Abstract

We analyze a compact double-grating coupler that provides coupling through radiation modes between two vertically stacked silicon-on-insulator waveguides. The grating is sufficiently strong to be considered a one-dimensional photonic bandgap structure that facilitates a short coupling length. Simulations suggest that a 29% coupling efficiency is achievable in coupling light from one waveguide to another with 12.9 µm long binary gratings. We found that the coupling efficiency is enhanced by Fabry–Perot resonance between two gratings. The coupling efficiency can be increased by use of a blazed grating. We use the eigenmode expansion method to design and optimize the binary grating coupler, and the results are verified by use of the finite-difference time-domain method.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Raburn, B. Liu, K. Rauscher, Y. Okuno, N. Dagli, J. E. Bowers, “3-D photonic circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 935–942 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Sotoyama, S. Tatsuura, K. Motoyoshi, T. Yoshimura, “Directional-coupled optical switch between stacked waveguide layers using electro-optic polymer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1180–L1181 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Wu, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chik, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1992).
  4. Z. M. Chuang, L. A. Coldren, “Enhanced wavelength tuning in grating-assisted codirectional coupler filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1219–1221 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Horita, T. Yamazaki, S. Tanaka, Y. Matsushima, “Polarization insensitive and tunable optical add and drop multiplexer utilizing vertically stacked buried semiconductor waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1733–1734 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. M. Garner, V. Chuyanov, S.-S. Lee, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically integrated waveguide polarization splitters using polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 842–844 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Xing, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Contradirectional coupling between stacked waveguides using grating couplers,” Opt. Commun. 144, 180–182 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Ura, R. Nishida, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Wavelength-selective coupling among three vertically integrated optical waveguides by grating couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 133–135 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Liang, R. W. Ziolkowski, “Grating assisted waveguide-to-waveguide couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 693–695 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Bienstman, R. Baets, “Optical modeling of photonic crystals and VCSEL’s using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 327–341 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. Deridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R. M. Delarue, “Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455–470 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. V. Erstuyft, K. D. Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949–955 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Miyanaga, T. Asakura, “Intensity profile of outgoing beams from uniform and linearly tapered grating couplers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 688–695 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. Burnham, “Analysis of grating-coupled radiation in GaAs:GaA1As lasers and waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422–428 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, W. Streifer, “Analysis of second-order gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2096–2105 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (3)

M. Raburn, B. Liu, K. Rauscher, Y. Okuno, N. Dagli, J. E. Bowers, “3-D photonic circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 935–942 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. Deridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R. M. Delarue, “Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455–470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. V. Erstuyft, K. D. Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

P. Bienstman, R. Baets, “Optical modeling of photonic crystals and VCSEL’s using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 327–341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, R. Nishida, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Wavelength-selective coupling among three vertically integrated optical waveguides by grating couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 133–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. Horita, T. Yamazaki, S. Tanaka, Y. Matsushima, “Polarization insensitive and tunable optical add and drop multiplexer utilizing vertically stacked buried semiconductor waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1733–1734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Garner, V. Chuyanov, S.-S. Lee, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically integrated waveguide polarization splitters using polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 842–844 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Liang, R. W. Ziolkowski, “Grating assisted waveguide-to-waveguide couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 693–695 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xing, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Contradirectional coupling between stacked waveguides using grating couplers,” Opt. Commun. 144, 180–182 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Z. M. Chuang, L. A. Coldren, “Enhanced wavelength tuning in grating-assisted codirectional coupler filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1219–1221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

W. Sotoyama, S. Tatsuura, K. Motoyoshi, T. Yoshimura, “Directional-coupled optical switch between stacked waveguide layers using electro-optic polymer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1180–L1181 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chik, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1992).

1989 (1)

A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, W. Streifer, “Analysis of second-order gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2096–2105 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1976 (1)

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. Burnham, “Analysis of grating-coupled radiation in GaAs:GaA1As lasers and waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422–428 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Asakura, T.

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. V. Erstuyft, K. D. Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. Deridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R. M. Delarue, “Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455–470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Bienstman, R. Baets, “Optical modeling of photonic crystals and VCSEL’s using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 327–341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. Deridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R. M. Delarue, “Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455–470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. V. Erstuyft, K. D. Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Bienstman, R. Baets, “Optical modeling of photonic crystals and VCSEL’s using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 327–341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. V. Erstuyft, K. D. Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

M. Raburn, B. Liu, K. Rauscher, Y. Okuno, N. Dagli, J. E. Bowers, “3-D photonic circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 935–942 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. Burnham, “Analysis of grating-coupled radiation in GaAs:GaA1As lasers and waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422–428 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

S. M. Garner, V. Chuyanov, S.-S. Lee, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically integrated waveguide polarization splitters using polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 842–844 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chik, K. D.

C. Wu, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chik, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1992).

Chuang, Z. M.

