Abstract

We report the results of underwater imaging with an amplitude-modulated single-mode laser beam and miniaturized piezoactuator-based scanning system. The basic elements of the device are a diode laser source at 405 nm with digital amplitude modulation and a microscanning system realized with a small-aperture aspheric lens mounted on a pair of piezoelectric translators driven by sawtooth waveforms. The system has been designed to be a low-weight and rugged imaging device suitable to operate at medium range (∼10 m) in clear seawater as also demonstrated by computer simulation of layout performance. In the controlled laboratory conditions a submillimeter range accuracy has been obtained at a laser amplitude modulation frequency of 36.7 MHz.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2004 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (3)

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

G. R. Fournier, D. Bonnier, J. L. Forand, P. W. Pace, “Range-gated underwater laser imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2185–2190 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Cornel, J. Miklas, E. D. Weller, “Nutrients and clorophyll at the interface of a watershed and an estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 251–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1977 (2)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The measurements and use of registered reflectance and range data in scene analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206–220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

L. Henyey, J. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70–83 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Bonnier, D.

G. R. Fournier, D. Bonnier, J. L. Forand, P. W. Pace, “Range-gated underwater laser imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2185–2190 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brain, A. E.

D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The measurements and use of registered reflectance and range data in scene analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206–220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Concannon, B.

Cornel, D. L.

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Cornel, J. Miklas, E. D. Weller, “Nutrients and clorophyll at the interface of a watershed and an estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 251–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Duda, R. O.

D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The measurements and use of registered reflectance and range data in scene analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206–220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fantoni, R.

R. Ricci, R. Fantoni, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. G. Fornetti, M. Guarneri, C. Poggi, “High resolution radar for 3D imaging in artwork cataloguing, reproduction and restoration,” in Optical Metrology for Arts and Multimedia, R. Salimbeni, ed., Proc. SPIE5146, 62–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferri de Collibus, M.

R. Ricci, R. Fantoni, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. G. Fornetti, M. Guarneri, C. Poggi, “High resolution radar for 3D imaging in artwork cataloguing, reproduction and restoration,” in Optical Metrology for Arts and Multimedia, R. Salimbeni, ed., Proc. SPIE5146, 62–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forand, J. L.

G. R. Fournier, D. Bonnier, J. L. Forand, P. W. Pace, “Range-gated underwater laser imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2185–2190 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fornetti, G. G.

R. Ricci, R. Fantoni, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. G. Fornetti, M. Guarneri, C. Poggi, “High resolution radar for 3D imaging in artwork cataloguing, reproduction and restoration,” in Optical Metrology for Arts and Multimedia, R. Salimbeni, ed., Proc. SPIE5146, 62–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, G. R.

G. R. Fournier, D. Bonnier, J. L. Forand, P. W. Pace, “Range-gated underwater laser imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2185–2190 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Greenstein, J.

L. Henyey, J. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70–83 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Guarneri, M.

R. Ricci, R. Fantoni, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. G. Fornetti, M. Guarneri, C. Poggi, “High resolution radar for 3D imaging in artwork cataloguing, reproduction and restoration,” in Optical Metrology for Arts and Multimedia, R. Salimbeni, ed., Proc. SPIE5146, 62–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Henyey, L.

L. Henyey, J. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70–83 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Huibers, P. D. T.

Jordan, T. E.

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Cornel, J. Miklas, E. D. Weller, “Nutrients and clorophyll at the interface of a watershed and an estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 251–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Katsev, I. L.

Katzev, I. L.

Laux, A.

McLean, J. W.

R. E. Walker, J. W. McLean, “Lidar equations for turbid media with pulse stretching,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2384–2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. McLean, “High-resolution 3D underwater imaging,” in Airborne and In-Water Underwater Imaging, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE3761, 10–19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miklas, J.

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Cornel, J. Miklas, E. D. Weller, “Nutrients and clorophyll at the interface of a watershed and an estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 251–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mücke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, L.

Nitzan, D.

D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The measurements and use of registered reflectance and range data in scene analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206–220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pace, P. W.

