Abstract

Utilizing a new average atom code, we calculate the index of refraction in C, Al, Ti, and Pd plasmas and show many conditions over which the bound-electron contribution dominates the free electrons as we explore photon energies from the optical to 100 eV (12 nm) soft x rays. For decades measurement of the electron density in plasmas by interferometers has relied on the approximation that the index of refraction in a plasma is due solely to the free electrons and therefore is less than 1. Recent measurements of Al plasmas using x-ray laser interferometers observed fringes bending in the opposite direction than expected due to the bound-electron contribution causing the index of refraction to be larger than 1. During the next decade x-ray free-electron lasers and other sources will be available to probe a wider variety of plasmas at higher densities and shorter wavelengths, so understanding the index of refraction in plasmas is essential.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. J. Tallents, “Interferometry and refraction measurements in plasmas of elliptical cross section,” J. Phys. D 17, 721–732 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. R. Griem, Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy (Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 9.
  3. L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Hullier, C.-G. Wahl-ström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, T. W. Hänsch, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry measurements with high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 25, 135–137 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, Plasmas with an index of refraction greater than one,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2677–2679 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. A. Liberman, “Inferno: A better model of atoms in dense plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 335–399 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. R. Johnson, C. Guet, G. F. Bertsch, “Optical properties of plasmas based on an average-atom model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (to be published).
  11. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980), pp. 90–98.
  12. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. A. Greenwood, “The Boltzmann equation in the theory of electrical conduction in metals,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 71, 585–596 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Kubo, “Statistical-mechanical theory of irreversible processes. I. General theory and simple applications to magnetic and conduction problems,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 570–586 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. P. Desjarlais, J. D. Kress, L. A. Collins, “Electrical conductivity for warm dense aluminum plasmas and liquids,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 025401 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Recoules, P. Renaudin, J. Clèouin, P. Noiret, G. Zèrah, “Electrical conductivity of hot expanded aluminum: experimental measurements and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056412 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, 1984), pp. 280–283.
  18. R. L. Kelley, “Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 angstroms: hydrogen through krypton,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data Suppl. 1, 16 (American Institute of Physics, 1987), p. 223.
  19. J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, J. C. Moreno, Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Filevich, S. Moon, J. Nilsen, R. Keenan, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. R. Hunter, M. C. Marconi, “Plasma conditions for improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036404 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Filevich, S. Moon, J. Nilsen, R. Keenan, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. R. Hunter, M. C. Marconi, “Plasma conditions for improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, Plasmas with an index of refraction greater than one,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2677–2679 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. P. Desjarlais, J. D. Kress, L. A. Collins, “Electrical conductivity for warm dense aluminum plasmas and liquids,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 025401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Recoules, P. Renaudin, J. Clèouin, P. Noiret, G. Zèrah, “Electrical conductivity of hot expanded aluminum: experimental measurements and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1995

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, J. C. Moreno, Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1984

G. J. Tallents, “Interferometry and refraction measurements in plasmas of elliptical cross section,” J. Phys. D 17, 721–732 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

D. A. Liberman, “Inferno: A better model of atoms in dense plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 335–399 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1958

D. A. Greenwood, “The Boltzmann equation in the theory of electrical conduction in metals,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 71, 585–596 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957

R. Kubo, “Statistical-mechanical theory of irreversible processes. I. General theory and simple applications to magnetic and conduction problems,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 570–586 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellini, M.

Bertsch, G. F.

W. R. Johnson, C. Guet, G. F. Bertsch, “Optical properties of plasmas based on an average-atom model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (to be published).

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980), pp. 90–98.

Cauble, R.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celliers, P.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chilla, J. L. A.

Ciarlo, D.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clèouin, J.

V. Recoules, P. Renaudin, J. Clèouin, P. Noiret, G. Zèrah, “Electrical conductivity of hot expanded aluminum: experimental measurements and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Collins, L. A.

