Abstract

Quondam lunar eclipse photometry data offered valuable information on the optical properties of the middle atmosphere, including dust particles. However, in comparison with nonspherical grains, the simple model of spherical particles has a different effect on solar radiation penetrating horizontally through the atmosphere. It is shown that the systems, in which the smallest size fraction of dust particles dominates, reduce irradiation of the Earth’s shadow more efficiently if the grains are of irregular shape. In contrast, the populations contaminated by a certain amount of large particles cause an opposite effect. Depending on the actual form of the size distribution function of the irregular grains, the irradiance within the center of the Earth’s shadow may change by 2 orders of magnitude in the visible spectrum. It is therefore evident that dust properties retrieved in the past are eligible candidates for reevaluation to correct a view on the dust trend in the middle atmosphere. Sample calculations are presented for the lunar eclipse observed on 19 January 1954.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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2004 (1)

B. R. Stothers, “Stratospheric transparency derived from total lunar eclipse colors, 1665–1800,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 116, 886–893 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Yu. V. Platov, G. N. Kulikova, S. A. Chernouss, “Classification of gas-dust structures in the upper atmosphere associated with the exhausts of rocket-engine combustion products,” Cosmic Res. 41, 153–158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Draine, P. J. Flatau, “User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code ddscat.6.0,” Freeware (2003).

2002 (2)

M. Kocifaj, “Analytical solution of the extended single-body problem and its applications,” Contrib. Astron. Obs. Skalnaté Pleso 32, 25–38 (2002).

J. M. Hahn, H. A. Zook, B. Cooper, B. Sunkara, “Clementine observations of the zodiacal light and the dust content of the inner solar system,” Icarus 158, 360–378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

F. J. M. Rietmeijer, “Identification of Fe-rich meteoric dust,” Planet. Space Sci. 49, 71–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Kolokolova, B. Å. S. Gustafson, “Scattering by inhomogeneous particles: microwave analog experiments and comparison to effective medium theories,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 611–625 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Gu, J. D. Fuentes, M. Garstang, J. T. Da Silva, R. Heitz, J. Sigler, H. H. Shugart, “Cloud modulation of surface solar irradiance at a pasture site in southern Brazil,” Agric. Forest Meteorol. 106, 117–129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Chamaillard, J. P. J. Lafon, “Statistical approach of the effects of roughness on the polarization of light scattered by dust grains,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 519–528 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gumbel, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtag, G. Witt, “Scattering phase functions and particle sizes in noctilucent clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1415–1418 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Borovoi, E. Naats, U. Oppel, I. Grishin, “Shape characterization of a large nonspherical particle by use of its Fraunhofer diffraction pattern,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1989–1997 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Auer, E. M. Standish, “Astronomical refraction: computational method for all zenith angles,” Astrophys. J. 119, 2472–2474 (2000).

1999 (2)

P. A. Yanamandra-Fisher, M. S. Hanner, “Optical properties of nonspherical particles of size comparable to the wavelength of light: application to comet dust,” Icarus 138, 107–128 (1999)[Icarus 139, 388–389(E) (1999)].
[CrossRef]

G. A. Graham, A. T. Kearsley, M. M. Grady, I. P. Wright, J. A. M. McDonnell, “The collection of micrometeoroid remnants from low earth orbit,” Adv. Space Res. 25, 303–307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. Borovička, O. P Popova, I. V. Nemtchinov, P. Spurný, Z. Ceplecha, “Bolides produced by impacts of large meteoroids into the Earth’s atmosphere: comparison of theory with observations. I. Benešov bolide dynamics and fragmentation,” Astron. Astrophys. 334, 713–728 (1998).

T. Wriedt, U. Comberg, “Comparison of computational scattering methods,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 411–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Celnikier, “Understanding the physics of meteoritic descent,” Am. J. Phys. 63, 524–535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Kapišinský, V. Figusch, A. Hajduk, J. Ivan, K. Iždinský, “The analysis of four cosmic dust particles,” Earth, Moon, Planets 68, 347–360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Horvath, “Remarks and suggestions on nomenclature and symbols in atmospheric optics,” Atmosph. Environ. 28, 757–759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

H. Horvath, C. Dellago, “On the accuracy of the size distribution information obtained from light extinction and scattering measurements—II. Case studies,” J. Aerosol Sci. 24, 143–154 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ceplecha, P. Spurný, J. Borovička, J. Keclíková, “Atmospheric fragmentation of meteoroids,” Astron. Astrophys. 279, 615–626 (1993).

D. E. Brownlee, D. J. Joswiak, S. G. Love, A. O. Nier, D. J. Schlutter, J. P. Bradley, “Identification of cometary and asteroidal particles in stratospheric IDP collections,” Lunar Planet. Sci. 24, 205–206 (1993).

