Abstract

We introduce a design concept of optical waveguides characterized by a practical and reproducible process based on preferential etching of crystalline silicon substrates. Low-loss waveguides, spot-size converters, and power dividers have been obtained with polymers. We have also aligned liquid crystals in the waveguides and demonstrated guided propagation. Therefore this technology is a suitable platform for soft-matter photonics and heterogeneous integration.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, for instance, D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000), and other papers in the same issue.
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Sottini, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, “Optical fiber-polymer guide coupling by a tapered graded index glass guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 31, 1123–1129 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Mashayekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. Iraj Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fibre coupling low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically tapered polymer waveguide mode size transformer for improved fibre coupling,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1507–1516 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Inaba, M. Kato, M. Sagawa, H. Akahoshi, “Two-dimensional mode size transformation by Δn-controlled polymer waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 761–764 (1997).
  8. J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, J. Ding, M. Day, “All polymer photonic devices using excimer laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 509–512 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. R. Tellier, G. Huve, T. G. Leblois, “Anisotropic chemical etching of III-V crystals. Dissolution slowness surface and application to GaAs,” Active Passive Electron. Compon. 27, 133–154 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H.-W. Chiu, N.-S. Ho, S.-S. Lu, “A process for the formation of submicron V-gate by micromachined V-grooves using GaInP/GaAs selective etching technique,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 22, 420–422 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 115–127 (2004).
  12. K. E. Petersen, “Silicon as a mechanical material,” Proc. IEEE 70, 420–457 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Mabaya, P. E. Lagasse, P. Vandenbulcke, “Finite element analysis of optical waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT29, 600–605 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. M. A. Rahman, F. A. Fernandez, J. B. Davies, “Review of finite element methods for microwave and optical waveguides,” Proc. IEEE 79, 1443–1448 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. d’Alessandro, R. Asquini, C. Gizzi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, “Integrated optic devices using liquid crystals: design and fabrication issues,” in Liquid Crystals VIII, I.-C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE5518, 123–135 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. De Bougrenet, De La Tocnaye, “Engineering liquid crystals for optimal uses in optical communication systems,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 241–269 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Author, “Procédé de réalisation d’un guide d’onde, notamment optique, et dispositif de couplage optique comportant un tel guide,” French patent FR13848 (patent pending).

2004 (4)

J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, J. Ding, M. Day, “All polymer photonic devices using excimer laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 509–512 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Tellier, G. Huve, T. G. Leblois, “Anisotropic chemical etching of III-V crystals. Dissolution slowness surface and application to GaAs,” Active Passive Electron. Compon. 27, 133–154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 115–127 (2004).

L. De Bougrenet, De La Tocnaye, “Engineering liquid crystals for optimal uses in optical communication systems,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 241–269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H.-W. Chiu, N.-S. Ho, S.-S. Lu, “A process for the formation of submicron V-gate by micromachined V-grooves using GaInP/GaAs selective etching technique,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 22, 420–422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

See, for instance, D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000), and other papers in the same issue.
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically tapered polymer waveguide mode size transformer for improved fibre coupling,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1507–1516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

R. Inaba, M. Kato, M. Sagawa, H. Akahoshi, “Two-dimensional mode size transformation by Δn-controlled polymer waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 761–764 (1997).

I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mashayekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. Iraj Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fibre coupling low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Sottini, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, “Optical fiber-polymer guide coupling by a tapered graded index glass guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 31, 1123–1129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

B. M. A. Rahman, F. A. Fernandez, J. B. Davies, “Review of finite element methods for microwave and optical waveguides,” Proc. IEEE 79, 1443–1448 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

K. E. Petersen, “Silicon as a mechanical material,” Proc. IEEE 70, 420–457 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

N. Mabaya, P. E. Lagasse, P. Vandenbulcke, “Finite element analysis of optical waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT29, 600–605 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Akahoshi, H.

R. Inaba, M. Kato, M. Sagawa, H. Akahoshi, “Two-dimensional mode size transformation by Δn-controlled polymer waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 761–764 (1997).

Alduino, A.

A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 115–127 (2004).

Asquini, R.

A. d’Alessandro, R. Asquini, C. Gizzi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, “Integrated optic devices using liquid crystals: design and fabrication issues,” in Liquid Crystals VIII, I.-C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE5518, 123–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, B.

A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 115–127 (2004).

Beccherelli, R.

A. d’Alessandro, R. Asquini, C. Gizzi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, “Integrated optic devices using liquid crystals: design and fabrication issues,” in Liquid Crystals VIII, I.-C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE5518, 123–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bellini, B.

A. d’Alessandro, R. Asquini, C. Gizzi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, “Integrated optic devices using liquid crystals: design and fabrication issues,” in Liquid Crystals VIII, I.-C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE5518, 123–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berolo, E.

M. Mashayekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. Iraj Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fibre coupling low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Braunisch, H.

A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 115–127 (2004).

