Abstract

A distortion-free digital image is transmitted through parallel propagation of white-light photovoltaic dark solitons. The waveguide channels induced by white-light dark solitons can guide both the laser beam and the white-light beam well. We determine experimentally the critical separations of the dark solitons in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the crystalline c axis for the given crystal thickness.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Stegeman, M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: university and diversity,” Science 286, 1518–1523 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447–2451 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Ogasawara, M. Ohno, K. Karaki, K. Nishizawa, A. Akiba, “Image transmission with a pair of graded-index optical fibers and a BaTiO3 phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 13, 2193–2197 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, S. V. Chernikov, “Fiber-optic wavelength-division multiplexing and demultiplexing using volume holographic gratings,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1088–1090 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, “Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679–2681 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Petter, J. Schröder, D. Träger, C. Denz, “Optical control of arrays of photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 28, 438–440 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva, N. Christodoulides, “Modulation instability and pattern formation in spatially incoherent light beams,” Science 290, 495–498 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Soljacic, M. Segev, T. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, A. Vishwanath, “Modulation instability of incoherent beams in noninstantaneous nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 467–4470 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Kip, C. Anastassion, E. Eugenieva, D. Christodoulides, “Transmission of images through highly nonlinear media by gradient-index lenses formed by incoherent solitons,” Opt. Lett. 26, 524–526 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. M. Gao, S. M. Liu, R. Guo, X. H. Zhang, Y. Lu, “White-light photorefractive phase mask,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1533–1537 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent dark solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5113–5116 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Lu, S. M. Liu, G. Q. Zhang, R. Guo, N. Zhu, S. L. Yang, “Waveguides and directional coupler induced by white-light photovoltaic dark spatial solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1674–1678 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Mitchell, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of incoherent white light,” Nature 387, 880–883 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

Y. Lu, S. M. Liu, G. Q. Zhang, R. Guo, N. Zhu, S. L. Yang, “Waveguides and directional coupler induced by white-light photovoltaic dark spatial solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1674–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, “Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679–2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva, N. Christodoulides, “Modulation instability and pattern formation in spatially incoherent light beams,” Science 290, 495–498 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Soljacic, M. Segev, T. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, A. Vishwanath, “Modulation instability of incoherent beams in noninstantaneous nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 467–4470 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

G. Stegeman, M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: university and diversity,” Science 286, 1518–1523 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent dark solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5113–5116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of incoherent white light,” Nature 387, 880–883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ogasawara, M. Ohno, K. Karaki, K. Nishizawa, A. Akiba, “Image transmission with a pair of graded-index optical fibers and a BaTiO3 phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 13, 2193–2197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447–2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Agranat, A. J.

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, “Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679–2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, A.

T. Ogasawara, M. Ohno, K. Karaki, K. Nishizawa, A. Akiba, “Image transmission with a pair of graded-index optical fibers and a BaTiO3 phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 13, 2193–2197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anastassion, C.

Chen, Z.

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent dark solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5113–5116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chernikov, S. V.

Christodoulides, D.

Christodoulides, D. N.

M. Soljacic, M. Segev, T. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, A. Vishwanath, “Modulation instability of incoherent beams in noninstantaneous nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 467–4470 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent dark solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5113–5116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, N.

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva, N. Christodoulides, “Modulation instability and pattern formation in spatially incoherent light beams,” Science 290, 495–498 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciattoni, A.

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, “Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679–2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coskun, T.

M. Soljacic, M. Segev, T. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, A. Vishwanath, “Modulation instability of incoherent beams in noninstantaneous nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 467–4470 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coskun, T. H.

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent dark solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5113–5116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crosignani, B.

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, “Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679–2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D’Ercole, A.

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, “Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679–2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DelRe, E.

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, “Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679–2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Denz, C.

Dianov, E. M.

Eugenieva, E.

D. Kip, C. Anastassion, E. Eugenieva, D. Christodoulides, “Transmission of images through highly nonlinear media by gradient-index lenses formed by incoherent solitons,” Opt. Lett. 26, 524–526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva, N. Christodoulides, “Modulation instability and pattern formation in spatially incoherent light beams,” Science 290, 495–498 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, Y. M.

Guo, R.

Harris, S. E.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447–2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, M.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447–2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karaki, K.

T. Ogasawara, M. Ohno, K. Karaki, K. Nishizawa, A. Akiba, “Image transmission with a pair of graded-index optical fibers and a BaTiO3 phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 13, 2193–2197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kasapi, A.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447–2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kip, D.

D. Kip, C. Anastassion, E. Eugenieva, D. Christodoulides, “Transmission of images through highly nonlinear media by gradient-index lenses formed by incoherent solitons,” Opt. Lett. 26, 524–526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva, N. Christodoulides, “Modulation instability and pattern formation in spatially incoherent light beams,” Science 290, 495–498 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S. M.

