Abstract

An optimal system for temperature measurements by coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in turbulent flames and flows is presented. In addition to a single-mode pump laser and a modeless dye laser, an echelle spectrometer with a cross disperser is used. This system permits simultaneous measurement of the N2 CARS spectrum and the broadband dye laser profile. A procedure is developed to use software to transform this profile into the excitation profile by which the spectrum is referenced. Simultaneous shot-to-shot referencing is compared to sequential averaged referencing for data obtained in flat flames and in room air. At flame temperatures, the resultant 1.5% imprecision is limited by flame fluctuations, indicating that the system may have a single-shot imprecision below 1%. At room temperature, the 3.8% single-shot imprecision is of the same order as the best values reported for dual-broadband pure-rotational CARS. Using the unique shot-to-shot excitation profiles, simultaneous referencing eliminates systematic errors. At 2000 and 300 K, the 95% confidence intervals are estimated to be ±20 and ±10 K, respectively.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  48. K. R. A. M. Schreel and E. H. van Veen are preparing a paper about modeling radiation losses in laminar natural gas flames.

2004

2003

E. H. van Veen, D. Roekaerts, “On the accuracy of temperature measurements in turbulent jet diffusion flames by coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 175, 1893–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, “Precision of single-shot dual-broadband rotational CARS thermometry with single-mode and multi-mode Nd:YAG lasers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 940–945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Lucht, V. Velur-Natarajan, C. D. Carter, K. D. Grinstead, J. R. Gord, P. M. Danehy, G. J. Fiechtner, R. L. Farrow, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature and CO2 concentration measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 679–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131–137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Malarski, A. Leipertz, “Determination of temperatures and fuel/air ratios in an ethene–air flame by dual-pump CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 946–951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Stricker, R. Lückerath, U. Meier, W. Meier, “Temperature measurements in combustion—not only with CARS: a look back at one aspect of the European CARS workshop,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 922–931 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Kuehner, M. A. Woodmansee, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “High-resolution broadband N2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy: comparison of measurements for conventional and modeless broadband dye lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6757–6767 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byme, D. P. Capriotti, R. Deloach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic thermometry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. J. Bosschaart, M. Versluis, R. Knikker, Th. H. van der Meer, K. R. A. M. Schreel, L. P. H. de Goey, A. A. van Steenhoven, “The heat flux method for producing burner stabilized adiabatic flames: an evaluation with CARS thermometry,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 169, 69–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative O2–N2 concentration measurements by single-shot pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6918–6925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Woodmansee, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “Development of high-resolution N2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for measuring pressure, temperature, and density in high-speed gas flows,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6243–6256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. P. Kearney, R. P. Lucht, A. M. Jacobi, “Temperature measurements in convective heat transfer flows using dual-broadband, pure-rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS),” Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. 19, 13–26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Fischer, E. Magens, H. Weisgerber, A. Winandy, S. Cordes, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature measurements on an air-breathing ramjet model,” AIAA J. 37, 744–750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Thumann, A. Leipertz, “Dynamic range enhancement for pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry by use of an optical arrangement with two dye lasers,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2327–2333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Schenk, A. Thumann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: comparison of evaluation techniques for determining single-shot simultaneous temperature and relative N2–O2 concentration,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5659–5671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2665–2671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 25, 1735–1742 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Parameswaran, “Noise in single-shot broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy that employs a modeless dye laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8295–8301 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

I. Plath, W. Meier, W. Stricker, “Application of a backside-illuminated charge-coupled-device camera for single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy N2 thermometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 79–81 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, G. J. Smallwood, T. Parameswaran, “An improved CARS spectrometer for single-shot measurements in turbulent combustion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5556–5564 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Löfström, S. Kröll, M. Aldén, “Investigations of the precision and accuracy of 2-λ CARS and its application in temperature measurements in turbulent flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 1637–1644 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. Péalat, M. Lefebvre, “Temperature measurement by single-shot dual-line CARS in low-pressure flows,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 23–29 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Snowdon, S. M. Skippon, P. Ewart, “Improved precision of single-shot temperature measurements by broadband CARS by use of a modeless laser,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1008–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1988

1987

1986

R. J. Hall, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Noise properties of single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy with multi-mode pump sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1637–1641 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

1984

Afzelius, M.

