Abstract

The lightweight cryogenic telescope on board the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F, which is scheduled to be launched early in 2006, forms an F/6 Ritchey–Chretien system with a primary mirror of 710 mm in diameter. The mirrors of the ASTRO-F telescope are made of sandwich-type silicon carbide (SiC) material, comprising a porous core and a chemical-vapor-deposited coat of SiC on the surface. To estimate the optical performance of the flight model telescope, the telescope assembly was tested at cryogenic temperatures, the total wavefront errors of which were measured by an interferometer from outside a liquid-helium chamber. As a result, the wavefront error obtained at 9 K shows that the imaging performance of the ASTRO-F telescope is diffraction limited at a wavelength of 6.2 µm, which is a little worse than our original goal of diffraction-limited performance at 5.0 µm.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  11. A. Novi, G. Mondello, C. Devilliers, A. Caso, M. Kroedel, M. Ghigo, C. duJeu, “Comparison of sintered-SiC and C/SiC mirror behavior at cryogenic temperatures,” in Optical Materials and Structures Technologies, W. Goodman, ed., Proc. SPIE5179, 246–253 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, K. Enya, Y. Y. Yui, M. Tamura, “Telescope system of the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) Mission,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-554 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 297–302.
  17. H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, T. Onaka, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, K. Enya, H. Kataza, H. Matsuhara, Y. Y. Yui, “Development of space infrared telescope for the SPICA mission,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 991–1000 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1993 (1)

E. Hoffmann, H. Herper, P. Entel, S. G. Mishra, P. Mohn, K. Schwarz, “Microscopic theory of the martensitic transition in Fe1−xNix,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 5589–5596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Armus, L.

R. D. Gehrz, E. A. Romana, W. F. Hoffmann, J. P. Schwenker, J. E. Mentzell, J. L. Hora, P. R. Eisenhardt, B. R. Brandl, L. Armus, K. R. Stapelfeldt, D. C. Hines, A. K. Mainzer, E. T. Young, D. G. Elliott, “The state of the focus and image quality of the Spitzer Space Telescope as measured in orbit,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 166–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Basile, G.

A. Novi, G. Basile, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, A. Caso, G. Cattaneo, G. Svelto, “Lightweight SiC foamed mirrors for space applications,” in Optomechanical Design and Engineering, A. Hatheway, ed., Proc. SPIE4444, 59–65 (2001).

Brandl, B. R.

R. D. Gehrz, E. A. Romana, W. F. Hoffmann, J. P. Schwenker, J. E. Mentzell, J. L. Hora, P. R. Eisenhardt, B. R. Brandl, L. Armus, K. R. Stapelfeldt, D. C. Hines, A. K. Mainzer, E. T. Young, D. G. Elliott, “The state of the focus and image quality of the Spitzer Space Telescope as measured in orbit,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 166–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, J.

J. B. Hadaway, R. Eng, H. P. Stahl, J. Carpenter, J. Kegley, W. Hogue, “Cryogenic performance of lightweight SiC and C/SiC mirrors,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 1018–1029 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caso, A.

A. Novi, G. Basile, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, A. Caso, G. Cattaneo, G. Svelto, “Lightweight SiC foamed mirrors for space applications,” in Optomechanical Design and Engineering, A. Hatheway, ed., Proc. SPIE4444, 59–65 (2001).

A. Novi, G. Mondello, C. Devilliers, A. Caso, M. Kroedel, M. Ghigo, C. duJeu, “Comparison of sintered-SiC and C/SiC mirror behavior at cryogenic temperatures,” in Optical Materials and Structures Technologies, W. Goodman, ed., Proc. SPIE5179, 246–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cattaneo, G.

A. Novi, G. Basile, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, A. Caso, G. Cattaneo, G. Svelto, “Lightweight SiC foamed mirrors for space applications,” in Optomechanical Design and Engineering, A. Hatheway, ed., Proc. SPIE4444, 59–65 (2001).

Citterio, O.

A. Novi, G. Basile, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, A. Caso, G. Cattaneo, G. Svelto, “Lightweight SiC foamed mirrors for space applications,” in Optomechanical Design and Engineering, A. Hatheway, ed., Proc. SPIE4444, 59–65 (2001).