A. Mallama, “Two celestial visibility projects: (1) the brightness of an eclipsed moon and (2) the phase anomaly of venus,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 25, 1334 (1993).

1992 (1)

Z. Ceplecha, “Influx of interplanetary bodies onto Earth,” Astron. Astrophys. 263, 361–366 (1992).

1991 (1)

J. L. Gooding, M. E. Zolensky, S. J. Wentworth, “Aqueous alteration of the Nakhla meteorite,” Meteoritics 26, 135–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

A. P. Jones, “Modeling interstellar extinction—I. Porous grains,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 234, 209–218 (1988).

B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

K. Okada, A. Kobayashi, Y. Iwasaka, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, “Features of individual Asian dust-storm particles collected at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 65, 515–521 (1987).

1986 (2)

T. Nakamura, T. Hirayama, M. Noguchi, “A new photographic method for mapping lunar eclipse shadow,” Earth, Moon, Planets 35, 55–71 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, T. K. Lea, “Bias in a solar constant determination by the Langley method due to structured atmospheric aerosol,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2486–2491 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

G. E. Thomas, C. P. McKay, “On the mean particle size and water content of polar mesospheric clouds,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 1209–1224 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

N. Sekiguchi, “Abnormally dark lunar eclipse on December 30, 1982,” Moon Planets 29, 195–198 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. P. Turco, O. B. Toon, R. C. Whitten, R. G. Keesee, D. Hollenbach, “Noctilucent clouds: simulation studies of the genesis, properties and global influences,” Planet Space Sci. 30, 1147–1181 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. D. MacDougall, “Refractory spherules in the Murchison meteorite—are they chondrules,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 966–969 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

W. J. Baggaley, “The size distribution of large meteor bodies,” Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 29, 57–59 (1978).

1976 (1)

A. Dauvillier, “Sur la brillance de la Lune eclipsee,” Moon 15, 325–328 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

J. Bouška, P. Mayer, “Photoelectric photometry of the penumbral lunar eclipse of September 25, 1969,” Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 23, 139–143 (1972).

1966 (1)

S. Matsushima, J. R. Zink, J. E. Hansen, “Atmospheric extinction by dust particles as determined from three-color photometry of the lunar eclipse of 19 December 1964,” Astron. J. 71, 103–110 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. Bouška, P. Mayer, “Photoelectric observation of the lunar eclipse of June 24–25, 1964,” Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 16, 252–254 (1965).

1964 (1)

J. Rosinski, J. M. Pierrard, “Condensation products of meteor vapors and their connection with noctilucent clouds and rainfall anomalies,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 26, 51–66 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

M. Hansa, “Collections of the meteoric dust during Perseids,” Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 11, 236–242 (1958).

1952 (1)

F. L. Whipple, “On meteor masses and densities,” Astron. J. 57, 28–29 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

F. Link, “Photométrie photographique de l’éclipse de Lune du 19 décembre 1945,” Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 1, 13–16 (1948).

Auer, L. H.

L. H. Auer, E. M. Standish, “Astronomical refraction: computational method for all zenith angles,” Astrophys. J. 119, 2472–2474 (2000).

Baggaley, W. J.

W. J. Baggaley, “The size distribution of large meteor bodies,” Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 29, 57–59 (1978).

Borghese, E.

Borovicka, J.

J. Borovička, O. P Popova, I. V. Nemtchinov, P. Spurný, Z. Ceplecha, “Bolides produced by impacts of large meteoroids into the Earth’s atmosphere: comparison of theory with observations. I. Benešov bolide dynamics and fragmentation,” Astron. Astrophys. 334, 713–728 (1998).

Z. Ceplecha, P. Spurný, J. Borovička, J. Keclíková, “Atmospheric fragmentation of meteoroids,” Astron. Astrophys. 279, 615–626 (1993).

Borovoi, A.

Bouška, J.

J. Bouška, P. Mayer, “Photoelectric photometry of the penumbral lunar eclipse of September 25, 1969,” Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 23, 139–143 (1972).

J. Bouška, P. Mayer, “Photoelectric observation of the lunar eclipse of June 24–25, 1964,” Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 16, 252–254 (1965).

Bradley, J. P.

D. E. Brownlee, D. J. Joswiak, S. G. Love, A. O. Nier, D. J. Schlutter, J. P. Bradley, “Identification of cometary and asteroidal particles in stratospheric IDP collections,” Lunar Planet. Sci. 24, 205–206 (1993).

Brownlee, D. E.

D. E. Brownlee, D. J. Joswiak, S. G. Love, A. O. Nier, D. J. Schlutter, J. P. Bradley, “Identification of cometary and asteroidal particles in stratospheric IDP collections,” Lunar Planet. Sci. 24, 205–206 (1993).