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, “Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13–R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in reacting flows,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, “Precision of single-shot dual-broadband rotational CARS thermometry with single-mode and multi-mode Nd:YAG lasers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 940–945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 25, 1735–1742 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Löfström, S. Kröll, M. Aldén, “Investigations of the precision and accuracy of 2-λ CARS and its application in temperature measurements in turbulent flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 1637–1644 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kröll, M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löfström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, M. Aldén, T. Berglind, R. J. Hall, “Noise characteristics of single-shot broadband Raman-resonant CARS with single and multimode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1068–1073 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Barton, S. A.

Bengtsson, P.-E.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in reacting flows,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, “Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13–R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, “Precision of single-shot dual-broadband rotational CARS thermometry with single-mode and multi-mode Nd:YAG lasers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 940–945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 25, 1735–1742 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kröll, M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löfström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Berglind, T.

Beyrau, F.

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Application of an optical pulse stretcher to coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2381–2383 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Malarski, A. Leipertz, “Determination of temperatures and fuel/air ratios in an ethene–air flame by dual-pump CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 946–951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bood, J.

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, “Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13–R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bosschaart, K. J.

K. J. Bosschaart, M. Versluis, R. Knikker, Th. H. van der Meer, K. R. A. M. Schreel, L. P. H. de Goey, A. A. van Steenhoven, “The heat flux method for producing burner stabilized adiabatic flames: an evaluation with CARS thermometry,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 169, 69–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bouchardy, P.

Brackmann, C.

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, “Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13–R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M. S.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131–137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brüggemann, D.

D. Brüggemann, S. Heshe, DACAPO-CARS Spectra Evaluation Code User’s Guide (Institute of Aerospace Thermodynamics, University of Stuttgart, 1993).

Capriotti, D. P.

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byme, D. P. Capriotti, R. Deloach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic thermometry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carter, C. D.

R. P. Lucht, V. Velur-Natarajan, C. D. Carter, K. D. Grinstead, J. R. Gord, P. M. Danehy, G. J. Fiechtner, R. L. Farrow, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature and CO2 concentration measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 679–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cordes, S.

M. Fischer, E. Magens, H. Weisgerber, A. Winandy, S. Cordes, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature measurements on an air-breathing ramjet model,” AIAA J. 37, 744–750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cutler, A. D.

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byme, D. P. Capriotti, R. Deloach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic thermometry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Danehy, P. M.

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byme, D. P. Capriotti, R. Deloach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic thermometry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Lucht, V. Velur-Natarajan, C. D. Carter, K. D. Grinstead, J. R. Gord, P. M. Danehy, G. J. Fiechtner, R. L. Farrow, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature and CO2 concentration measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 679–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Goey, L. P. H.

K. J. Bosschaart, M. Versluis, R. Knikker, Th. H. van der Meer, K. R. A. M. Schreel, L. P. H. de Goey, A. A. van Steenhoven, “The heat flux method for producing burner stabilized adiabatic flames: an evaluation with CARS thermometry,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 169, 69–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deloach, R.

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byme, D. P. Capriotti, R. Deloach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic thermometry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ding, T.

T. H. van der Meer, M. Zong, M. Versluis, T. Ding, “Accurate CARS temperature measurements in laminar and turbulent flames,” in The 7th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science (Nederlands Meetinstituut van Swinden Laboratorium, 1999), pp. 447–452.

Dobbs, G. M.

Dreier, T.

Dutton, J. C.