Cox, C. D.

H. J. Triebes, L. W. Huff, C. D. Cox, J. W. Pepi, “Cryogenic optical performance of a lightweighted 20-inch SiC mirror and indications for thermal strain homogeneity and hysteresis,” in Silicon Carbide Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE2543, 213–218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Chambure, D.

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passvogel, G. Pilbratt, “A 3.5-m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission,” in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 606–618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deny, P.

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passvogel, G. Pilbratt, “A 3.5-m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission,” in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 606–618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devilliers, C.

A. Novi, G. Mondello, C. Devilliers, A. Caso, M. Kroedel, M. Ghigo, C. duJeu, “Comparison of sintered-SiC and C/SiC mirror behavior at cryogenic temperatures,” in Optical Materials and Structures Technologies, W. Goodman, ed., Proc. SPIE5179, 246–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

duJeu, C.

A. Novi, G. Mondello, C. Devilliers, A. Caso, M. Kroedel, M. Ghigo, C. duJeu, “Comparison of sintered-SiC and C/SiC mirror behavior at cryogenic temperatures,” in Optical Materials and Structures Technologies, W. Goodman, ed., Proc. SPIE5179, 246–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duran, M.

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passvogel, G. Pilbratt, “A 3.5-m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission,” in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 606–618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eisenhardt, P. R.

R. D. Gehrz, E. A. Romana, W. F. Hoffmann, J. P. Schwenker, J. E. Mentzell, J. L. Hora, P. R. Eisenhardt, B. R. Brandl, L. Armus, K. R. Stapelfeldt, D. C. Hines, A. K. Mainzer, E. T. Young, D. G. Elliott, “The state of the focus and image quality of the Spitzer Space Telescope as measured in orbit,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 166–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, D. G.

R. D. Gehrz, E. A. Romana, W. F. Hoffmann, J. P. Schwenker, J. E. Mentzell, J. L. Hora, P. R. Eisenhardt, B. R. Brandl, L. Armus, K. R. Stapelfeldt, D. C. Hines, A. K. Mainzer, E. T. Young, D. G. Elliott, “The state of the focus and image quality of the Spitzer Space Telescope as measured in orbit,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 166–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eng, R.

J. B. Hadaway, R. Eng, H. P. Stahl, J. Carpenter, J. Kegley, W. Hogue, “Cryogenic performance of lightweight SiC and C/SiC mirrors,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 1018–1029 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Entel, P.

E. Hoffmann, H. Herper, P. Entel, S. G. Mishra, P. Mohn, K. Schwarz, “Microscopic theory of the martensitic transition in Fe1−xNix,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 5589–5596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Enya, K.

T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, K. Enya, Y. Y. Yui, M. Tamura, “Telescope system of the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) Mission,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-554 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 297–302.

H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, T. Onaka, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, K. Enya, H. Kataza, H. Matsuhara, Y. Y. Yui, “Development of space infrared telescope for the SPICA mission,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 991–1000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Forney, P. B.

P. N. Robb, L. W. Huff, P. B. Forney, G. T. Petrovsky, S. V. Lubarsky, Y. Khimitch, “Interferometric measurements of silicon carbide mirrors at liquid helium temperature,” in Silicon Carbide Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE2543, 196–200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fujishiro, N.

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gehrz, R. D.

R. D. Gehrz, E. A. Romana, W. F. Hoffmann, J. P. Schwenker, J. E. Mentzell, J. L. Hora, P. R. Eisenhardt, B. R. Brandl, L. Armus, K. R. Stapelfeldt, D. C. Hines, A. K. Mainzer, E. T. Young, D. G. Elliott, “The state of the focus and image quality of the Spitzer Space Telescope as measured in orbit,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 166–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ghigo, M.

A. Novi, G. Basile, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, A. Caso, G. Cattaneo, G. Svelto, “Lightweight SiC foamed mirrors for space applications,” in Optomechanical Design and Engineering, A. Hatheway, ed., Proc. SPIE4444, 59–65 (2001).