M. P. Desjarlais, J. D. Kress, L. A. Collins, “Electrical conductivity for warm dense aluminum plasmas and liquids,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 025401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L. B.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, J. C. Moreno, Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daido, H.

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Descamps, D.

Desjarlais, M. P.

M. P. Desjarlais, J. D. Kress, L. A. Collins, “Electrical conductivity for warm dense aluminum plasmas and liquids,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 025401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, J.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Filevich, S. Moon, J. Nilsen, R. Keenan, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. R. Hunter, M. C. Marconi, “Plasma conditions for improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Filevich, J.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Filevich, S. Moon, J. Nilsen, R. Keenan, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. R. Hunter, M. C. Marconi, “Plasma conditions for improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greenwood, D. A.

D. A. Greenwood, “The Boltzmann equation in the theory of electrical conduction in metals,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 71, 585–596 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Griem, H. R.

H. R. Griem, Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy (Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 9.

Guet, C.

W. R. Johnson, C. Guet, G. F. Bertsch, “Optical properties of plasmas based on an average-atom model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (to be published).

Guilbaud, O.

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hergott, J.-F.

Hunter, J. R.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Filevich, S. Moon, J. Nilsen, R. Keenan, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. R. Hunter, M. C. Marconi, “Plasma conditions for improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishino, M.

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jamelot, G.

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, W. R.

W. R. Johnson, C. Guet, G. F. Bertsch, “Optical properties of plasmas based on an average-atom model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (to be published).

Joyeux, D.

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kado, M.

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kanizay, K.

Keenan, R.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Filevich, S. Moon, J. Nilsen, R. Keenan, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. R. Hunter, M. C. Marconi, “Plasma conditions for improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, R. L.

R. L. Kelley, “Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 angstroms: hydrogen through krypton,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data Suppl. 1, 16 (American Institute of Physics, 1987), p. 223.

Kishimoto, M.

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kress, J. D.

M. P. Desjarlais, J. D. Kress, L. A. Collins, “Electrical conductivity for warm dense aluminum plasmas and liquids,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 025401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, R.

R. Kubo, “Statistical-mechanical theory of irreversible processes. I. General theory and simple applications to magnetic and conduction problems,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 570–586 (1957).
[CrossRef]

L’Hullier, A.

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, 1984), pp. 280–283.

Libby, S.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liberman, D. A.

D. A. Liberman, “Inferno: A better model of atoms in dense plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 335–399 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, 1984), pp. 280–283.

London, R. A.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyngå, C.

MacGowan, B. J.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, J. C. Moreno, Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marconi, M. C.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Filevich, S. Moon, J. Nilsen, R. Keenan, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. R. Hunter, M. C. Marconi, “Plasma conditions for improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, D.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merdji, H.

Moon, S.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Filevich, S. Moon, J. Nilsen, R. Keenan, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. R. Hunter, M. C. Marconi, “Plasma conditions for improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S. J.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, J. C.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, J. C. Moreno, Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mrowka, S.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagashima, K.

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, J.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Filevich, S. Moon, J. Nilsen, R. Keenan, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. R. Hunter, M. C. Marconi, “Plasma conditions for improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, Plasmas with an index of refraction greater than one,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2677–2679 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, J. C. Moreno, Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishikino, M.

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noiret, P.

V. Recoules, P. Renaudin, J. Clèouin, P. Noiret, G. Zèrah, “Electrical conductivity of hot expanded aluminum: experimental measurements and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Norin, J.

Phalippou, D.

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Recoules, V.

V. Recoules, P. Renaudin, J. Clèouin, P. Noiret, G. Zèrah, “Electrical conductivity of hot expanded aluminum: experimental measurements and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Renaudin, P.

V. Recoules, P. Renaudin, J. Clèouin, P. Noiret, G. Zèrah, “Electrical conductivity of hot expanded aluminum: experimental measurements and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ress, D.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rocca, J. J.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Filevich, S. Moon, J. Nilsen, R. Keenan, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. R. Hunter, M. C. Marconi, “Plasma conditions for improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ros, D.

