aerosol mixtures for ocean color remote sensing,” in Ocean Remote Sensing and Applications, R. Frouin, Y. Yuan, H. Kawamura, eds., Proc. SPIE4892, 95–104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R. J.

R. B. Husar, D. M. Tratt, B. A. Schichtel, S. R. Falke, F. Li, D. Jaffe, S. Gassó, T. Gill, N. S. Laulainen, F. Lu, M. L. Reheis, Y. Chun, D. Westphal, B. N. Holben, C. Gueymard, L. McKendry, N. Kuring, G. C. Feldman, C. McClain, R. J. Frouin, J. Merrill, D. DuBois, F. Vignola, T. Murayama, S. Nickovic, W. E. Wilson, K. Sassen, N. Sugimoto, W. C. Malm, “Asian dust events of April 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,317–18,330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, H.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. N. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 417–430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gassó, S.

R. B. Husar, D. M. Tratt, B. A. Schichtel, S. R. Falke, F. Li, D. Jaffe, S. Gassó, T. Gill, N. S. Laulainen, F. Lu, M. L. Reheis, Y. Chun, D. Westphal, B. N. Holben, C. Gueymard, L. McKendry, N. Kuring, G. C. Feldman, C. McClain, R. J. Frouin, J. Merrill, D. DuBois, F. Vignola, T. Murayama, S. Nickovic, W. E. Wilson, K. Sassen, N. Sugimoto, W. C. Malm, “Asian dust events of April 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,317–18,330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of the atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,209–17,217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gill, T.

R. B. Husar, D. M. Tratt, B. A. Schichtel, S. R. Falke, F. Li, D. Jaffe, S. Gassó, T. Gill, N. S. Laulainen, F. Lu, M. L. Reheis, Y. Chun, D. Westphal, B. N. Holben, C. Gueymard, L. McKendry, N. Kuring, G. C. Feldman, C. McClain, R. J. Frouin, J. Merrill, D. DuBois, F. Vignola, T. Murayama, S. Nickovic, W. E. Wilson, K. Sassen, N. Sugimoto, W. C. Malm, “Asian dust events of April 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,317–18,330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Godin, M.

G. Meister, P. Abel, R. Barnes, J. Cooper, C. Davis, G. Fargion, R. Frouin, M. Godin, D. Korwan, R. Maffione, C. McClain, S. McLean, D. Menzies, A. Poteau, J. Robertson, J. Sherman, “Comparison of spectral radiance calibrations at oceanographic and atmospheric research laboratories,” Metrologia 40, S93–S96 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goloub, P.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P.-Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J.-M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: how much error is acceptable in the near infrared?” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497–504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. N. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 417–430 (1998).
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R. B. Husar, D. M. Tratt, B. A. Schichtel, S. R. Falke, F. Li, D. Jaffe, S. Gassó, T. Gill, N. S. Laulainen, F. Lu, M. L. Reheis, Y. Chun, D. Westphal, B. N. Holben, C. Gueymard, L. McKendry, N. Kuring, G. C. Feldman, C. McClain, R. J. Frouin, J. Merrill, D. DuBois, F. Vignola, T. Murayama, S. Nickovic, W. E. Wilson, K. Sassen, N. Sugimoto, W. C. Malm, “Asian dust events of April 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,317–18,330 (2001).
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B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Shafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. F. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,067–12,097 (2001).
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Vande Castle, J.

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Viollier, M.

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Werdell, P. J.