A. Novi, G. Mondello, C. Devilliers, A. Caso, M. Kroedel, M. Ghigo, C. duJeu, “Comparison of sintered-SiC and C/SiC mirror behavior at cryogenic temperatures,” in Optical Materials and Structures Technologies, W. Goodman, ed., Proc. SPIE5179, 246–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hadaway, J. B.

J. B. Hadaway, R. Eng, H. P. Stahl, J. Carpenter, J. Kegley, W. Hogue, “Cryogenic performance of lightweight SiC and C/SiC mirrors,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 1018–1029 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herper, H.

E. Hoffmann, H. Herper, P. Entel, S. G. Mishra, P. Mohn, K. Schwarz, “Microscopic theory of the martensitic transition in Fe1−xNix,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 5589–5596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hines, D. C.

R. D. Gehrz, E. A. Romana, W. F. Hoffmann, J. P. Schwenker, J. E. Mentzell, J. L. Hora, P. R. Eisenhardt, B. R. Brandl, L. Armus, K. R. Stapelfeldt, D. C. Hines, A. K. Mainzer, E. T. Young, D. G. Elliott, “The state of the focus and image quality of the Spitzer Space Telescope as measured in orbit,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 166–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, E.

E. Hoffmann, H. Herper, P. Entel, S. G. Mishra, P. Mohn, K. Schwarz, “Microscopic theory of the martensitic transition in Fe1−xNix,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 5589–5596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, W. F.

R. D. Gehrz, E. A. Romana, W. F. Hoffmann, J. P. Schwenker, J. E. Mentzell, J. L. Hora, P. R. Eisenhardt, B. R. Brandl, L. Armus, K. R. Stapelfeldt, D. C. Hines, A. K. Mainzer, E. T. Young, D. G. Elliott, “The state of the focus and image quality of the Spitzer Space Telescope as measured in orbit,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 166–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hogue, W.

J. B. Hadaway, R. Eng, H. P. Stahl, J. Carpenter, J. Kegley, W. Hogue, “Cryogenic performance of lightweight SiC and C/SiC mirrors,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 1018–1029 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hora, J. L.

R. D. Gehrz, E. A. Romana, W. F. Hoffmann, J. P. Schwenker, J. E. Mentzell, J. L. Hora, P. R. Eisenhardt, B. R. Brandl, L. Armus, K. R. Stapelfeldt, D. C. Hines, A. K. Mainzer, E. T. Young, D. G. Elliott, “The state of the focus and image quality of the Spitzer Space Telescope as measured in orbit,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 166–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huff, L. W.

P. N. Robb, L. W. Huff, P. B. Forney, G. T. Petrovsky, S. V. Lubarsky, Y. Khimitch, “Interferometric measurements of silicon carbide mirrors at liquid helium temperature,” in Silicon Carbide Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE2543, 196–200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Triebes, L. W. Huff, C. D. Cox, J. W. Pepi, “Cryogenic optical performance of a lightweighted 20-inch SiC mirror and indications for thermal strain homogeneity and hysteresis,” in Silicon Carbide Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE2543, 213–218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ihara, C.

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, D.

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ita, Y.

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaneda, H.

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, M. Kawada, H. Murakami, “Cryogenic optical testings of sandwich-type silicon carbide mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 708–714 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sugiyama, R. Yamashiro, Y. Numao, T. Onaka, H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, “Wavefront measurement of infrared telescope at cryogenic temperatures,” in 27th Optics Symposium Proceedings (Optical Society of Japan, 2002), pp. 13–16.

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, R. Yamashiro, T. Nakagawa, “Optical performance of the ASTRO-F telescope at cryogenic temperatures,” in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 230–240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, K. Enya, Y. Y. Yui, M. Tamura, “Telescope system of the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) Mission,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-554 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 297–302.

H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, T. Onaka, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, K. Enya, H. Kataza, H. Matsuhara, Y. Y. Yui, “Development of space infrared telescope for the SPICA mission,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 991–1000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kataza, H.

T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, K. Enya, Y. Y. Yui, M. Tamura, “Telescope system of the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) Mission,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-554 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 297–302.

H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, T. Onaka, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, K. Enya, H. Kataza, H. Matsuhara, Y. Y. Yui, “Development of space infrared telescope for the SPICA mission,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 991–1000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawada, M.