G. R. Fournier, D. Bonnier, J. L. Forand, P. W. Pace, “Range-gated underwater laser imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2185–2190 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Poggi, C.

R. Ricci, R. Fantoni, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. G. Fornetti, M. Guarneri, C. Poggi, “High resolution radar for 3D imaging in artwork cataloguing, reproduction and restoration,” in Optical Metrology for Arts and Multimedia, R. Salimbeni, ed., Proc. SPIE5146, 62–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Polonski, I. N.

Pope, R. M.

Prieur, L.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Prikhach, A. S.

Quan, X.

Ricci, R.

R. Ricci, R. Fantoni, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. G. Fornetti, M. Guarneri, C. Poggi, “High resolution radar for 3D imaging in artwork cataloguing, reproduction and restoration,” in Optical Metrology for Arts and Multimedia, R. Salimbeni, ed., Proc. SPIE5146, 62–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Spitzer, D.

D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, “In situ measurements of absorption spectra in the sea,” in Selected Papers on Underwater Optics, F. M. Caini, ed., vol. MS118 of the SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE, 1996), pp. 138–142.

Stavn, R. H.

Strand, P.

P. Strand, “Underwater electro-optical system for mine identification,” in Detection Technologies for Mines and Mine-like Targets, A. C. Dubey, I. Cindrich, J. M. Ralston, K. A. Rigano, eds., Proc. SPIE2496, 487–497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. E.

Weidemann, A. D.

Weller, E. D.

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Cornel, J. Miklas, E. D. Weller, “Nutrients and clorophyll at the interface of a watershed and an estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 251–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wernand, M. R.

D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, “In situ measurements of absorption spectra in the sea,” in Selected Papers on Underwater Optics, F. M. Caini, ed., vol. MS118 of the SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE, 1996), pp. 138–142.

Zege, E. P.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (1)

L. Henyey, J. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70–83 (1941).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Cornel, J. Miklas, E. D. Weller, “Nutrients and clorophyll at the interface of a watershed and an estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 251–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. R. Fournier, D. Bonnier, J. L. Forand, P. W. Pace, “Range-gated underwater laser imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2185–2190 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. Nitzan, A. E. Brain, R. O. Duda, “The measurements and use of registered reflectance and range data in scene analysis,” Proc. IEEE 65, 206–220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. W. McLean, “High-resolution 3D underwater imaging,” in Airborne and In-Water Underwater Imaging, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE3761, 10–19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Strand, “Underwater electro-optical system for mine identification,” in Detection Technologies for Mines and Mine-like Targets, A. C. Dubey, I. Cindrich, J. M. Ralston, K. A. Rigano, eds., Proc. SPIE2496, 487–497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, “In situ measurements of absorption spectra in the sea,” in Selected Papers on Underwater Optics, F. M. Caini, ed., vol. MS118 of the SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE, 1996), pp. 138–142.

R. Ricci, R. Fantoni, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. G. Fornetti, M. Guarneri, C. Poggi, “High resolution radar for 3D imaging in artwork cataloguing, reproduction and restoration,” in Optical Metrology for Arts and Multimedia, R. Salimbeni, ed., Proc. SPIE5146, 62–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the AM laser radar. MMS, microscanning system; L1, lens (f = 2 mm); L2, lens (f = 2.5 mm); PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the signal (solid curve) and the stray-light (dashed curve) intensity as received by the detector on the target range. The MOR is defined as the range at which the curves intersect.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the MOR on the water scattering coefficient for a = 0.0145 m−1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Allan variance plot of time-series data collected with τpix = 10 ms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of the 3D image reconstruction of the target immersed in the water tank. The dimensions of the field of view are 10 cm × 3.8 cm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Subset of data at fixed φ taken for θ ranging in the field of view. The different steps are numbered for comprehension.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of System Parameters for Performance Device Simulation

Equations (4)

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d = c Δ ϕ 4 π n ν m ,
Σ = c 2 n m 2 π ν m SNR i ,
I ( l ) = I 0 exp [ ( a + b ) l ] .
P ( π ) = 1 4 π 1 g ( 1 + g ) 2 ,

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