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R. B. Husar, D. M. Tratt, B. A. Schichtel, S. R. Falke, F. Li, D. Jaffe, S. Gassó, T. Gill, N. S. Laulainen, F. Lu, M. L. Reheis, Y. Chun, D. Westphal, B. N. Holben, C. Gueymard, L. McKendry, N. Kuring, G. C. Feldman, C. McClain, R. J. Frouin, J. Merrill, D. DuBois, F. Vignola, T. Murayama, S. Nickovic, W. E. Wilson, K. Sassen, N. Sugimoto, W. C. Malm, “Asian dust events of April 1998,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,317–18,330 (2001).
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Zhang, T.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flow diagram describing the iterative process for inversion of the pseudo aerosol phase function ωaPa by use of CIMEL radiometer. At the left, LPPL is the radiance measured by the CIMEL radiometer in the PPL, LPPL(1) is the radiance in the PPL corrected for the multiple scattering effects, and P′ is the pseudo total phase function. In the shaded area at the right, E is the irradiance measured by the CIMEL, τa is the aerosol optical thickness, and α is the Angström coefficient. Below the shaded area, f is the multiple scattering corrective factor and i is the number of iterations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometric correspondence between the TOA radiance LTOA(Θ) as measured from space and downward radiance LPPL(Θ) as measured from the ground. The twin observations correspond to the same scattering angle, Θ. The solar zenith angle is denoted θs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Error sources for the corrective f factor: convergence (crosses) and sea surface roughness (curves). Upper and lower solid curves, relative difference between f(7 m/s) and f(7 m/s + ΔW), and f(7 m/s − ΔW) and f(7 m/s), respectively. Upper and lower dashed curves, relative difference between f(5 m/s) and f(5 m/s + ΔW), and f(5 m/s − ΔW) and f(5 m/s), respectively. The f factor has been simulated for the M90 model, a visibility V of 23 km, and solar zenith angle θs of 75°. ΔW has been assumed to be 3 m/s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Error sources for the ωaPa product: f parameter (solid curve), PPL sky-radiance calibration (circles), irradiance calibration (squares), and extrapolation (crosses). The ωaPa product was derived for the M90 model, a visibility V of 23 km, solar zenith angle θs of 75°, a wind speed W of 7 m/s, and associated uncertainty ΔW of −3 m/s. The relative error in phase function is computed against the actual phase function value.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Error budget for the ωaPa product derived for the M90 model (solid curve), the T90 model (long-dashed curve), and the U90 model (short-dashed curve). Visibility Vhas been set at 23 km, solar zenith angle θs at 75°, and wind speed W at 7 m/s.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Error budget for the LTOA simulations for the M90 model (solid curve), the T90 model (long-dashed curve), and the U90 model (short-dashed curve). Visibility V has been set at 23 km, solar zenith angle θs at 30° (upper curves) and 60° (lower curves), the azimuth angle difference Δφ at 90°, and wind speed W at 7 m/s.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Location of the two selected sites represented by red squares: (a) the Venice platform, (b) the Lanai station.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temporal variation of the ωaPa product derived from five PPL protocols during the morning of 9 June 2000 over the Venice site. The phase functions were derived at 5:37, 7:12, 8:13, 9:18, and 12:18 GMT, respectively. The maximum scattering angles covered by the phase functions are 150°, 137°, 125°, 115°, and 110°, respectively. All phase functions were extrapolated until 180° by use of a Junge power law and a real aerosol refractive index of 1.45 (see explanations of extrapolation in Subsection 2.B).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Examples of convergence for the f factor. Two days are considered: (a) 26 October 1998 over Lanai with truncation of the phase function and (b) 10 September 2000 over Venice without truncation of the phase function. Solid curves, relative difference between f(0) and f(1); dashed curves, between f(1) and f(2); filled circles between f(2) and f(3).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Results for SeaWiFS on-board calibration at band 8. (a) CIMEL-retrieved TOA radiances versus SeaWiFS TOA measurements. Data points are normalized radiances, i.e., radiance in geophysical units normalized to an extraterrestrial solar irradiance equal to π. CIMEL retrievals are computed by use of CIMEL measurements, aerosol optical thickness at the SeaWiFS overpass, and phase function from the morning PPL radiances, as the inputs into the radiation-transfer code. Two types of data point are shown: filled squares, type 1; open squares, type 2. Black and red denote the Venice and Lanai sites, respectively. (b) Relative difference between SeaWiFS measurements and CIMEL retrievals for the 19 days selected for the Venice site and the 7 days selected for the Lanai site, in chronological order (see Table 5). Black and red bars denote the Venice and Lanai sites and filled and hatched bars denote type 1 and type 2 data points, respectively. Numbers at the top represent the number of PPL protocols used for the computation of the TOA radiance.

Tables (8)

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Table 1 Near-Infrared Spectral Dependency of the Twelve SF Aerosol Models Used In the SeaWiFS Climatology

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Table 2 Simulated Gaseous Transmittances at SeaWiFS Band 8 for Two Atmospheric Profiles: Mid-Latitude Summer (Roman) and Mid-Latitude Winter (Italic)a

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Table 3 Summary of Water Vapor Transmittancesa

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Table 4 Influence of Aerosol Polarization on TOA Radiance Simulationsa

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Table 5 Characteristics of SeaWiFS Images Selected for the Near-Infrared Calibrationa

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Table 6 Values of Five Pseudo Phase Functions at the Θ and χ Scattering Angles on 9 June 2000 over the Venice Sitea

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Table 7 Summary of the Aerosol Single-Scattering Albedos ωa Derived at Hours hi for Each Selected Day

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Table 8 Summary of Recent Calibration Studies for the SeaWiFS and MERIS Sensors

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( λ i ) = E 0 ( λ i ) ( d / d 0 ) 2 exp [ m τ tot ( λ i ) ] ,
τ a ( λ i ) = τ tot ( λ i ) τ o 3 ( λ i ) τ r ( λ i ) .
α ( λ i , λ 2 ) = ln [ τ a ( λ 1 ) / τ a ( λ 2 ) ] / ln ( λ 1 / λ 2 ) .
f = [ L ( 1 ) / L ] theo [ L ( 1 ) / L ] meas ,
n ( r ) = C r ( α 3 ) .
P = 4 L ( 1 ) exp ( τ tot / μ υ ) { 1 exp [ τ tot ( 1 / μ s 1 / μ υ ) ] 1 } [ μ s / ( μ υ μ s ) ] 1 ,
P = ( ω a τ a P a + τ r P r ) / ( τ a + τ r ) ,

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