Kegley, J.

J. B. Hadaway, R. Eng, H. P. Stahl, J. Carpenter, J. Kegley, W. Hogue, “Cryogenic performance of lightweight SiC and C/SiC mirrors,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 1018–1029 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khimitch, Y.

P. N. Robb, L. W. Huff, P. B. Forney, G. T. Petrovsky, S. V. Lubarsky, Y. Khimitch, “Interferometric measurements of silicon carbide mirrors at liquid helium temperature,” in Silicon Carbide Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE2543, 196–200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kroedel, M.

A. Novi, G. Mondello, C. Devilliers, A. Caso, M. Kroedel, M. Ghigo, C. duJeu, “Comparison of sintered-SiC and C/SiC mirror behavior at cryogenic temperatures,” in Optical Materials and Structures Technologies, W. Goodman, ed., Proc. SPIE5179, 246–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lubarsky, S. V.

P. N. Robb, L. W. Huff, P. B. Forney, G. T. Petrovsky, S. V. Lubarsky, Y. Khimitch, “Interferometric measurements of silicon carbide mirrors at liquid helium temperature,” in Silicon Carbide Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE2543, 196–200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mainzer, A. K.

R. D. Gehrz, E. A. Romana, W. F. Hoffmann, J. P. Schwenker, J. E. Mentzell, J. L. Hora, P. R. Eisenhardt, B. R. Brandl, L. Armus, K. R. Stapelfeldt, D. C. Hines, A. K. Mainzer, E. T. Young, D. G. Elliott, “The state of the focus and image quality of the Spitzer Space Telescope as measured in orbit,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 166–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsuhara, H.

T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, K. Enya, Y. Y. Yui, M. Tamura, “Telescope system of the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) Mission,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-554 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 297–302.

H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, T. Onaka, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, K. Enya, H. Kataza, H. Matsuhara, Y. Y. Yui, “Development of space infrared telescope for the SPICA mission,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 991–1000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, T. Onaka, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, K. Enya, H. Kataza, H. Matsuhara, Y. Y. Yui, “Development of space infrared telescope for the SPICA mission,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 991–1000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, K. Enya, Y. Y. Yui, M. Tamura, “Telescope system of the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) Mission,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-554 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 297–302.

Mentzell, J. E.

R. D. Gehrz, E. A. Romana, W. F. Hoffmann, J. P. Schwenker, J. E. Mentzell, J. L. Hora, P. R. Eisenhardt, B. R. Brandl, L. Armus, K. R. Stapelfeldt, D. C. Hines, A. K. Mainzer, E. T. Young, D. G. Elliott, “The state of the focus and image quality of the Spitzer Space Telescope as measured in orbit,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 166–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, S. G.

E. Hoffmann, H. Herper, P. Entel, S. G. Mishra, P. Mohn, K. Schwarz, “Microscopic theory of the martensitic transition in Fe1−xNix,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 5589–5596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miura, S.

T. Onaka, Y. Sugiyama, S. Miura, “Telescope system of the Infrared Imaging Surveyor (IRIS),” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 900–904 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mohn, P.

E. Hoffmann, H. Herper, P. Entel, S. G. Mishra, P. Mohn, K. Schwarz, “Microscopic theory of the martensitic transition in Fe1−xNix,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 5589–5596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mondello, G.

A. Novi, G. Mondello, C. Devilliers, A. Caso, M. Kroedel, M. Ghigo, C. duJeu, “Comparison of sintered-SiC and C/SiC mirror behavior at cryogenic temperatures,” in Optical Materials and Structures Technologies, W. Goodman, ed., Proc. SPIE5179, 246–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, H.

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, M. Kawada, H. Murakami, “Cryogenic optical testings of sandwich-type silicon carbide mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 708–714 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Murakami, “ASTRO-F Infrared Sky Survey mission,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space-Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 330–337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, K. Enya, Y. Y. Yui, M. Tamura, “Telescope system of the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) Mission,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-554 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 297–302.

H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, T. Onaka, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, K. Enya, H. Kataza, H. Matsuhara, Y. Y. Yui, “Development of space infrared telescope for the SPICA mission,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 991–1000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, T.