Lu, Y.

Mamyshev, P. V.

Mitchell, M.

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent dark solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5113–5116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of incoherent white light,” Nature 387, 880–883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, K.

T. Ogasawara, M. Ohno, K. Karaki, K. Nishizawa, A. Akiba, “Image transmission with a pair of graded-index optical fibers and a BaTiO3 phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 13, 2193–2197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ogasawara, T.

T. Ogasawara, M. Ohno, K. Karaki, K. Nishizawa, A. Akiba, “Image transmission with a pair of graded-index optical fibers and a BaTiO3 phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 13, 2193–2197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, M.

T. Ogasawara, M. Ohno, K. Karaki, K. Nishizawa, A. Akiba, “Image transmission with a pair of graded-index optical fibers and a BaTiO3 phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 13, 2193–2197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Palange, E.

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, “Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679–2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petter, J.

Prokhorov, A. M.

Schröder, J.

Segev, M.

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva, N. Christodoulides, “Modulation instability and pattern formation in spatially incoherent light beams,” Science 290, 495–498 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Soljacic, M. Segev, T. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, A. Vishwanath, “Modulation instability of incoherent beams in noninstantaneous nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 467–4470 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Stegeman, M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: university and diversity,” Science 286, 1518–1523 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent dark solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5113–5116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of incoherent white light,” Nature 387, 880–883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M.

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soljacic, M.

M. Soljacic, M. Segev, T. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, A. Vishwanath, “Modulation instability of incoherent beams in noninstantaneous nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 467–4470 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva, N. Christodoulides, “Modulation instability and pattern formation in spatially incoherent light beams,” Science 290, 495–498 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G.

G. Stegeman, M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: university and diversity,” Science 286, 1518–1523 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Träger, D.

Vishwanath, A.

M. Soljacic, M. Segev, T. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, A. Vishwanath, “Modulation instability of incoherent beams in noninstantaneous nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 467–4470 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, H. D.

H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. J.

H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. L.

Yin, G. Y.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447–2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G. Q.

Y. Lu, S. M. Liu, G. Q. Zhang, R. Guo, N. Zhu, S. L. Yang, “Waveguides and directional coupler induced by white-light photovoltaic dark spatial solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1674–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

Zhang, X. Z.

H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, N.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, A. J. Agranat, “Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2679–2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

T. Ogasawara, M. Ohno, K. Karaki, K. Nishizawa, A. Akiba, “Image transmission with a pair of graded-index optical fibers and a BaTiO3 phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 13, 2193–2197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of incoherent white light,” Nature 387, 880–883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: propagation dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447–2451 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Soljacic, M. Segev, T. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, A. Vishwanath, “Modulation instability of incoherent beams in noninstantaneous nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 467–4470 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, T. H. Coskun, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Segev, “Theory of incoherent dark solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5113–5116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Stegeman, M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: university and diversity,” Science 286, 1518–1523 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kip, M. Soljacic, M. Segev, E. Eugenieva, N. Christodoulides, “Modulation instability and pattern formation in spatially incoherent light beams,” Science 290, 495–498 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. D. Wen, S. M. Liu, X. Z. Zhang, R. Guo, G. Q. Zhang, Q. Sun, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, “Photorefractive phase mask,” in Integrated Optics Devices, V. Giancario, C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE4277, 303–309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: He–Ne, laser; lamp, incandescent lamp; SF, spatial filter; M1–M4, mirrors; L1, L4, collimating lenses; L2, L3, imaging lenses; O, amplitude mask; LN, LiNbO3:Fe crystal; C, crystalline c axis; AT, attenuator; CCD, CCD camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Digital images transmitting with white-light photorefractive solitons: (a) input image (two Chinese characters); (b), (c), (d) output images probed by the white-light beam at t = 0, t = 6, and t = 8 h, respectively; (e) output images probed by the laser at t = 8 h.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Determination of critical separation of the white-light solitons parallel to the c axis. Top, input images of the soliton columns; bottom, output images of the soliton columns probed by a white-light beam at t = 8 h. (a), (b) Every spot is 37.5 µm in diameter; separations of the solitons are 62.5 and 50 µm, respectively. (c) 1D dark strips.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Determination of critical separation of the white-light solitons along the direction perpendicular to the c axis. Top, input images of the soliton columns; bottom, output images of the soliton columns probed by a white-light beam at t = 8 h. (a), (b), (c) Every spot is 37.5 µm in diameter; separations of the solitons are 125, 112.5, and 100 µm, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images transmitted by white light: (a) input image (two Chinese characters) at the input face of the crystal, (b) output image probed by the probe white light at t = 8 h.

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