Carlson, B. E.

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Celnikier, L. M.

L. M. Celnikier, “Understanding the physics of meteoritic descent,” Am. J. Phys. 63, 524–535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ceplecha, Z.

J. Borovička, O. P Popova, I. V. Nemtchinov, P. Spurný, Z. Ceplecha, “Bolides produced by impacts of large meteoroids into the Earth’s atmosphere: comparison of theory with observations. I. Benešov bolide dynamics and fragmentation,” Astron. Astrophys. 334, 713–728 (1998).

Z. Ceplecha, P. Spurný, J. Borovička, J. Keclíková, “Atmospheric fragmentation of meteoroids,” Astron. Astrophys. 279, 615–626 (1993).

Z. Ceplecha, “Influx of interplanetary bodies onto Earth,” Astron. Astrophys. 263, 361–366 (1992).

Chamaillard, K.

K. Chamaillard, J. P. J. Lafon, “Statistical approach of the effects of roughness on the polarization of light scattered by dust grains,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 519–528 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chernouss, S. A.

Yu. V. Platov, G. N. Kulikova, S. A. Chernouss, “Classification of gas-dust structures in the upper atmosphere associated with the exhausts of rocket-engine combustion products,” Cosmic Res. 41, 153–158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Comberg, U.

T. Wriedt, U. Comberg, “Comparison of computational scattering methods,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 411–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, B.

J. M. Hahn, H. A. Zook, B. Cooper, B. Sunkara, “Clementine observations of the zodiacal light and the dust content of the inner solar system,” Icarus 158, 360–378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, J. T.

L. Gu, J. D. Fuentes, M. Garstang, J. T. Da Silva, R. Heitz, J. Sigler, H. H. Shugart, “Cloud modulation of surface solar irradiance at a pasture site in southern Brazil,” Agric. Forest Meteorol. 106, 117–129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dauvillier, A.

A. Dauvillier, “Sur la brillance de la Lune eclipsee,” Moon 15, 325–328 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Dellago, C.

H. Horvath, C. Dellago, “On the accuracy of the size distribution information obtained from light extinction and scattering measurements—II. Case studies,” J. Aerosol Sci. 24, 143–154 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Denti, P.

Draine, B. T.

B. T. Draine, P. J. Flatau, “User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code ddscat.6.0,” Freeware (2003).

B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Figusch, V.

I. Kapišinský, V. Figusch, A. Hajduk, J. Ivan, K. Iždinský, “The analysis of four cosmic dust particles,” Earth, Moon, Planets 68, 347–360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flatau, P. J.

B. T. Draine, P. J. Flatau, “User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code ddscat.6.0,” Freeware (2003).

Fuentes, J. D.

L. Gu, J. D. Fuentes, M. Garstang, J. T. Da Silva, R. Heitz, J. Sigler, H. H. Shugart, “Cloud modulation of surface solar irradiance at a pasture site in southern Brazil,” Agric. Forest Meteorol. 106, 117–129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gadsden, M.

M. Gadsden, W. Schröder, Noctilucent Clouds (Springer, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Garstang, M.

L. Gu, J. D. Fuentes, M. Garstang, J. T. Da Silva, R. Heitz, J. Sigler, H. H. Shugart, “Cloud modulation of surface solar irradiance at a pasture site in southern Brazil,” Agric. Forest Meteorol. 106, 117–129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gooding, J. L.

J. L. Gooding, M. E. Zolensky, S. J. Wentworth, “Aqueous alteration of the Nakhla meteorite,” Meteoritics 26, 135–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grady, M. M.

G. A. Graham, A. T. Kearsley, M. M. Grady, I. P. Wright, J. A. M. McDonnell, “The collection of micrometeoroid remnants from low earth orbit,” Adv. Space Res. 25, 303–307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Graham, G. A.

G. A. Graham, A. T. Kearsley, M. M. Grady, I. P. Wright, J. A. M. McDonnell, “The collection of micrometeoroid remnants from low earth orbit,” Adv. Space Res. 25, 303–307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grishin, I.

Gu, L.

L. Gu, J. D. Fuentes, M. Garstang, J. T. Da Silva, R. Heitz, J. Sigler, H. H. Shugart, “Cloud modulation of surface solar irradiance at a pasture site in southern Brazil,” Agric. Forest Meteorol. 106, 117–129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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J. Gumbel, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtag, G. Witt, “Scattering phase functions and particle sizes in noctilucent clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1415–1418 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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L. Kolokolova, B. Å. S. Gustafson, “Scattering by inhomogeneous particles: microwave analog experiments and comparison to effective medium theories,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 611–625 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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J. M. Hahn, H. A. Zook, B. Cooper, B. Sunkara, “Clementine observations of the zodiacal light and the dust content of the inner solar system,” Icarus 158, 360–378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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I. Kapišinský, V. Figusch, A. Hajduk, J. Ivan, K. Iždinský, “The analysis of four cosmic dust particles,” Earth, Moon, Planets 68, 347–360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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P. A. Yanamandra-Fisher, M. S. Hanner, “Optical properties of nonspherical particles of size comparable to the wavelength of light: application to comet dust,” Icarus 138, 107–128 (1999)[Icarus 139, 388–389(E) (1999)].
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M. Hansa, “Collections of the meteoric dust during Perseids,” Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 11, 236–242 (1958).

