Abstract

In recent years it has become possible to measure and in some instances to correct the high-order aberrations of human eyes. We have investigated the correction of wavefront error of human eyes by using phase plates designed to compensate for that error. The wavefront aberrations of the four eyes of two subjects were experimentally determined, and compensating phase plates were machined with an ultraprecision diamond-turning machine equipped with four independent axes. A slow-tool servo free-form trajectory was developed for the machine tool path. The machined phase-correction plates were measured and compared with the original design values to validate the process. The position of the phase-plate relative to the pupil is discussed. The practical utility of this mode of aberration correction was investigated with visual acuity testing. The results are consistent with the potential benefit of aberration correction but also underscore the critical positioning requirements of this mode of aberration correction. This process is described in detail from optical measurements, through machining process design and development, to final results.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2004 (5)

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Altmann, “Wavefront-customized intraocular lenses,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 15, 358–364 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mrochen, C. Donitzky, C. Wullner, J. Loffler, “Wavefront-optimized ablation profiles: theoretical background,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 775–785 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yoon, T. M. Jeong, I. G. Cox, D. R. Williams, “Vision improvement by correcting higher-order aberrations with phase plates in normal eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 20, S523–S527 (2004).
[PubMed]

H. H. Dietze, M. J. Cox, “Correcting ocular spherical aberration with soft contact lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 473–485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

F. Carones, L. Vigo, E. Scandola, “Wavefront-guided treatment of abnormal eyes using the LADARVision platform,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, S703–S708 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. Waheed, R. R. Krueger, “Update on customized excimer ablations: recent developments reported in 2002,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 14, 198–202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. N. Charman, N. Chateau, “The prospects for super-acuity: limits to visual performance after correction of monochromatic ocular aberration,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 23, 479–493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, A. Benito, “Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 637–643 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (7)

2001 (2)

2000 (4)

R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Bara, T. Mancebo, “Phase plates for wave-aberration compensation in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 25, 236–238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Williams, G. Y. Yoon, J. Porter, A. Guirao, H. Hofer, I. Cox, “Visual benefit of correcting higher order aberrations of the eye,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S554–S559 (2000).
[PubMed]

J. Schwiegerling, “Theoretical limits to visual performance,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45, 139–146 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bara, T. Mancebo, E. Moreno-Barriuso, “Positioning tolerances for phase plates compensating aberrations of the human eye,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3413–3420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. W. Raasch, I. L. Bailey, M. A. Bullimore, “Repeatability of visual acuity measurement,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 342–348 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

D. R. Williams, “Topography of the foveal cone mosaic in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 28, 433–454 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1982 (1)

Altmann, G. E.

G. E. Altmann, “Wavefront-customized intraocular lenses,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 15, 358–364 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652–S660 (2002).
[PubMed]

Artal, P.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Autschbach, L.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, presented at the Winter Topical Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, Chapel Hill, N. C., 4–5 February 2004.

Bailey, I. L.

T. W. Raasch, I. L. Bailey, M. A. Bullimore, “Repeatability of visual acuity measurement,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 342–348 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bara, S.

Benito, A.

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, A. Benito, “Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 637–643 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, A.

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, X. Hong, “A statistical model of the aberration structure of normal, well-corrected eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 22, 427–433 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brecher, C.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, presented at the Winter Topical Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, Chapel Hill, N. C., 4–5 February 2004.

Brinksmeier, E.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, presented at the Winter Topical Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, Chapel Hill, N. C., 4–5 February 2004.

Bullimore, M. A.

T. W. Raasch, I. L. Bailey, M. A. Bullimore, “Repeatability of visual acuity measurement,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 342–348 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carones, F.

F. Carones, L. Vigo, E. Scandola, “Wavefront-guided treatment of abnormal eyes using the LADARVision platform,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, S703–S708 (2003).
[PubMed]

Cathey, W.

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman, N. Chateau, “The prospects for super-acuity: limits to visual performance after correction of monochromatic ocular aberration,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 23, 479–493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chateau, N.

