Abstract

It is suggested that an economical airborne lidar having a single laser can retrieve the three principal inherent optical properties of the ocean. Only three time-resolved backscattering receiver channels are required: (i) elastic (on-wavelength), (ii) inelastic (water Raman), and (iii) inelastic [chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence channel to remove the CDOM fluorescence interference from the Raman channel].

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. E. Hoge, “Validation of satellite-retrieved oceanic inherent optical properties: Proposed two-color elastic backscatter lidar and retrieval theory,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7191–7196 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. V. Malinka, E. P. Zege, “Analytical modeling of Raman lidar return, including multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1075–1081 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. Katzev, E. Zege, A. Prikhach, I. Polansky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and ocean soundings and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. W. Wright, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, C. R. Schirtzinger, “Next generation airborne oceanographic lidar system: The NASA AOL-3,” Appl. Opt. 40, 336–342 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment: theory and feasibility status,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7431–7441 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Inherent optical properties imagery of the western North Atlantic Ocean: Horizontal spatial variability of the upper mixed layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 31129–31140 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: A comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. E. Walker, J. W. McLean, “Lidar equations for turbid media with pulse stretching,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2384–2397 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. McLean, J. D. Freeman, R. E. Walker, “Beam spread function with time dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4701–4711 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: Retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: An analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Roy, L. R. Bissonnette, C. Bastille, G. Vallee, “Retrieval of droplet-size density distribution from multiple-field-of-view cross-polarized lidar signals: theory and experimental validation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5202–5211 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Bissonnette, G. Roy, L. Poutier, S. G. Cober, G. A. Isaac, “Multiple-scattering lidar retrieval method: tests on Monte Carlo simulations and comparisons with in situ measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6307–6324 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. R. Bisonnette, D. L. Hunt, “Multiple scattering lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5045–5046 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. L. Hutt, L. R. Bissonnette, L. Durand, “Multiple field of view lidar returns from atmospheric aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2338–2348 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

C. W. Wright, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, C. R. Schirtzinger, “Next generation airborne oceanographic lidar system: The NASA AOL-3,” Appl. Opt. 40, 336–342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Inherent optical properties imagery of the western North Atlantic Ocean: Horizontal spatial variability of the upper mixed layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 31129–31140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

I. Katzev, E. Zege, A. Prikhach, I. Polansky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and ocean soundings and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: An analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: Retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: A comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1981 (1)

Baker, K. S.

Bastille, C.

Bisonnette, L. R.

Bissonnette, L.

Bissonnette, L. R.

Blough, N. V.

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: Retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cober, S. G.

Durand, L.

Freeman, J. D.

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, “Validation of satellite-retrieved oceanic inherent optical properties: Proposed two-color elastic backscatter lidar and retrieval theory,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7191–7196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Wright, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, C. R. Schirtzinger, “Next generation airborne oceanographic lidar system: The NASA AOL-3,” Appl. Opt. 40, 336–342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Inherent optical properties imagery of the western North Atlantic Ocean: Horizontal spatial variability of the upper mixed layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 31129–31140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment: theory and feasibility status,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7431–7441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: An analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: A comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: Retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, D. L.

Hutt, D. L.

Isaac, G. A.

Katzev, I.

I. Katzev, E. Zege, A. Prikhach, I. Polansky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and ocean soundings and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lyon, P. E.

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Inherent optical properties imagery of the western North Atlantic Ocean: Horizontal spatial variability of the upper mixed layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 31129–31140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment: theory and feasibility status,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7431–7441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: An analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Malinka, A. V.

McLean, J. W.

Polansky, I.

I. Katzev, E. Zege, A. Prikhach, I. Polansky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and ocean soundings and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poutier, L.

Prikhach, A.

I. Katzev, E. Zege, A. Prikhach, I. Polansky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and ocean soundings and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roy, G.

Schirtzinger, C. R.

Smith, R. C.

Swift, R. N.

Vallee, G.

Vodacek, A.

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: A comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: Retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. E.

Wright, C. W.

Yungel, J. K.

C. W. Wright, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, C. R. Schirtzinger, “Next generation airborne oceanographic lidar system: The NASA AOL-3,” Appl. Opt. 40, 336–342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Inherent optical properties imagery of the western North Atlantic Ocean: Horizontal spatial variability of the upper mixed layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 31129–31140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment: theory and feasibility status,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7431–7441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: A comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yungel, J. Y.

Zege, E.

I. Katzev, E. Zege, A. Prikhach, I. Polansky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and ocean soundings and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zege, E. P.

Appl. Opt. (13)

C. W. Wright, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, C. R. Schirtzinger, “Next generation airborne oceanographic lidar system: The NASA AOL-3,” Appl. Opt. 40, 336–342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by inversion of an oceanic radiance model: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 495–504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment: theory and feasibility status,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7431–7441 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, “Validation of satellite-retrieved oceanic inherent optical properties: Proposed two-color elastic backscatter lidar and retrieval theory,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7191–7196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Malinka, E. P. Zege, “Analytical modeling of Raman lidar return, including multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1075–1081 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Walker, J. W. McLean, “Lidar equations for turbid media with pulse stretching,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2384–2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. McLean, J. D. Freeman, R. E. Walker, “Beam spread function with time dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4701–4711 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roy, L. R. Bissonnette, C. Bastille, G. Vallee, “Retrieval of droplet-size density distribution from multiple-field-of-view cross-polarized lidar signals: theory and experimental validation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5202–5211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Bissonnette, G. Roy, L. Poutier, S. G. Cober, G. A. Isaac, “Multiple-scattering lidar retrieval method: tests on Monte Carlo simulations and comparisons with in situ measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6307–6324 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Bisonnette, D. L. Hunt, “Multiple scattering lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5045–5046 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Hutt, L. R. Bissonnette, L. Durand, “Multiple field of view lidar returns from atmospheric aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2338–2348 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, R. N. Swift, J. Y. Yungel, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7032–7038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: An analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, P. E. Lyon, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Inherent optical properties imagery of the western North Atlantic Ocean: Horizontal spatial variability of the upper mixed layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 31129–31140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, A. Vodacek, “Fluorescence of dissolved organic matter: A comparison of North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans during April 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22779–22787 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. A (1)

I. Katzev, E. Zege, A. Prikhach, I. Polansky, “Efficient technique to determine backscattered light power for various atmospheric and ocean soundings and imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. A 14, 1338–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

F. E. Hoge, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, “Inherent optical properties of the ocean: Retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from fluorescence measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1394–1402 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Equations (2)

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a p h ( λ 1 ) + a CDOM ( λ 1 ) = k elastic a water ( λ 1 ) , a p h ( λ 2 ) + a CDOM ( λ 2 ) = k Raman a water ( λ 2 ) .
a ph ( λ g ) g ( λ 1 , λ g ) + a CDOM ( λ d ) exp [ S ( λ 1 λ d ) ] = k elastic ( λ 1 ) a water ( λ 1 ) , a ph ( λ g ) g ( λ 2 , λ g ) + a CDOM ( λ d ) exp [ S ( λ 2 λ d ) ] = k Raman ( λ 2 ) a water ( λ 2 ) .

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