J. P. Kuehner, M. A. Woodmansee, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “High-resolution broadband N2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy: comparison of measurements for conventional and modeless broadband dye lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6757–6767 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Woodmansee, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “Development of high-resolution N2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for measuring pressure, temperature, and density in high-speed gas flows,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6243–6256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

Edner, H.

Ewart, P.

Farrow, R. L.

R. P. Lucht, V. Velur-Natarajan, C. D. Carter, K. D. Grinstead, J. R. Gord, P. M. Danehy, G. J. Fiechtner, R. L. Farrow, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature and CO2 concentration measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 679–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fiechtner, G. J.

R. P. Lucht, V. Velur-Natarajan, C. D. Carter, K. D. Grinstead, J. R. Gord, P. M. Danehy, G. J. Fiechtner, R. L. Farrow, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature and CO2 concentration measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 679–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

M. Fischer, E. Magens, H. Weisgerber, A. Winandy, S. Cordes, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature measurements on an air-breathing ramjet model,” AIAA J. 37, 744–750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garneau, J. M.

Gord, J. R.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in reacting flows,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131–137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Lucht, V. Velur-Natarajan, C. D. Carter, K. D. Grinstead, J. R. Gord, P. M. Danehy, G. J. Fiechtner, R. L. Farrow, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature and CO2 concentration measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 679–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Greenhalgh, D. A.

R. J. Hall, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Noise properties of single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy with multi-mode pump sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1637–1641 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Greenhalgh, S. T. Whittley, “Mode noise in broadband CARS spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 907–913 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grinstead, K. D.

R. P. Lucht, V. Velur-Natarajan, C. D. Carter, K. D. Grinstead, J. R. Gord, P. M. Danehy, G. J. Fiechtner, R. L. Farrow, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature and CO2 concentration measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 679–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, J. W.

Hall, R. J.

S. Kröll, M. Aldén, T. Berglind, R. J. Hall, “Noise characteristics of single-shot broadband Raman-resonant CARS with single and multimode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1068–1073 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hall, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Noise properties of single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy with multi-mode pump sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1637–1641 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Heshe, S.

D. Brüggemann, S. Heshe, DACAPO-CARS Spectra Evaluation Code User’s Guide (Institute of Aerospace Thermodynamics, University of Stuttgart, 1993).

Jacobi, A. M.

S. P. Kearney, R. P. Lucht, A. M. Jacobi, “Temperature measurements in convective heat transfer flows using dual-broadband, pure-rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS),” Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. 19, 13–26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, B.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 25, 1735–1742 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jonuscheit, J.

Kearney, S. P.

S. P. Kearney, R. P. Lucht, A. M. Jacobi, “Temperature measurements in convective heat transfer flows using dual-broadband, pure-rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS),” Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. 19, 13–26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knikker, R.

K. J. Bosschaart, M. Versluis, R. Knikker, Th. H. van der Meer, K. R. A. M. Schreel, L. P. H. de Goey, A. A. van Steenhoven, “The heat flux method for producing burner stabilized adiabatic flames: an evaluation with CARS thermometry,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 169, 69–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kröll, S.

Kuehner, J. P.

Lange, B.

B. Lange, M. Noda, G. Marowsky, “High-speed N2-CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 33–38 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lassesson, B.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 25, 1735–1742 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, M.

M. Péalat, M. Lefebvre, “Temperature measurement by single-shot dual-line CARS in low-pressure flows,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 23–29 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Pealat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefebvre, J.-P. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leipertz, A.

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Application of an optical pulse stretcher to coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2381–2383 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Malarski, A. Leipertz, “Determination of temperatures and fuel/air ratios in an ethene–air flame by dual-pump CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 946–951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative O2–N2 concentration measurements by single-shot pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6918–6925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schenk, A. Thumann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: comparison of evaluation techniques for determining single-shot simultaneous temperature and relative N2–O2 concentration,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5659–5671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Thumann, A. Leipertz, “Dynamic range enhancement for pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry by use of an optical arrangement with two dye lasers,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2327–2333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Thumann, M. Schenk, J. Jonuscheit, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative nitrogen-oxygen concentration measurements in air with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for temperatures to as high as 2050 K,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3500–3505 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2665–2671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Löfström, C.