W. N. Charman, N. Chateau, “The prospects for super-acuity: limits to visual performance after correction of monochromatic ocular aberration,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 23, 479–493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, A. Benito, “Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 637–643 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coletta, N. J.

Cox, I.

D. Williams, G. Y. Yoon, J. Porter, A. Guirao, H. Hofer, I. Cox, “Visual benefit of correcting higher order aberrations of the eye,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S554–S559 (2000).
[PubMed]

Cox, I. G.

Cox, M. J.

de Brabander, J.

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, A. Benito, “Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 637–643 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietze, H. H.

Donitzky, C.

M. Mrochen, C. Donitzky, C. Wullner, J. Loffler, “Wavefront-optimized ablation profiles: theoretical background,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 775–785 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörner, D.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, presented at the Winter Topical Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, Chapel Hill, N. C., 4–5 February 2004.

Dowski, E.

Fernandez, E. J.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guirao, A.

Hofer, H.

D. Williams, G. Y. Yoon, J. Porter, A. Guirao, H. Hofer, I. Cox, “Visual benefit of correcting higher order aberrations of the eye,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S554–S559 (2000).
[PubMed]

Hong, X.

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, X. Hong, “A statistical model of the aberration structure of normal, well-corrected eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 22, 427–433 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, T. M.

G. Yoon, T. M. Jeong, I. G. Cox, D. R. Williams, “Vision improvement by correcting higher-order aberrations with phase plates in normal eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 20, S523–S527 (2004).
[PubMed]

Krueger, R. R.

S. Waheed, R. R. Krueger, “Update on customized excimer ablations: recent developments reported in 2002,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 14, 198–202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lange, S.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, presented at the Winter Topical Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, Chapel Hill, N. C., 4–5 February 2004.

Loffler, J.

M. Mrochen, C. Donitzky, C. Wullner, J. Loffler, “Wavefront-optimized ablation profiles: theoretical background,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 775–785 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Gil, N.

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, A. Benito, “Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 637–643 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mancebo, T.

Manzanera, S.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marin, G.

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, A. Benito, “Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 637–643 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

Mrochen, M.

M. Mrochen, C. Donitzky, C. Wullner, J. Loffler, “Wavefront-optimized ablation profiles: theoretical background,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 775–785 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muschaweck, J.

Navarro, R.

Norrby, S.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, presented at the Winter Topical Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, Chapel Hill, N. C., 4–5 February 2004.

Piers, P. A.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Plummer, W.

Porter, J.

Raasch, T. W.

T. W. Raasch, I. L. Bailey, M. A. Bullimore, “Repeatability of visual acuity measurement,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 342–348 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ries, H.

Scandola, E.

F. Carones, L. Vigo, E. Scandola, “Wavefront-guided treatment of abnormal eyes using the LADARVision platform,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, S703–S708 (2003).
[PubMed]

Schwiegerling, J.

J. Schwiegerling, “Scaling Zernike expansion coefficients to different pupil sizes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1937–1945 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwiegerling, “Theoretical limits to visual performance,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45, 139–146 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwiegerling, J. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652–S660 (2002).
[PubMed]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652–S660 (2002).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, X. Hong, “A statistical model of the aberration structure of normal, well-corrected eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 22, 427–433 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomhe, Y.

Y. Tomhe, “Machining of freeform optical surfaces by slow slide,” presented at the 2003 Annual Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, St. Louis, Mo., 25–30 October 2003.

Van Der Worp, E.

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, A. Benito, “Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 637–643 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vigo, L.

F. Carones, L. Vigo, E. Scandola, “Wavefront-guided treatment of abnormal eyes using the LADARVision platform,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, S703–S708 (2003).
[PubMed]

Waheed, S.

S. Waheed, R. R. Krueger, “Update on customized excimer ablations: recent developments reported in 2002,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 14, 198–202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652–S660 (2002).
[PubMed]

Weck, M.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, presented at the Winter Topical Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, Chapel Hill, N. C., 4–5 February 2004.

Wetter, O.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, presented at the Winter Topical Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, Chapel Hill, N. C., 4–5 February 2004.

Williams, D.

