Abstract

Spherical aberration of heavily pumped Nd:YAG rods was corrected by use of spherical relay optics selected to add conjugate amounts of aberration. Wavefront measurements showed elimination of spherical aberration. Correction of spherical aberration allowed 250 W of power to be generated in a radially polarized, birefringence-free oscillator (60% more power than without correction). Scale-up of wavefront maintenance was demonstrated in a two-rod amplifier module (6.3 kW electrical pump power). Radial polarization and spherical aberration correction together eliminated the main aberrations in uniformly pumped rod-based lasers. Rotating adjacent pump chambers substantially reduced the multifold aberrations induced by nonuniformity of the azimuthal pumps. ΔM2 in the radially polarized beam was 0.3 and 1.4 with and without aberration correction, respectively, in each two-pump chamber module. Analysis predicts further improvements when higher-order aberration correction is applied.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Koechner, “Thermal lensing in a Nd:YAG laser rod,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2548–2553 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, “Production of radially or tangentially polarized beams in solid-state lasers and elimination of thermally induced birefringence effects,” Opt. Lett. 28, 807–809 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Hodgson, H. Weber, “Influence of spherical aberration of the active medium on the performance of Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2497–2507 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. C. Brown, “Ultrahigh-average-power diode-pumped Nd: YAG and Yb:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 861–873 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Montmerle Bonnefois, M. Gilbert, P.-Y. Thro, J.-M. Weulersse, “Thermal lensing and spherical aberration in high-power transversally pumped laser rods,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).
  6. I. Moshe, S. Jackel, “Influence of birefringence induced bifocusing on optical beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1228–1235 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. E. Siegman, “Analysis of laser beam quality degradation caused by quartic phase aberrations,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5893–5901 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Leibush, S. Jackel, S. Goldring, I. Moshe, Y. Tzuk, A. Meir, “Elimination of spherical aberration in multi-kW, Nd: YAG, rod pump-chambers by pump-distribution control,” in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2005, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005).
  9. A. Montmerle Bonnefois, M. Gilbert, P.-Y. Thro, D. Farcage, J.-M. Weulersse, “Novel method to improve the performance of Nd:YAG high-power, low divergence lasers using a passive compensation of the spherical aberration inside the resonator,” Solid-State Lasers XIV: Technology and Devices, H. J. Hoffman, R. K. Shori, eds., Proc. SPIE5707, 362–369 (2005).
  10. V. N. Mahajan, Aberration Theory Made Simple, Vol. TT6 of SPIE Tutorial Text Series (SPIE Press, 1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, “Beam quality improvement in thermally birefringent Nd:YAG laser amplifiers by use of radially polarized beams,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2004, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), pp. 263–268.

2005

2003

1997

D. C. Brown, “Ultrahigh-average-power diode-pumped Nd: YAG and Yb:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 861–873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

N. Hodgson, H. Weber, “Influence of spherical aberration of the active medium on the performance of Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2497–2507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, “Analysis of laser beam quality degradation caused by quartic phase aberrations,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5893–5901 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown, “Ultrahigh-average-power diode-pumped Nd: YAG and Yb:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 861–873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Farcage, D.

A. Montmerle Bonnefois, M. Gilbert, P.-Y. Thro, D. Farcage, J.-M. Weulersse, “Novel method to improve the performance of Nd:YAG high-power, low divergence lasers using a passive compensation of the spherical aberration inside the resonator,” Solid-State Lasers XIV: Technology and Devices, H. J. Hoffman, R. K. Shori, eds., Proc. SPIE5707, 362–369 (2005).

Gilbert, M.

A. Montmerle Bonnefois, M. Gilbert, P.-Y. Thro, D. Farcage, J.-M. Weulersse, “Novel method to improve the performance of Nd:YAG high-power, low divergence lasers using a passive compensation of the spherical aberration inside the resonator,” Solid-State Lasers XIV: Technology and Devices, H. J. Hoffman, R. K. Shori, eds., Proc. SPIE5707, 362–369 (2005).