C. Löfström, S. Kröll, M. Aldén, “Investigations of the precision and accuracy of 2-λ CARS and its application in temperature measurements in turbulent flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 1637–1644 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löfström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lucht, R. P.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in reacting flows,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131–137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Kuehner, M. A. Woodmansee, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “High-resolution broadband N2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy: comparison of measurements for conventional and modeless broadband dye lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6757–6767 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Lucht, V. Velur-Natarajan, C. D. Carter, K. D. Grinstead, J. R. Gord, P. M. Danehy, G. J. Fiechtner, R. L. Farrow, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature and CO2 concentration measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 679–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Woodmansee, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “Development of high-resolution N2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for measuring pressure, temperature, and density in high-speed gas flows,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6243–6256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Kearney, R. P. Lucht, A. M. Jacobi, “Temperature measurements in convective heat transfer flows using dual-broadband, pure-rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS),” Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. 19, 13–26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Rakestraw, R. P. Lucht, T. Dreier, “Use of a charge-coupled device camera for broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4116–4120 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lückerath, R.

W. Stricker, R. Lückerath, U. Meier, W. Meier, “Temperature measurements in combustion—not only with CARS: a look back at one aspect of the European CARS workshop,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 922–931 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lundholm, G.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 25, 1735–1742 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Magens, E.

M. Fischer, E. Magens, H. Weisgerber, A. Winandy, S. Cordes, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature measurements on an air-breathing ramjet model,” AIAA J. 37, 744–750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Malarski, A.

F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Malarski, A. Leipertz, “Determination of temperatures and fuel/air ratios in an ethene–air flame by dual-pump CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 946–951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marforio, K.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 25, 1735–1742 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

B. Lange, M. Noda, G. Marowsky, “High-speed N2-CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 33–38 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Martinsson, L.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 25, 1735–1742 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meier, U.

W. Stricker, R. Lückerath, U. Meier, W. Meier, “Temperature measurements in combustion—not only with CARS: a look back at one aspect of the European CARS workshop,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 922–931 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meier, W.

W. Stricker, R. Lückerath, U. Meier, W. Meier, “Temperature measurements in combustion—not only with CARS: a look back at one aspect of the European CARS workshop,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 922–931 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Plath, W. Meier, W. Stricker, “Application of a backside-illuminated charge-coupled-device camera for single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy N2 thermometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 79–81 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, T. R.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in reacting flows,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131–137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, R. E.

Nibler, J. W.

M. L. Orlov, J. F. Ogilvie, J. W. Nibler, “High-resolution coherent Raman spectra of vibrationally excited 14N2 and 15N2,” J. Mol”. Spectrosc. 185, 128–141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, D.

Noda, M.

B. Lange, M. Noda, G. Marowsky, “High-speed N2-CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 33–38 (1989).
[CrossRef]

O’Byme, S.

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byme, D. P. Capriotti, R. Deloach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic thermometry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ogilvie, J. F.

M. L. Orlov, J. F. Ogilvie, J. W. Nibler, “High-resolution coherent Raman spectra of vibrationally excited 14N2 and 15N2,” J. Mol”. Spectrosc. 185, 128–141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Orlov, M. L.

M. L. Orlov, J. F. Ogilvie, J. W. Nibler, “High-resolution coherent Raman spectra of vibrationally excited 14N2 and 15N2,” J. Mol”. Spectrosc. 185, 128–141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, T.

Park, C. W.

Park, S. N.

Pealat, M.

Péalat, M.

M. Péalat, M. Lefebvre, “Temperature measurement by single-shot dual-line CARS in low-pressure flows,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 23–29 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Plath, I.

I. Plath, W. Meier, W. Stricker, “Application of a backside-illuminated charge-coupled-device camera for single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy N2 thermometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 79–81 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakestraw, D. J.