D. Williams, G. Y. Yoon, J. Porter, A. Guirao, H. Hofer, I. Cox, “Visual benefit of correcting higher order aberrations of the eye,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S554–S559 (2000).
[PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

Winterschladen, M.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, presented at the Winter Topical Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, Chapel Hill, N. C., 4–5 February 2004.

Wullner, C.

M. Mrochen, C. Donitzky, C. Wullner, J. Loffler, “Wavefront-optimized ablation profiles: theoretical background,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 775–785 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, G.

G. Yoon, T. M. Jeong, I. G. Cox, D. R. Williams, “Vision improvement by correcting higher-order aberrations with phase plates in normal eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 20, S523–S527 (2004).
[PubMed]

Yoon, G. Y.

D. Williams, G. Y. Yoon, J. Porter, A. Guirao, H. Hofer, I. Cox, “Visual benefit of correcting higher order aberrations of the eye,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S554–S559 (2000).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. (2)

S. Waheed, R. R. Krueger, “Update on customized excimer ablations: recent developments reported in 2002,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 14, 198–202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Altmann, “Wavefront-customized intraocular lenses,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 15, 358–364 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, P. Artal, “Adaptive optics simulation of intraocular lenses with modified spherical aberration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4601–4610 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

M. Mrochen, C. Donitzky, C. Wullner, J. Loffler, “Wavefront-optimized ablation profiles: theoretical background,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 775–785 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (8)

J. Refract. Surg. (4)

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652–S660 (2002).
[PubMed]

G. Yoon, T. M. Jeong, I. G. Cox, D. R. Williams, “Vision improvement by correcting higher-order aberrations with phase plates in normal eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 20, S523–S527 (2004).
[PubMed]

F. Carones, L. Vigo, E. Scandola, “Wavefront-guided treatment of abnormal eyes using the LADARVision platform,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, S703–S708 (2003).
[PubMed]

D. Williams, G. Y. Yoon, J. Porter, A. Guirao, H. Hofer, I. Cox, “Visual benefit of correcting higher order aberrations of the eye,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S554–S559 (2000).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (2)

W. N. Charman, N. Chateau, “The prospects for super-acuity: limits to visual performance after correction of monochromatic ocular aberration,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 23, 479–493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, X. Hong, “A statistical model of the aberration structure of normal, well-corrected eyes,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 22, 427–433 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (2)

T. W. Raasch, I. L. Bailey, M. A. Bullimore, “Repeatability of visual acuity measurement,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 75, 342–348 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, A. Benito, “Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 637–643 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surv. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. Schwiegerling, “Theoretical limits to visual performance,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45, 139–146 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

D. R. Williams, “Topography of the foveal cone mosaic in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 28, 433–454 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Y. Tomhe, “Machining of freeform optical surfaces by slow slide,” presented at the 2003 Annual Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, St. Louis, Mo., 25–30 October 2003.

C. Brecher, M. Weck, M. Winterschladen, S. Lange, O. Wetter, T. Pfeifer, D. Dörner, E. Brinksmeier, L. Autschbach, presented at the Winter Topical Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering, Chapel Hill, N. C., 4–5 February 2004.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawings of the ultraprecision machine and diamond-cutting process: (a) ultraprecision machine, (b) closeup view of the diamond-turning process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CNC tool path generation for phase-plate machining.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Zygo interferometric image of the machine’s PMMA surface: (a) targeted design surface, (b) machined PMMA surface, (c) error surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of Zernike coefficient magnitudes for the designed and measured phase plates.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Zygo New View image of the machine’s PMMA surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of the orientation of the phase plate.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of the translational position of the phase plate: (a) across the full 6 mm diameter and (b) detail area near the center of the phase plate.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of pupil size for the 6 mm phase plate.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effect of pupil size for 4 mm phase plate.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Specifications of the Ultraprecision Machine for Freeform Machining

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Table 2 High-Contrast Visual Activity Results with and without High-Order Aberration Correctiona

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Table 3 Low-Contrast Visual Activity Resultsa

Equations (1)

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W ( ρ , θ ) = n , ± m a n ± m Z n ± m ( ρ , θ ) , n = 1 , 2 , 3 ,

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