Z. M. Chuang, L. A. Coldren, “Enhanced wavelength tuning in grating-assisted codirectional coupler filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1219–1221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chuyanov, V.

S. M. Garner, V. Chuyanov, S.-S. Lee, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically integrated waveguide polarization splitters using polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 842–844 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

Z. M. Chuang, L. A. Coldren, “Enhanced wavelength tuning in grating-assisted codirectional coupler filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1219–1221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ctyroky, J.

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. Deridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R. M. Delarue, “Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455–470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Daele, P. V.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. V. Erstuyft, K. D. Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

M. Raburn, B. Liu, K. Rauscher, Y. Okuno, N. Dagli, J. E. Bowers, “3-D photonic circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 935–942 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

S. M. Garner, V. Chuyanov, S.-S. Lee, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically integrated waveguide polarization splitters using polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 842–844 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Delarue, R. M.

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. Deridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R. M. Delarue, “Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455–470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P. M.

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deridder, R.

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. Deridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R. M. Delarue, “Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455–470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Erstuyft, S. V.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. V. Erstuyft, K. D. Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S. M.

S. M. Garner, V. Chuyanov, S.-S. Lee, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically integrated waveguide polarization splitters using polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 842–844 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, A.

A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, W. Streifer, “Analysis of second-order gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2096–2105 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Helfert, S.

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. Deridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R. M. Delarue, “Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455–470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Horita, M.

M. Horita, T. Yamazaki, S. Tanaka, Y. Matsushima, “Polarization insensitive and tunable optical add and drop multiplexer utilizing vertically stacked buried semiconductor waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1733–1734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J.-P.

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. Deridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R. M. Delarue, “Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455–470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klaasse, G.

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. Deridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R. M. Delarue, “Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455–470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. V. Erstuyft, K. D. Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. Deridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R. M. Delarue, “Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455–470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Larocque, C.

C. Wu, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chik, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1992).

Lee, S.-S.

S. M. Garner, V. Chuyanov, S.-S. Lee, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically integrated waveguide polarization splitters using polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 842–844 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liang, T.

T. Liang, R. W. Ziolkowski, “Grating assisted waveguide-to-waveguide couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 693–695 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

M. Raburn, B. Liu, K. Rauscher, Y. Okuno, N. Dagli, J. E. Bowers, “3-D photonic circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 935–942 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsushima, Y.

M. Horita, T. Yamazaki, S. Tanaka, Y. Matsushima, “Polarization insensitive and tunable optical add and drop multiplexer utilizing vertically stacked buried semiconductor waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1733–1734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mesel, K. D.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. V. Erstuyft, K. D. Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miyanaga, S.

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. V. Erstuyft, K. D. Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Motoyoshi, K.

W. Sotoyama, S. Tatsuura, K. Motoyoshi, T. Yoshimura, “Directional-coupled optical switch between stacked waveguide layers using electro-optic polymer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1180–L1181 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, R.

S. Ura, R. Nishida, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Wavelength-selective coupling among three vertically integrated optical waveguides by grating couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 133–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

S. Ura, R. Nishida, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Wavelength-selective coupling among three vertically integrated optical waveguides by grating couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 133–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xing, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Contradirectional coupling between stacked waveguides using grating couplers,” Opt. Commun. 144, 180–182 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, Y.

M. Raburn, B. Liu, K. Rauscher, Y. Okuno, N. Dagli, J. E. Bowers, “3-D photonic circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 935–942 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petracek, J.

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. Deridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R. M. Delarue, “Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455–470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pregla, R.

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. Deridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R. M. Delarue, “Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455–470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Puetz, N.

C. Wu, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chik, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1992).

Raburn, M.

M. Raburn, B. Liu, K. Rauscher, Y. Okuno, N. Dagli, J. E. Bowers, “3-D photonic circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 935–942 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rauscher, K.

M. Raburn, B. Liu, K. Rauscher, Y. Okuno, N. Dagli, J. E. Bowers, “3-D photonic circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 935–942 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rendina, I.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, C.

C. Wu, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chik, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1992).

Scifres, D. R.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. Burnham, “Analysis of grating-coupled radiation in GaAs:GaA1As lasers and waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422–428 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, F.

C. Wu, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chik, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1992).

Sotoyama, W.

W. Sotoyama, S. Tatsuura, K. Motoyoshi, T. Yoshimura, “Directional-coupled optical switch between stacked waveguide layers using electro-optic polymer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1180–L1181 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

S. M. Garner, V. Chuyanov, S.-S. Lee, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically integrated waveguide polarization splitters using polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 842–844 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stoffer, R.