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S. Matsushima, J. R. Zink, J. E. Hansen, “Atmospheric extinction by dust particles as determined from three-color photometry of the lunar eclipse of 19 December 1964,” Astron. J. 71, 103–110 (1966).
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Heitz, R.

L. Gu, J. D. Fuentes, M. Garstang, J. T. Da Silva, R. Heitz, J. Sigler, H. H. Shugart, “Cloud modulation of surface solar irradiance at a pasture site in southern Brazil,” Agric. Forest Meteorol. 106, 117–129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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T. Nakamura, T. Hirayama, M. Noguchi, “A new photographic method for mapping lunar eclipse shadow,” Earth, Moon, Planets 35, 55–71 (1986).
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R. P. Turco, O. B. Toon, R. C. Whitten, R. G. Keesee, D. Hollenbach, “Noctilucent clouds: simulation studies of the genesis, properties and global influences,” Planet Space Sci. 30, 1147–1181 (1982).
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I. Kapišinský, V. Figusch, A. Hajduk, J. Ivan, K. Iždinský, “The analysis of four cosmic dust particles,” Earth, Moon, Planets 68, 347–360 (1995).
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K. Okada, A. Kobayashi, Y. Iwasaka, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, “Features of individual Asian dust-storm particles collected at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 65, 515–521 (1987).

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I. Kapišinský, V. Figusch, A. Hajduk, J. Ivan, K. Iždinský, “The analysis of four cosmic dust particles,” Earth, Moon, Planets 68, 347–360 (1995).
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Kapišinský, I.

I. Kapišinský, V. Figusch, A. Hajduk, J. Ivan, K. Iždinský, “The analysis of four cosmic dust particles,” Earth, Moon, Planets 68, 347–360 (1995).
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G. A. Graham, A. T. Kearsley, M. M. Grady, I. P. Wright, J. A. M. McDonnell, “The collection of micrometeoroid remnants from low earth orbit,” Adv. Space Res. 25, 303–307 (1999).
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Z. Ceplecha, P. Spurný, J. Borovička, J. Keclíková, “Atmospheric fragmentation of meteoroids,” Astron. Astrophys. 279, 615–626 (1993).

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R. P. Turco, O. B. Toon, R. C. Whitten, R. G. Keesee, D. Hollenbach, “Noctilucent clouds: simulation studies of the genesis, properties and global influences,” Planet Space Sci. 30, 1147–1181 (1982).
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K. Okada, A. Kobayashi, Y. Iwasaka, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, “Features of individual Asian dust-storm particles collected at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 65, 515–521 (1987).

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M. Kocifaj, “Analytical solution of the extended single-body problem and its applications,” Contrib. Astron. Obs. Skalnaté Pleso 32, 25–38 (2002).

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L. Kolokolova, B. Å. S. Gustafson, “Scattering by inhomogeneous particles: microwave analog experiments and comparison to effective medium theories,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 611–625 (2001).
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Yu. V. Platov, G. N. Kulikova, S. A. Chernouss, “Classification of gas-dust structures in the upper atmosphere associated with the exhausts of rocket-engine combustion products,” Cosmic Res. 41, 153–158 (2003).
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M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).
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D. E. Brownlee, D. J. Joswiak, S. G. Love, A. O. Nier, D. J. Schlutter, J. P. Bradley, “Identification of cometary and asteroidal particles in stratospheric IDP collections,” Lunar Planet. Sci. 24, 205–206 (1993).

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J. D. MacDougall, “Refractory spherules in the Murchison meteorite—are they chondrules,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 966–969 (1981).
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A. Mallama, “Two celestial visibility projects: (1) the brightness of an eclipsed moon and (2) the phase anomaly of venus,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 25, 1334 (1993).

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S. Matsushima, J. R. Zink, J. E. Hansen, “Atmospheric extinction by dust particles as determined from three-color photometry of the lunar eclipse of 19 December 1964,” Astron. J. 71, 103–110 (1966).
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J. Bouška, P. Mayer, “Photoelectric photometry of the penumbral lunar eclipse of September 25, 1969,” Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 23, 139–143 (1972).