A. Montmerle Bonnefois, M. Gilbert, P.-Y. Thro, J.-M. Weulersse, “Thermal lensing and spherical aberration in high-power transversally pumped laser rods,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Goldring, S.

E. Leibush, S. Jackel, S. Goldring, I. Moshe, Y. Tzuk, A. Meir, “Elimination of spherical aberration in multi-kW, Nd: YAG, rod pump-chambers by pump-distribution control,” in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2005, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005).

Hodgson, N.

N. Hodgson, H. Weber, “Influence of spherical aberration of the active medium on the performance of Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2497–2507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, S.

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, “Influence of birefringence induced bifocusing on optical beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1228–1235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, “Production of radially or tangentially polarized beams in solid-state lasers and elimination of thermally induced birefringence effects,” Opt. Lett. 28, 807–809 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Leibush, S. Jackel, S. Goldring, I. Moshe, Y. Tzuk, A. Meir, “Elimination of spherical aberration in multi-kW, Nd: YAG, rod pump-chambers by pump-distribution control,” in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2005, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005).

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, “Beam quality improvement in thermally birefringent Nd:YAG laser amplifiers by use of radially polarized beams,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2004, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), pp. 263–268.

Koechner, W.

Leibush, E.

E. Leibush, S. Jackel, S. Goldring, I. Moshe, Y. Tzuk, A. Meir, “Elimination of spherical aberration in multi-kW, Nd: YAG, rod pump-chambers by pump-distribution control,” in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2005, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005).

Mahajan, V. N.

V. N. Mahajan, Aberration Theory Made Simple, Vol. TT6 of SPIE Tutorial Text Series (SPIE Press, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Meir, A.

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, “Production of radially or tangentially polarized beams in solid-state lasers and elimination of thermally induced birefringence effects,” Opt. Lett. 28, 807–809 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Leibush, S. Jackel, S. Goldring, I. Moshe, Y. Tzuk, A. Meir, “Elimination of spherical aberration in multi-kW, Nd: YAG, rod pump-chambers by pump-distribution control,” in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2005, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005).

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, “Beam quality improvement in thermally birefringent Nd:YAG laser amplifiers by use of radially polarized beams,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2004, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), pp. 263–268.

Montmerle Bonnefois, A.

A. Montmerle Bonnefois, M. Gilbert, P.-Y. Thro, D. Farcage, J.-M. Weulersse, “Novel method to improve the performance of Nd:YAG high-power, low divergence lasers using a passive compensation of the spherical aberration inside the resonator,” Solid-State Lasers XIV: Technology and Devices, H. J. Hoffman, R. K. Shori, eds., Proc. SPIE5707, 362–369 (2005).

A. Montmerle Bonnefois, M. Gilbert, P.-Y. Thro, J.-M. Weulersse, “Thermal lensing and spherical aberration in high-power transversally pumped laser rods,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Moshe, I.

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, “Influence of birefringence induced bifocusing on optical beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1228–1235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, “Production of radially or tangentially polarized beams in solid-state lasers and elimination of thermally induced birefringence effects,” Opt. Lett. 28, 807–809 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Leibush, S. Jackel, S. Goldring, I. Moshe, Y. Tzuk, A. Meir, “Elimination of spherical aberration in multi-kW, Nd: YAG, rod pump-chambers by pump-distribution control,” in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2005, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005).

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, “Beam quality improvement in thermally birefringent Nd:YAG laser amplifiers by use of radially polarized beams,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2004, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), pp. 263–268.

Siegman, A. E.

Thro, P.-Y.

A. Montmerle Bonnefois, M. Gilbert, P.-Y. Thro, D. Farcage, J.-M. Weulersse, “Novel method to improve the performance of Nd:YAG high-power, low divergence lasers using a passive compensation of the spherical aberration inside the resonator,” Solid-State Lasers XIV: Technology and Devices, H. J. Hoffman, R. K. Shori, eds., Proc. SPIE5707, 362–369 (2005).