Callender, C. L.

J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, J. Ding, M. Day, “All polymer photonic devices using excimer laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 509–512 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically tapered polymer waveguide mode size transformer for improved fibre coupling,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1507–1516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically tapered polymer waveguide mode size transformer for improved fibre coupling,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1507–1516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, H.-W.

H.-W. Chiu, N.-S. Ho, S.-S. Lu, “A process for the formation of submicron V-gate by micromachined V-grooves using GaInP/GaAs selective etching technique,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 22, 420–422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chuyanov, V.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically tapered polymer waveguide mode size transformer for improved fibre coupling,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1507–1516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

d’Alessandro, A.

A. d’Alessandro, R. Asquini, C. Gizzi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, “Integrated optic devices using liquid crystals: design and fabrication issues,” in Liquid Crystals VIII, I.-C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE5518, 123–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically tapered polymer waveguide mode size transformer for improved fibre coupling,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1507–1516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J. B.

B. M. A. Rahman, F. A. Fernandez, J. B. Davies, “Review of finite element methods for microwave and optical waveguides,” Proc. IEEE 79, 1443–1448 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Day, M.

J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, J. Ding, M. Day, “All polymer photonic devices using excimer laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 509–512 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Bougrenet, L.

L. De Bougrenet, De La Tocnaye, “Engineering liquid crystals for optimal uses in optical communication systems,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 241–269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P. M.

I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, J. Ding, M. Day, “All polymer photonic devices using excimer laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 509–512 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, F. A.

B. M. A. Rahman, F. A. Fernandez, J. B. Davies, “Review of finite element methods for microwave and optical waveguides,” Proc. IEEE 79, 1443–1448 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically tapered polymer waveguide mode size transformer for improved fibre coupling,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1507–1516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giorgetti, E.

S. Sottini, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, “Optical fiber-polymer guide coupling by a tapered graded index glass guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 31, 1123–1129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gizzi, C.

A. d’Alessandro, R. Asquini, C. Gizzi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, “Integrated optic devices using liquid crystals: design and fabrication issues,” in Liquid Crystals VIII, I.-C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE5518, 123–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grando, D.

S. Sottini, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, “Optical fiber-polymer guide coupling by a tapered graded index glass guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 31, 1123–1129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heck, J.

A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 115–127 (2004).

Ho, N.-S.

H.-W. Chiu, N.-S. Ho, S.-S. Lu, “A process for the formation of submicron V-gate by micromachined V-grooves using GaInP/GaAs selective etching technique,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 22, 420–422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huve, G.

C. R. Tellier, G. Huve, T. G. Leblois, “Anisotropic chemical etching of III-V crystals. Dissolution slowness surface and application to GaAs,” Active Passive Electron. Compon. 27, 133–154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, R.

R. Inaba, M. Kato, M. Sagawa, H. Akahoshi, “Two-dimensional mode size transformation by Δn-controlled polymer waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 761–764 (1997).

Iraj Najafi, S.

M. Mashayekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. Iraj Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fibre coupling low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, J. Ding, M. Day, “All polymer photonic devices using excimer laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 509–512 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

R. Inaba, M. Kato, M. Sagawa, H. Akahoshi, “Two-dimensional mode size transformation by Δn-controlled polymer waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 761–764 (1997).

La Tocnaye, De

L. De Bougrenet, De La Tocnaye, “Engineering liquid crystals for optimal uses in optical communication systems,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 241–269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lagasse, P. E.

N. Mabaya, P. E. Lagasse, P. Vandenbulcke, “Finite element analysis of optical waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT29, 600–605 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Leblois, T. G.

C. R. Tellier, G. Huve, T. G. Leblois, “Anisotropic chemical etching of III-V crystals. Dissolution slowness surface and application to GaAs,” Active Passive Electron. Compon. 27, 133–154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 115–127 (2004).

Lu, D.

A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 115–127 (2004).

Lu, S.-S.

H.-W. Chiu, N.-S. Ho, S.-S. Lu, “A process for the formation of submicron V-gate by micromachined V-grooves using GaInP/GaAs selective etching technique,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 22, 420–422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mabaya, N.

N. Mabaya, P. E. Lagasse, P. Vandenbulcke, “Finite element analysis of optical waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT29, 600–605 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Marti-Carrera, F. I.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically tapered polymer waveguide mode size transformer for improved fibre coupling,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1507–1516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mashayekhi, M.

M. Mashayekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. Iraj Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fibre coupling low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, J. Ding, M. Day, “All polymer photonic devices using excimer laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 509–512 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

See, for instance, D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000), and other papers in the same issue.
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, R.

A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 115–127 (2004).

Noad, J. P.

J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, J. Ding, M. Day, “All polymer photonic devices using excimer laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 509–512 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Palchetti, L.

S. Sottini, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, “Optical fiber-polymer guide coupling by a tapered graded index glass guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 31, 1123–1129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, K. E.