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G. A. Graham, A. T. Kearsley, M. M. Grady, I. P. Wright, J. A. M. McDonnell, “The collection of micrometeoroid remnants from low earth orbit,” Adv. Space Res. 25, 303–307 (1999).
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A. Ye. Mikirov, V. A. Smerkalov, Study of the Scattered Radiation in the Earth’s Upper Atmosphere (Gidrometeoizdat, 1981) (in Russian).

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M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).
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A. A. Lacis, M. I. Mishchenko, “Climate forcing, climate sensitivity, and climate response: a radiative modeling perspective on atmospheric aerosols,” in Aerosol Forcing of Climate: Report of the Dahlem Workshop on Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. J. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1994).

M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, L. D. Travis, Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles (Academic, 2000).

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V. M. Zolotarev, V. N. Morozov, E. V. Smirnova, Optical Constants of the Natural and Technical Media (Khimia, 1984) (in Russian).

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J. Gumbel, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtag, G. Witt, “Scattering phase functions and particle sizes in noctilucent clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1415–1418 (2001).
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T. Nakamura, T. Hirayama, M. Noguchi, “A new photographic method for mapping lunar eclipse shadow,” Earth, Moon, Planets 35, 55–71 (1986).
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K. Okada, A. Kobayashi, Y. Iwasaka, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, “Features of individual Asian dust-storm particles collected at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 65, 515–521 (1987).

Nemoto, O.

K. Okada, A. Kobayashi, Y. Iwasaka, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, “Features of individual Asian dust-storm particles collected at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 65, 515–521 (1987).

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J. Borovička, O. P Popova, I. V. Nemtchinov, P. Spurný, Z. Ceplecha, “Bolides produced by impacts of large meteoroids into the Earth’s atmosphere: comparison of theory with observations. I. Benešov bolide dynamics and fragmentation,” Astron. Astrophys. 334, 713–728 (1998).

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D. E. Brownlee, D. J. Joswiak, S. G. Love, A. O. Nier, D. J. Schlutter, J. P. Bradley, “Identification of cometary and asteroidal particles in stratospheric IDP collections,” Lunar Planet. Sci. 24, 205–206 (1993).

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T. Nakamura, T. Hirayama, M. Noguchi, “A new photographic method for mapping lunar eclipse shadow,” Earth, Moon, Planets 35, 55–71 (1986).
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K. Okada, A. Kobayashi, Y. Iwasaka, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, “Features of individual Asian dust-storm particles collected at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 65, 515–521 (1987).

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Yu. V. Platov, G. N. Kulikova, S. A. Chernouss, “Classification of gas-dust structures in the upper atmosphere associated with the exhausts of rocket-engine combustion products,” Cosmic Res. 41, 153–158 (2003).
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J. Borovička, O. P Popova, I. V. Nemtchinov, P. Spurný, Z. Ceplecha, “Bolides produced by impacts of large meteoroids into the Earth’s atmosphere: comparison of theory with observations. I. Benešov bolide dynamics and fragmentation,” Astron. Astrophys. 334, 713–728 (1998).

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E. Raschke, Terminology and Units of Radiation Quantities and Measurements, The International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP), Radiation Commission, 1978 (Available from Secretary General, IAMAP, c/o NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, Colo. 80307).

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D. E. Brownlee, D. J. Joswiak, S. G. Love, A. O. Nier, D. J. Schlutter, J. P. Bradley, “Identification of cometary and asteroidal particles in stratospheric IDP collections,” Lunar Planet. Sci. 24, 205–206 (1993).

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Sigler, J.

L. Gu, J. D. Fuentes, M. Garstang, J. T. Da Silva, R. Heitz, J. Sigler, H. H. Shugart, “Cloud modulation of surface solar irradiance at a pasture site in southern Brazil,” Agric. Forest Meteorol. 106, 117–129 (2001).
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Smerkalov, V. A.

A. Ye. Mikirov, V. A. Smerkalov, Study of the Scattered Radiation in the Earth’s Upper Atmosphere (Gidrometeoizdat, 1981) (in Russian).

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V. M. Zolotarev, V. N. Morozov, E. V. Smirnova, Optical Constants of the Natural and Technical Media (Khimia, 1984) (in Russian).

Spurný, P.

J. Borovička, O. P Popova, I. V. Nemtchinov, P. Spurný, Z. Ceplecha, “Bolides produced by impacts of large meteoroids into the Earth’s atmosphere: comparison of theory with observations. I. Benešov bolide dynamics and fragmentation,” Astron. Astrophys. 334, 713–728 (1998).

Z. Ceplecha, P. Spurný, J. Borovička, J. Keclíková, “Atmospheric fragmentation of meteoroids,” Astron. Astrophys. 279, 615–626 (1993).