Roekaerts, D.

E. H. van Veen, D. Roekaerts, “On the accuracy of temperature measurements in turbulent jet diffusion flames by coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 175, 1893–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roy, S.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, R. P. Lucht, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, J. R. Gord, “Dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in reacting flows,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131–137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sandell, D.

Sawchuk, R. A.

Schenk, M.

Schreel, K. R. A. M.

K. J. Bosschaart, M. Versluis, R. Knikker, Th. H. van der Meer, K. R. A. M. Schreel, L. P. H. de Goey, A. A. van Steenhoven, “The heat flux method for producing burner stabilized adiabatic flames: an evaluation with CARS thermometry,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 169, 69–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seeger, T.

Skippon, S. M.

Smallwood, G. J.

Snelling, D. R.

Snowdon, P.

Springer, R. R.

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byme, D. P. Capriotti, R. Deloach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic thermometry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stricker, W.

W. Stricker, R. Lückerath, U. Meier, W. Meier, “Temperature measurements in combustion—not only with CARS: a look back at one aspect of the European CARS workshop,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 922–931 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Plath, W. Meier, W. Stricker, “Application of a backside-illuminated charge-coupled-device camera for single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy N2 thermometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 79–81 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stufflebeam, J. H.

Taran, J.-P.

Tellex, P. A.

Thumann, A.

van der Meer, T. H.

T. H. van der Meer, M. Zong, M. Versluis, T. Ding, “Accurate CARS temperature measurements in laminar and turbulent flames,” in The 7th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science (Nederlands Meetinstituut van Swinden Laboratorium, 1999), pp. 447–452.

van der Meer, Th. H.

K. J. Bosschaart, M. Versluis, R. Knikker, Th. H. van der Meer, K. R. A. M. Schreel, L. P. H. de Goey, A. A. van Steenhoven, “The heat flux method for producing burner stabilized adiabatic flames: an evaluation with CARS thermometry,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 169, 69–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Steenhoven, A. A.

K. J. Bosschaart, M. Versluis, R. Knikker, Th. H. van der Meer, K. R. A. M. Schreel, L. P. H. de Goey, A. A. van Steenhoven, “The heat flux method for producing burner stabilized adiabatic flames: an evaluation with CARS thermometry,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 169, 69–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Veen, E. H.

E. H. van Veen, D. Roekaerts, “On the accuracy of temperature measurements in turbulent jet diffusion flames by coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 175, 1893–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Velur, V. N.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131–137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Velur-Natarajan, V.

R. P. Lucht, V. Velur-Natarajan, C. D. Carter, K. D. Grinstead, J. R. Gord, P. M. Danehy, G. J. Fiechtner, R. L. Farrow, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature and CO2 concentration measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 679–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Versluis, M.

K. J. Bosschaart, M. Versluis, R. Knikker, Th. H. van der Meer, K. R. A. M. Schreel, L. P. H. de Goey, A. A. van Steenhoven, “The heat flux method for producing burner stabilized adiabatic flames: an evaluation with CARS thermometry,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 169, 69–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. H. van der Meer, M. Zong, M. Versluis, T. Ding, “Accurate CARS temperature measurements in laminar and turbulent flames,” in The 7th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science (Nederlands Meetinstituut van Swinden Laboratorium, 1999), pp. 447–452.

Weikl, M. C.

Weisgerber, H.

M. Fischer, E. Magens, H. Weisgerber, A. Winandy, S. Cordes, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature measurements on an air-breathing ramjet model,” AIAA J. 37, 744–750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Whittley, S. T.

Winandy, A.

M. Fischer, E. Magens, H. Weisgerber, A. Winandy, S. Cordes, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature measurements on an air-breathing ramjet model,” AIAA J. 37, 744–750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woodmansee, M. A.