A. Montmerle Bonnefois, M. Gilbert, P.-Y. Thro, J.-M. Weulersse, “Thermal lensing and spherical aberration in high-power transversally pumped laser rods,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Tzuk, Y.

E. Leibush, S. Jackel, S. Goldring, I. Moshe, Y. Tzuk, A. Meir, “Elimination of spherical aberration in multi-kW, Nd: YAG, rod pump-chambers by pump-distribution control,” in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2005, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005).

Weber, H.

N. Hodgson, H. Weber, “Influence of spherical aberration of the active medium on the performance of Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2497–2507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weulersse, J.-M.

A. Montmerle Bonnefois, M. Gilbert, P.-Y. Thro, D. Farcage, J.-M. Weulersse, “Novel method to improve the performance of Nd:YAG high-power, low divergence lasers using a passive compensation of the spherical aberration inside the resonator,” Solid-State Lasers XIV: Technology and Devices, H. J. Hoffman, R. K. Shori, eds., Proc. SPIE5707, 362–369 (2005).

A. Montmerle Bonnefois, M. Gilbert, P.-Y. Thro, J.-M. Weulersse, “Thermal lensing and spherical aberration in high-power transversally pumped laser rods,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

N. Hodgson, H. Weber, “Influence of spherical aberration of the active medium on the performance of Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2497–2507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Brown, “Ultrahigh-average-power diode-pumped Nd: YAG and Yb:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 861–873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Other

A. Montmerle Bonnefois, M. Gilbert, P.-Y. Thro, J.-M. Weulersse, “Thermal lensing and spherical aberration in high-power transversally pumped laser rods,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

E. Leibush, S. Jackel, S. Goldring, I. Moshe, Y. Tzuk, A. Meir, “Elimination of spherical aberration in multi-kW, Nd: YAG, rod pump-chambers by pump-distribution control,” in Advanced Solid State Photonics 2005, OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005).

A. Montmerle Bonnefois, M. Gilbert, P.-Y. Thro, D. Farcage, J.-M. Weulersse, “Novel method to improve the performance of Nd:YAG high-power, low divergence lasers using a passive compensation of the spherical aberration inside the resonator,” Solid-State Lasers XIV: Technology and Devices, H. J. Hoffman, R. K. Shori, eds., Proc. SPIE5707, 362–369 (2005).

V. N. Mahajan, Aberration Theory Made Simple, Vol. TT6 of SPIE Tutorial Text Series (SPIE Press, 1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Moshe, S. Jackel, A. Meir, “Beam quality improvement in thermally birefringent Nd:YAG laser amplifiers by use of radially polarized beams,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2004, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), pp. 263–268.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transverse pump distribution in the laser rod. The pump distribution was captured by photographing the 1 µm fluorescence emitted during pumping.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Positive spherical aberration introduced by thermal effects in the strongly pumped laser rod is eliminated by addition of a relay telescope with spherical lenses that introduce negative spherical aberration. A tight focal spot may then be obtained.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SA compensation by use of a relay-imaging telescope based on plano–convex lenses oriented in a (plano–convex)(convex–piano) configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured spherical-aberration coefficient with and without compensation as functions of electrical pump power. Note that, with compensation, spherical aberration is totally eliminated at a pump power of 2.95 kW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Symmetric plano–plano resonator with a SAC. Resonator length and aperture size were designed to produce a radially polarized beam at the maximum pump power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured peak-to-valley (P to V) WF deformation introduced by Zernike third-order SA divided by the peak-to-valley WF deformation introduced by the other high-order aberrations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of the two-rod amplifier with SAC.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured output beam wavefront and focal-plane intensity distribution after the two-rod system, with and without SACs. Wavefronts are presented after subtraction of undistorted focusing and include SA and other higher-order aberrations.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Values of Zernike coefficients in two-rod systems, with the diode-arrays oriented at 0° and 36°.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Beam-Quality Degradation (ΔM2)2 in a Two-Pump-Chamber Amplifier System with Various Levels of Aberration Correctiona

Equations (1)

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O P D ( r ) = C 0 + C 2 r 2 + C 4 r 4 .

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