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L. H. Auer, E. M. Standish, “Astronomical refraction: computational method for all zenith angles,” Astrophys. J. 119, 2472–2474 (2000).

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J. Gumbel, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtag, G. Witt, “Scattering phase functions and particle sizes in noctilucent clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1415–1418 (2001).
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J. M. Hahn, H. A. Zook, B. Cooper, B. Sunkara, “Clementine observations of the zodiacal light and the dust content of the inner solar system,” Icarus 158, 360–378 (2002).
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Tanaka, T.

K. Okada, A. Kobayashi, Y. Iwasaka, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, “Features of individual Asian dust-storm particles collected at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 65, 515–521 (1987).

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G. E. Thomas, C. P. McKay, “On the mean particle size and water content of polar mesospheric clouds,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 1209–1224 (1985).
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Toon, O. B.

R. P. Turco, O. B. Toon, R. C. Whitten, R. G. Keesee, D. Hollenbach, “Noctilucent clouds: simulation studies of the genesis, properties and global influences,” Planet Space Sci. 30, 1147–1181 (1982).
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Toscano, G.

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).
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R. P. Turco, O. B. Toon, R. C. Whitten, R. G. Keesee, D. Hollenbach, “Noctilucent clouds: simulation studies of the genesis, properties and global influences,” Planet Space Sci. 30, 1147–1181 (1982).
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R. P. Turco, O. B. Toon, R. C. Whitten, R. G. Keesee, D. Hollenbach, “Noctilucent clouds: simulation studies of the genesis, properties and global influences,” Planet Space Sci. 30, 1147–1181 (1982).
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J. Gumbel, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtag, G. Witt, “Scattering phase functions and particle sizes in noctilucent clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1415–1418 (2001).
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G. A. Graham, A. T. Kearsley, M. M. Grady, I. P. Wright, J. A. M. McDonnell, “The collection of micrometeoroid remnants from low earth orbit,” Adv. Space Res. 25, 303–307 (1999).
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Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

P. A. Yanamandra-Fisher, M. S. Hanner, “Optical properties of nonspherical particles of size comparable to the wavelength of light: application to comet dust,” Icarus 138, 107–128 (1999)[Icarus 139, 388–389(E) (1999)].
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Zink, J. R.

S. Matsushima, J. R. Zink, J. E. Hansen, “Atmospheric extinction by dust particles as determined from three-color photometry of the lunar eclipse of 19 December 1964,” Astron. J. 71, 103–110 (1966).
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Zolensky, M. E.

J. L. Gooding, M. E. Zolensky, S. J. Wentworth, “Aqueous alteration of the Nakhla meteorite,” Meteoritics 26, 135–143 (1991).
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V. M. Zolotarev, V. N. Morozov, E. V. Smirnova, Optical Constants of the Natural and Technical Media (Khimia, 1984) (in Russian).

Zook, H. A.

J. M. Hahn, H. A. Zook, B. Cooper, B. Sunkara, “Clementine observations of the zodiacal light and the dust content of the inner solar system,” Icarus 158, 360–378 (2002).
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V. E. Zuev, G. M. Krekov, Optical Models of the Atmosphere (Gidrometeoizdat, 1986) (in Russian).

Adv. Space Res. (1)

G. A. Graham, A. T. Kearsley, M. M. Grady, I. P. Wright, J. A. M. McDonnell, “The collection of micrometeoroid remnants from low earth orbit,” Adv. Space Res. 25, 303–307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Agric. Forest Meteorol. (1)

L. Gu, J. D. Fuentes, M. Garstang, J. T. Da Silva, R. Heitz, J. Sigler, H. H. Shugart, “Cloud modulation of surface solar irradiance at a pasture site in southern Brazil,” Agric. Forest Meteorol. 106, 117–129 (2001).
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Am. J. Phys. (1)

L. M. Celnikier, “Understanding the physics of meteoritic descent,” Am. J. Phys. 63, 524–535 (1995).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

Astron. Astrophys. (3)

Z. Ceplecha, “Influx of interplanetary bodies onto Earth,” Astron. Astrophys. 263, 361–366 (1992).

Z. Ceplecha, P. Spurný, J. Borovička, J. Keclíková, “Atmospheric fragmentation of meteoroids,” Astron. Astrophys. 279, 615–626 (1993).

J. Borovička, O. P Popova, I. V. Nemtchinov, P. Spurný, Z. Ceplecha, “Bolides produced by impacts of large meteoroids into the Earth’s atmosphere: comparison of theory with observations. I. Benešov bolide dynamics and fragmentation,” Astron. Astrophys. 334, 713–728 (1998).