J. P. Kuehner, M. A. Woodmansee, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “High-resolution broadband N2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy: comparison of measurements for conventional and modeless broadband dye lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6757–6767 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Woodmansee, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “Development of high-resolution N2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for measuring pressure, temperature, and density in high-speed gas flows,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6243–6256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zong, M.

T. H. van der Meer, M. Zong, M. Versluis, T. Ding, “Accurate CARS temperature measurements in laminar and turbulent flames,” in The 7th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science (Nederlands Meetinstituut van Swinden Laboratorium, 1999), pp. 447–452.

AIAA J.

A. D. Cutler, P. M. Danehy, R. R. Springer, S. O’Byme, D. P. Capriotti, R. Deloach, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic thermometry in a supersonic combustor,” AIAA J. 41, 2451–2459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Fischer, E. Magens, H. Weisgerber, A. Winandy, S. Cordes, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature measurements on an air-breathing ramjet model,” AIAA J. 37, 744–750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Lucht, V. Velur-Natarajan, C. D. Carter, K. D. Grinstead, J. R. Gord, P. M. Danehy, G. J. Fiechtner, R. L. Farrow, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering temperature and CO2 concentration measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 679–686 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Experimental comparison of single-shot broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in hot air,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2665–2671 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Woodmansee, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “Development of high-resolution N2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for measuring pressure, temperature, and density in high-speed gas flows,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6243–6256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Thumann, A. Leipertz, “Dynamic range enhancement for pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry by use of an optical arrangement with two dye lasers,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2327–2333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

B. Lange, M. Noda, G. Marowsky, “High-speed N2-CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 33–38 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, P. A. Tellex, “CARS temperature and species measurements in augmented jet engine exhausts,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1328–1339 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Greenhalgh, S. T. Whittley, “Mode noise in broadband CARS spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 907–913 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kröll, M. Aldén, T. Berglind, R. J. Hall, “Noise characteristics of single-shot broadband Raman-resonant CARS with single and multimode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1068–1073 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Snelling, T. Parameswaran, G. J. Smallwood, “Noise characteristics of single-shot broadband CARS signals,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4298–4302 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Snowdon, S. M. Skippon, P. Ewart, “Improved precision of single-shot temperature measurements by broadband CARS by use of a modeless laser,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1008–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Parameswaran, “Noise in single-shot broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy that employs a modeless dye laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8295–8301 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Hahn, C. W. Park, S. N. Park, “Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy with a modeless dye laser,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6722–6728 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, R. E. Mueller, “Single pulse CARS noise: a comparison between single-mode and multi-mode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2771–2778 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Parameswaran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperatures using both single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 99–110 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schenk, A. Thumann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: comparison of evaluation techniques for determining single-shot simultaneous temperature and relative N2–O2 concentration,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5659–5671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Schenk, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative O2–N2 concentration measurements by single-shot pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6918–6925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Kuehner, M. A. Woodmansee, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “High-resolution broadband N2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy: comparison of measurements for conventional and modeless broadband dye lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6757–6767 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Thumann, M. Schenk, J. Jonuscheit, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous temperature and relative nitrogen-oxygen concentration measurements in air with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for temperatures to as high as 2050 K,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3500–3505 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pealat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefebvre, J.-P. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Rakestraw, R. P. Lucht, T. Dreier, “Use of a charge-coupled device camera for broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4116–4120 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

M. Péalat, M. Lefebvre, “Temperature measurement by single-shot dual-line CARS in low-pressure flows,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 23–29 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löfström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol.

K. J. Bosschaart, M. Versluis, R. Knikker, Th. H. van der Meer, K. R. A. M. Schreel, L. P. H. de Goey, A. A. van Steenhoven, “The heat flux method for producing burner stabilized adiabatic flames: an evaluation with CARS thermometry,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 169, 69–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol.

E. H. van Veen, D. Roekaerts, “On the accuracy of temperature measurements in turbulent jet diffusion flames by coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 175, 1893–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci.