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. Deridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R. M. Delarue, “Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455–470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, W. Streifer, “Analysis of second-order gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2096–2105 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. Burnham, “Analysis of grating-coupled radiation in GaAs:GaA1As lasers and waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422–428 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

S. Ura, R. Nishida, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Wavelength-selective coupling among three vertically integrated optical waveguides by grating couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 133–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xing, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Contradirectional coupling between stacked waveguides using grating couplers,” Opt. Commun. 144, 180–182 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. V. Erstuyft, K. D. Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

M. Horita, T. Yamazaki, S. Tanaka, Y. Matsushima, “Polarization insensitive and tunable optical add and drop multiplexer utilizing vertically stacked buried semiconductor waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1733–1734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tatsuura, S.

W. Sotoyama, S. Tatsuura, K. Motoyoshi, T. Yoshimura, “Directional-coupled optical switch between stacked waveguide layers using electro-optic polymer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1180–L1181 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ura, S.

S. Ura, R. Nishida, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Wavelength-selective coupling among three vertically integrated optical waveguides by grating couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 133–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xing, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Contradirectional coupling between stacked waveguides using grating couplers,” Opt. Commun. 144, 180–182 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P. P.

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Welch, D. F.

A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, W. Streifer, “Analysis of second-order gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2096–2105 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chik, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1992).

Xing, Q.

Q. Xing, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Contradirectional coupling between stacked waveguides using grating couplers,” Opt. Commun. 144, 180–182 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. M.

C. Wu, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chik, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1992).

Yamazaki, T.

M. Horita, T. Yamazaki, S. Tanaka, Y. Matsushima, “Polarization insensitive and tunable optical add and drop multiplexer utilizing vertically stacked buried semiconductor waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1733–1734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimoto, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, T.

W. Sotoyama, S. Tatsuura, K. Motoyoshi, T. Yoshimura, “Directional-coupled optical switch between stacked waveguide layers using electro-optic polymer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1180–L1181 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ziolkowski, R. W.

T. Liang, R. W. Ziolkowski, “Grating assisted waveguide-to-waveguide couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 693–695 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Horita, T. Yamazaki, S. Tanaka, Y. Matsushima, “Polarization insensitive and tunable optical add and drop multiplexer utilizing vertically stacked buried semiconductor waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1733–1734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. Burnham, “Analysis of grating-coupled radiation in GaAs:GaA1As lasers and waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422–428 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, W. Streifer, “Analysis of second-order gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2096–2105 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. V. Erstuyft, K. D. Mesel, R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Raburn, B. Liu, K. Rauscher, Y. Okuno, N. Dagli, J. E. Bowers, “3-D photonic circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 935–942 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

C. Wu, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chik, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1992).

Z. M. Chuang, L. A. Coldren, “Enhanced wavelength tuning in grating-assisted codirectional coupler filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1219–1221 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Garner, V. Chuyanov, S.-S. Lee, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically integrated waveguide polarization splitters using polymers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 842–844 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, R. Nishida, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Wavelength-selective coupling among three vertically integrated optical waveguides by grating couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 133–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Liang, R. W. Ziolkowski, “Grating assisted waveguide-to-waveguide couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 693–695 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Sotoyama, S. Tatsuura, K. Motoyoshi, T. Yoshimura, “Directional-coupled optical switch between stacked waveguide layers using electro-optic polymer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1180–L1181 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Q. Xing, S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, “Contradirectional coupling between stacked waveguides using grating couplers,” Opt. Commun. 144, 180–182 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. Bienstman, R. Baets, “Optical modeling of photonic crystals and VCSEL’s using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 327–341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. Deridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R. M. Delarue, “Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455–470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional diagram of the double-grating coupler and SOI waveguides modeled here.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Slicing the double-grating structure into sections that are invariant in the z direction (direction of propagation). (b)–(d) Possible slab compound waveguide structures in the calculation. In (b)–(d), ti is the thickness of the silicon guiding layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optimum grating periods for transmission of T12 versus grating depth. The thicknesses of both oxide layers are fixed at 1 µm, and both duty cycles of the gratings are 0.5. The separation distance between the two silicon guiding layers is 5 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Coupling efficiency versus grating depth, assuming optimal grating periods.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Coupling efficiency versus thickness of the lower oxide layer. The thickness of the upper oxide is 1.21 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Coupling efficiency versus thickness of the upper oxide layer. The thickness of the lower oxide is 1.25 µm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral dependence of the coupling efficiency with optimized parameters.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral dependence of the coupling efficiency with optimized parameters but without the upper grating.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Coupling efficiency versus thickness of the separation layer. The other parameters used are the same as for Fig. 7.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Field distribution of the double-grating coupler calculated by the FDTD method. The parameters used are the same as for Fig. 7. Here X = 0 µm is the midpoint between the two silicon guiding layers. The light is incident at Z = 1.5 µm from left to right in the lower silicon guiding layer. Both gratings start from Z = 2 µm, and both grating lengths are 12.9 µm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Field distribution of the double-grating coupler calculated by the FDTD method under the condition that the separation thickness is 4.8 µm. The other parameters used are the same as for Fig. 10.

Metrics