K. E. Petersen, “Silicon as a mechanical material,” Proc. IEEE 70, 420–457 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, B. M. A.

B. M. A. Rahman, F. A. Fernandez, J. B. Davies, “Review of finite element methods for microwave and optical waveguides,” Proc. IEEE 79, 1443–1448 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sagawa, M.

R. Inaba, M. Kato, M. Sagawa, H. Akahoshi, “Two-dimensional mode size transformation by Δn-controlled polymer waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 761–764 (1997).

Shacklette, L. W.

L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sottini, S.

S. Sottini, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, “Optical fiber-polymer guide coupling by a tapered graded index glass guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 31, 1123–1129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically tapered polymer waveguide mode size transformer for improved fibre coupling,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1507–1516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically tapered polymer waveguide mode size transformer for improved fibre coupling,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1507–1516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tellier, C. R.

C. R. Tellier, G. Huve, T. G. Leblois, “Anisotropic chemical etching of III-V crystals. Dissolution slowness surface and application to GaAs,” Active Passive Electron. Compon. 27, 133–154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, T.

A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 115–127 (2004).

Touam, T.

M. Mashayekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. Iraj Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fibre coupling low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P.

I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vandenbulcke, P.

N. Mabaya, P. E. Lagasse, P. Vandenbulcke, “Finite element analysis of optical waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT29, 600–605 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vandentop, G.

A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 115–127 (2004).

Walker, R. B.

J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, J. Ding, M. Day, “All polymer photonic devices using excimer laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 509–512 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. J.

M. Mashayekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. Iraj Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fibre coupling low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Young, I.

A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 115–127 (2004).

Active Passive Electron. Compon. (1)

C. R. Tellier, G. Huve, T. G. Leblois, “Anisotropic chemical etching of III-V crystals. Dissolution slowness surface and application to GaAs,” Active Passive Electron. Compon. 27, 133–154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron. Device Lett. (1)

H.-W. Chiu, N.-S. Ho, S.-S. Lu, “A process for the formation of submicron V-gate by micromachined V-grooves using GaInP/GaAs selective etching technique,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 22, 420–422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

S. Sottini, D. Grando, L. Palchetti, E. Giorgetti, “Optical fiber-polymer guide coupling by a tapered graded index glass guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 31, 1123–1129 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. Inaba, M. Kato, M. Sagawa, H. Akahoshi, “Two-dimensional mode size transformation by Δn-controlled polymer waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 761–764 (1997).

J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, J. P. Noad, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, J. Ding, M. Day, “All polymer photonic devices using excimer laser micromachining,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 509–512 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

N. Mabaya, P. E. Lagasse, P. Vandenbulcke, “Finite element analysis of optical waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT29, 600–605 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Intel Technol. J. (1)

A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, R. Mooney, “Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications,” Intel Technol. J. 8, 115–127 (2004).

Liq. Cryst. (1)

L. De Bougrenet, De La Tocnaye, “Engineering liquid crystals for optimal uses in optical communication systems,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 241–269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

M. Mashayekhi, T. Touam, W. J. Wang, E. Berolo, S. Iraj Najafi, “Semiconductor device to optical fibre coupling low-loss glass taper waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 36, 3476–3477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, L. R. Dalton, “Vertically tapered polymer waveguide mode size transformer for improved fibre coupling,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1507–1516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (3)

See, for instance, D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000), and other papers in the same issue.
[CrossRef]

B. M. A. Rahman, F. A. Fernandez, J. B. Davies, “Review of finite element methods for microwave and optical waveguides,” Proc. IEEE 79, 1443–1448 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Petersen, “Silicon as a mechanical material,” Proc. IEEE 70, 420–457 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. d’Alessandro, R. Asquini, C. Gizzi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, “Integrated optic devices using liquid crystals: design and fabrication issues,” in Liquid Crystals VIII, I.-C. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE5518, 123–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Author, “Procédé de réalisation d’un guide d’onde, notamment optique, et dispositif de couplage optique comportant un tel guide,” French patent FR13848 (patent pending).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Modal analysis at the wavelength of 1.55 µm of triangular waveguides made up of a silica V groove filled with polymer and air above.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Formation of triangular waveguides: (a) after polymer spin coating, (b) after reactive ion etching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron microscope picture of a 25 µm trapezoidal waveguide (sawn facet).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) U groove filled with E7 nematic LC: (a) black state, (b) white state.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Image of the light beam at 1.55 µm coming out from a 10 µm wide E7 nematic LC channel waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic view of a transition based on anisotropic etching of silicon.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Cross section of two configurations for fiber-to-waveguide coupling: (a) by evanescent coupling, (b) by butt coupling.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Power divider: top view, cross section and corresponding near-field profiles.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measured Insertion Losses versus Taper Widths

Equations (1)

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d = w tan 54.7 ° 2 w 2 2 .

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