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

Scofield, J. H.

J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, Plasmas with an index of refraction greater than one,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2677–2679 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Filevich, S. Moon, J. Nilsen, R. Keenan, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. R. Hunter, M. C. Marconi, “Plasma conditions for improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. F.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Filevich, S. Moon, J. Nilsen, R. Keenan, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. R. Hunter, M. C. Marconi, “Plasma conditions for improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sukegawa, K.

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tallents, G. J.

G. J. Tallents, “Interferometry and refraction measurements in plasmas of elliptical cross section,” J. Phys. D 17, 721–732 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J. E.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wahl-ström, C.-G.

Wan, A. S.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, F.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980), pp. 90–98.

Zèrah, G.

V. Recoules, P. Renaudin, J. Clèouin, P. Noiret, G. Zèrah, “Electrical conductivity of hot expanded aluminum: experimental measurements and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

H. Tang, O. Guilbaud, G. Jamelot, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, M. Kado, M. Nishikino, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, M. Ishino, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, “Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma with soft x-ray (13.9 nm) bimirror interference microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 975–977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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G. J. Tallents, “Interferometry and refraction measurements in plasmas of elliptical cross section,” J. Phys. D 17, 721–732 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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R. Kubo, “Statistical-mechanical theory of irreversible processes. I. General theory and simple applications to magnetic and conduction problems,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 570–586 (1957).
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[CrossRef]

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Phys. Rev. A

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, J. C. Moreno, Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Filevich, S. Moon, J. Nilsen, R. Keenan, V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. J. Rocca, J. R. Hunter, M. C. Marconi, “Plasma conditions for improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Desjarlais, J. D. Kress, L. A. Collins, “Electrical conductivity for warm dense aluminum plasmas and liquids,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 025401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Recoules, P. Renaudin, J. Clèouin, P. Noiret, G. Zèrah, “Electrical conductivity of hot expanded aluminum: experimental measurements and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 056412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, F. Weber, “Electron-density measurements of high-density plasmas using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
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M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1980), pp. 90–98.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ratio (1 − n)/(1 − nfree) versus photon energy for Al plasmas with temperatures of (a) 2, (b) 5, and (c) 10 eV. The corresponding ionization is Z* = 0.92, 2.12 and 2.88, respectively. The ion density is 1020 cm−3. The dotted lines at ratios of 0 and 1 are visual aids.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption coefficient versus photon energy for an Al plasma with a temperature of 10 eV. The ion density is 1020 cm−3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratio (1 − n)/(1 − nfree) versus photon energy for Al plasmas with temperatures of (a) 20 and (b) 40 eV. The corresponding ionization is Z* = 4.64 and 7.64, respectively. The ion density is 1020 cm−3. The dotted line at a ratio of 1 is a visual aid.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ratio (1 − n)/(1 − nfree) versus photon energy for C plasmas with temperatures of (a) 2 and 5 eV. The corresponding ionization Z* = 0.58 and 1.67, respectively. The ion density is 1020 cm−3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ratio (1 − n)/(1 − nfree) versus photon energy for C plasmas with temperatures of (a) 10 and (b) 20 eV. The corresponding ionization Z* = 2.92 and 3.97, respectively. The ion density is 1020 cm−3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Ratio (1 − n)/(1 − nfree) versus photon energy for 5 and 40 eV Ti plasmas with Z* = 2.2 and 9.9, respectively, (b) Ratio for Ti plasma with a temperature of 20 eV and Z* = 6.2. The dotted lines at ratios of 0 and 1 are visual aids. The ion density is 1020 cm−3 for all the Ti plasmas.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Ratio (1 − n)/(1 − nfree) versus photon energy for 20 and 80 eV Pd plasmas with Z* = 7.2 and 17.8, respectively. (b) Ratio for Pd plasma with a temperature of 60 eV and Z* = 15.4. The dotted line at a ratio of 1 is a visual aid. The ion density is 1020 cm−3 for all the Pd plasmas.

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