S. P. Kearney, R. P. Lucht, A. M. Jacobi, “Temperature measurements in convective heat transfer flows using dual-broadband, pure-rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS),” Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. 19, 13–26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol”. Spectrosc.

M. L. Orlov, J. F. Ogilvie, J. W. Nibler, “High-resolution coherent Raman spectra of vibrationally excited 14N2 and 15N2,” J. Mol”. Spectrosc. 185, 128–141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

R. J. Hall, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Noise properties of single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy with multi-mode pump sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1637–1641 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Raman Spectrosc.

M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, “Precision of single-shot dual-broadband rotational CARS thermometry with single-mode and multi-mode Nd:YAG lasers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 940–945 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Beyrau, T. Seeger, A. Malarski, A. Leipertz, “Determination of temperatures and fuel/air ratios in an ethene–air flame by dual-pump CARS,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 946–951 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Stricker, R. Lückerath, U. Meier, W. Meier, “Temperature measurements in combustion—not only with CARS: a look back at one aspect of the European CARS workshop,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 922–931 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

C. Brackmann, J. Bood, M. Afzelius, P.-E. Bengtsson, “Thermometry in internal combustion engines via dual-broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, R13–R25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, M. S. Brown, V. N. Velur, R. P. Lucht, J. R. Gord, “Triple-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS): temperature and multiple-species concentration measurements in reacting flows,” Opt. Commun. 224, 131–137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

I. Plath, W. Meier, W. Stricker, “Application of a backside-illuminated charge-coupled-device camera for single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy N2 thermometry,” Opt. Lett. 17, 79–81 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Combust. Inst.

C. Löfström, S. Kröll, M. Aldén, “Investigations of the precision and accuracy of 2-λ CARS and its application in temperature measurements in turbulent flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 24, 1637–1644 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Combust. Inst.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 25, 1735–1742 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, G. J. Smallwood, T. Parameswaran, “An improved CARS spectrometer for single-shot measurements in turbulent combustion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5556–5564 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. H. van der Meer, M. Zong, M. Versluis, T. Ding, “Accurate CARS temperature measurements in laminar and turbulent flames,” in The 7th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science (Nederlands Meetinstituut van Swinden Laboratorium, 1999), pp. 447–452.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, 1996).

K. R. A. M. Schreel and E. H. van Veen are preparing a paper about modeling radiation losses in laminar natural gas flames.

D. Brüggemann, S. Heshe, DACAPO-CARS Spectra Evaluation Code User’s Guide (Institute of Aerospace Thermodynamics, University of Stuttgart, 1993).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the rovibrational CARS system: BS’s, beam splitters; T, telescope; S’s, samplers; L’s, lenses; BD, beam dump.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simultaneously measured dye-laser profile near 607 nm (upper trace) and nonresonant methane CARS spectrum near 474 nm (lower trace).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Performance of the transformation applied to the profiles in Fig. 2. The transformed dye-laser profile (dotted curve) is compared to the simultaneously measured methane excitation profile (solid curve). The deviation between the two profiles is displayed in the curve located below the profiles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of the measured N2 CARS spectrum (solid curve) and fitted theoretical spectrum (dotted curve) for T = 1925 K. The deviation between the two spectra is displayed in the curve located below the spectra.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Averaged methane profiles recorded at the start (outer profile) and at the end (inner profile) of a full-day experiment. The position remains stable, whereas the width changes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Examples of single-shot dye-laser profiles fired in close succession. At the right, small intensity differences can be observed. The relative deviation between the two profiles is displayed in the curve located below the profiles: Note its slightly negative slope. In referencing, these subtle differences lead to different temperatures.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Examples of a measured N2 CARS spectrum (solid curve) and a fitted theoretical spectrum (dotted curve) at room temperature (T = 290 K). The deviation between the two spectra is displayed in the curve located below the spectra.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temperature as a function of height above the surface of the heat flux burner. CARS data including the estimated 95% confidence interval are compared with temperatures calculated from the Chem1D model with the GRI reaction mechanism, version 3.0.

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