Astron. J. (2)

F. L. Whipple, “On meteor masses and densities,” Astron. J. 57, 28–29 (1952).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsushima, J. R. Zink, J. E. Hansen, “Atmospheric extinction by dust particles as determined from three-color photometry of the lunar eclipse of 19 December 1964,” Astron. J. 71, 103–110 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (2)

L. H. Auer, E. M. Standish, “Astronomical refraction: computational method for all zenith angles,” Astrophys. J. 119, 2472–2474 (2000).

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Atmosph. Environ. (1)

H. Horvath, “Remarks and suggestions on nomenclature and symbols in atmospheric optics,” Atmosph. Environ. 28, 757–759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. (1)

A. Mallama, “Two celestial visibility projects: (1) the brightness of an eclipsed moon and (2) the phase anomaly of venus,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 25, 1334 (1993).

Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. (5)

F. Link, “Photométrie photographique de l’éclipse de Lune du 19 décembre 1945,” Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 1, 13–16 (1948).

J. Bouška, P. Mayer, “Photoelectric observation of the lunar eclipse of June 24–25, 1964,” Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 16, 252–254 (1965).

J. Bouška, P. Mayer, “Photoelectric photometry of the penumbral lunar eclipse of September 25, 1969,” Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 23, 139–143 (1972).

W. J. Baggaley, “The size distribution of large meteor bodies,” Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 29, 57–59 (1978).

M. Hansa, “Collections of the meteoric dust during Perseids,” Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 11, 236–242 (1958).

Contrib. Astron. Obs. Skalnaté Pleso (1)

M. Kocifaj, “Analytical solution of the extended single-body problem and its applications,” Contrib. Astron. Obs. Skalnaté Pleso 32, 25–38 (2002).

Cosmic Res. (1)

Yu. V. Platov, G. N. Kulikova, S. A. Chernouss, “Classification of gas-dust structures in the upper atmosphere associated with the exhausts of rocket-engine combustion products,” Cosmic Res. 41, 153–158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Earth, Moon, Planets (2)

T. Nakamura, T. Hirayama, M. Noguchi, “A new photographic method for mapping lunar eclipse shadow,” Earth, Moon, Planets 35, 55–71 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Kapišinský, V. Figusch, A. Hajduk, J. Ivan, K. Iždinský, “The analysis of four cosmic dust particles,” Earth, Moon, Planets 68, 347–360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Freeware (1)

B. T. Draine, P. J. Flatau, “User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code ddscat.6.0,” Freeware (2003).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (3)

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, L. D. Travis, “Nonsphericity of dustlike tropospheric aerosols: implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1077–1080 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Gumbel, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtag, G. Witt, “Scattering phase functions and particle sizes in noctilucent clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1415–1418 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. D. MacDougall, “Refractory spherules in the Murchison meteorite—are they chondrules,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 966–969 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (2)

P. A. Yanamandra-Fisher, M. S. Hanner, “Optical properties of nonspherical particles of size comparable to the wavelength of light: application to comet dust,” Icarus 138, 107–128 (1999)[Icarus 139, 388–389(E) (1999)].
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hahn, H. A. Zook, B. Cooper, B. Sunkara, “Clementine observations of the zodiacal light and the dust content of the inner solar system,” Icarus 158, 360–378 (2002).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the lunar eclipse (I—solar plane, II—lunar plane). Point S corresponds to the center of the solar disk, E is the center of the Earth, and M lies in the center of the Earth’s shadow at the lunar plane. The optical density of the shadow D(γ) is measured at point N, whose angular distance from the center of the shadow is given by γ. The projection of point N at the solar plane is given by point E′—its angular distance from the center of the solar disk is also γ. The other quantities are described in Section 2 or in Table 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Extinction cross section divided by projection area πa2, where a is the radius of the sphere volume equivalent to the nonspherical particle. The long-dashed curve corresponds to nonspherical iron-rich silicate particles with an aspect ratio of 1.4. The solid curve is drawn for volume equivalent spheres. The position of the first mode of both curves is almost identical and indicated by the dashed vertical line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cosmic dust particle L2008p (collected in the Earth’s stratosphere) and its digitized model.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependency of the logarithm of Taerosol on particle refractive index m and size parameter x = 2πrm/λ. Modal radius rm of the particle ensemble with a given size distribution [Eq. (16), N = 1] equal to 1/b1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Under conditions discussed in Subsection 3.B, the present graphic schema may serve for concurrent evaluation of both the effective refractive index and modal radius of the size distribution function [Eq. (16)] of spherical homogeneous particles at certain fixed altitudes in the Earth’s atmosphere.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Columnar surface size distributions sh0(r) = πr2fh0(r), which represent the constant mass of dust material in the Earth’s atmosphere [normalization is applied to every function; fh0(r) ∼ raebr]. (a) fh0(r) with variable modal radii; (b) modal radius of the function fh0(r) is fixed at 0.1 µm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical density D at distance γ from the center of the Earth’s shadow: λ = (a) 0.45 µm, (b) 0.55 µm, (c) 0.65 µm. The atmosphere consists of randomly oriented nonspherical iron-rich silicate particles with an aspect ratio of 1.4. Modal radius rm = a/b of all the mentioned columnar size distributions fh0(r) ∼ raebr is fixed at 0 µm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Profile of D affected by the attenuation of sunbeams (λ = 0.55 µm) in the atmosphere consisting of nonspherical iron-rich silicate and particles (the aspect ratio is 1.4): (a) modal radius rm = a/b of all mentioned columnar size distributions fh0(r) ∼ raebr is fixed at 0.1 µm and (b) various modal radii are assumed.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical density of the Earth’s shadow as it refers to an atmosphere consisting of irregular particles (thin curves) or volume equivalent spheres (thick curves) with columnar size distribution given in the form fh0(r) ∼ raebr.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Relative differences between optical densities D as computed for nonspherical (the aspect ratio is 1.4) and spherical iron-rich silicate particles: λ = (a) 0.45 µm, (b) 0.55 µm, (c) 0.65 µm. Columnar size distribution employed the form fh0(r) ∼ raebr.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Error of minimized solution for altitude-dependent size distribution ∼raebr at h0 = 20 km. The dustlike particles are assumed to be nonspherical with an aspect ratio of 1.4. The minimum error is about 0.02 of D (i.e., less than 1% of the measured optical density).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Altitude-dependent size distribution functions s(r, h) for nonspherical particles (dashed curves) and their volume equivalent spheres (solid curves). Ozone absorption is included.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Altitude-dependent size distribution functions s(r, h) for nonspherical particles (dashed curves) and their volume equivalent spheres (solid curves). Ozone absorption is excluded.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Symbols, Units, and Definitions

Equations (22)

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D λ ( γ ) = log [ E λ ( γ ) e λ ( γ ) ] ,
e λ ( γ ) = γ R S γ + R S T λ ( ρ ) [ 0 ɛ 0 b λ ( ρ , ɛ ) d ɛ ] ρ d ρ ,
E λ ( γ ) = γ R S γ + R S 0 ɛ 0 b λ ( ρ , ɛ ) d ɛ ρ d ρ .
b λ ( ρ , ɛ ) = 1 κ λ + κ λ R S R S 2 R 2 ( ρ , ɛ ) ,
R ( ρ , ɛ ) = ρ 2 + γ 2 2 γ ρ cos ɛ ,
ɛ 0 = arccos ( ρ 2 + γ 2 R S 2 2 ρ γ )
ρ = ( π S + π M ) ( 1 + h 0 ) ω ( h 0 ) ,
T λ ( h 0 ) = T λ ref ( h 0 ) T λ ext ( h 0 ) ,
T λ ext ( h 0 ) = exp { 2 h 0 [ δ λ ( h ) + α λ ( h ) + β λ ( h ) ] cos i λ ( h ) d h } ,
sin i λ ( h ) = 1 h h 0 + c λ ρ G ρ 0 ( e h 0 / H e h / H ) ,
τ λ ( h 0 ) = h 0 δ λ ( h ) d h .
τ λ ( h 0 ) = π 0 Q ext ( λ , r ) r 2 f h 0 ( r ) d r ,
C ext = 1 8 π 2 0 2 π d B 1 1 d cos Θ 0 2 π C ext ( B , Θ , Φ ) d Φ ,
Q sca ( z ) = 2 m 1 m { 2 4 z sin z + 4 z 2 [ 1 cos z ] } ,
f ( r ) = r n = 1 N c n exp { b n r } ,
2 m 1 m c 1 r m L [ λ r m 1 4 π ( m 1 ) ] ,
L ( χ ) = ( 15 χ 4 + 10 χ 2 + 3 ) ( χ 2 + 1 ) 3 .
T λ ext ( h 0 ) = T λ air ( h 0 ) T λ ozone ( h 0 ) T λ aerosol ( h 0 ) ,
T λ aerosol ( h 0 ) = exp [ 2 M λ ( h 0 ) τ λ ( h 0 ) ] .
lim λ L 15 [ r m 4 π ( m 1 ) λ ] 2 ~ λ 2 = 0 , lim λ 0 L 3 + 10 [ λ r m 1 4 π ( m 1 ) ] 2 ~ 3 + const λ 2 = 3 .
Δ D / D sph ¯ = 1 Γ 0 Γ | D nonsph ( γ ) D sph ( γ ) 1 | d γ ,
τ λ ( h 0 ) = h 0 δ λ ( h ) d h = h 0 0 Q ext ( λ , r ) s ( r , h ) d r d h ,

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