H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, T. Onaka, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, K. Enya, H. Kataza, H. Matsuhara, Y. Y. Yui, “Development of space infrared telescope for the SPICA mission,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 991–1000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, K. Enya, Y. Y. Yui, M. Tamura, “Telescope system of the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) Mission,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-554 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 297–302.

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, R. Yamashiro, T. Nakagawa, “Optical performance of the ASTRO-F telescope at cryogenic temperatures,” in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 230–240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugiyama, R. Yamashiro, Y. Numao, T. Onaka, H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, “Wavefront measurement of infrared telescope at cryogenic temperatures,” in 27th Optics Symposium Proceedings (Optical Society of Japan, 2002), pp. 13–16.

Novi, A.

A. Novi, G. Mondello, C. Devilliers, A. Caso, M. Kroedel, M. Ghigo, C. duJeu, “Comparison of sintered-SiC and C/SiC mirror behavior at cryogenic temperatures,” in Optical Materials and Structures Technologies, W. Goodman, ed., Proc. SPIE5179, 246–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Novi, G. Basile, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, A. Caso, G. Cattaneo, G. Svelto, “Lightweight SiC foamed mirrors for space applications,” in Optomechanical Design and Engineering, A. Hatheway, ed., Proc. SPIE4444, 59–65 (2001).

Numao, Y.

Y. Sugiyama, R. Yamashiro, Y. Numao, T. Onaka, H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, “Wavefront measurement of infrared telescope at cryogenic temperatures,” in 27th Optics Symposium Proceedings (Optical Society of Japan, 2002), pp. 13–16.

Onaka, T.

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, M. Kawada, H. Murakami, “Cryogenic optical testings of sandwich-type silicon carbide mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 708–714 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sugiyama, R. Yamashiro, Y. Numao, T. Onaka, H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, “Wavefront measurement of infrared telescope at cryogenic temperatures,” in 27th Optics Symposium Proceedings (Optical Society of Japan, 2002), pp. 13–16.

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, R. Yamashiro, T. Nakagawa, “Optical performance of the ASTRO-F telescope at cryogenic temperatures,” in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 230–240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, Y. Sugiyama, S. Miura, “Telescope system of the Infrared Imaging Surveyor (IRIS),” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 900–904 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, K. Enya, Y. Y. Yui, M. Tamura, “Telescope system of the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) Mission,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-554 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 297–302.

H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, T. Onaka, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, K. Enya, H. Kataza, H. Matsuhara, Y. Y. Yui, “Development of space infrared telescope for the SPICA mission,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 991–1000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Passvogel, T.

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passvogel, G. Pilbratt, “A 3.5-m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission,” in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 606–618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pepi, J. W.

H. J. Triebes, L. W. Huff, C. D. Cox, J. W. Pepi, “Cryogenic optical performance of a lightweighted 20-inch SiC mirror and indications for thermal strain homogeneity and hysteresis,” in Silicon Carbide Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE2543, 213–218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petrovsky, G. T.

P. N. Robb, L. W. Huff, P. B. Forney, G. T. Petrovsky, S. V. Lubarsky, Y. Khimitch, “Interferometric measurements of silicon carbide mirrors at liquid helium temperature,” in Silicon Carbide Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE2543, 196–200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pilbratt, G.

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passvogel, G. Pilbratt, “A 3.5-m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission,” in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 606–618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robb, P. N.

P. N. Robb, L. W. Huff, P. B. Forney, G. T. Petrovsky, S. V. Lubarsky, Y. Khimitch, “Interferometric measurements of silicon carbide mirrors at liquid helium temperature,” in Silicon Carbide Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE2543, 196–200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Romana, E. A.

R. D. Gehrz, E. A. Romana, W. F. Hoffmann, J. P. Schwenker, J. E. Mentzell, J. L. Hora, P. R. Eisenhardt, B. R. Brandl, L. Armus, K. R. Stapelfeldt, D. C. Hines, A. K. Mainzer, E. T. Young, D. G. Elliott, “The state of the focus and image quality of the Spitzer Space Telescope as measured in orbit,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 166–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Safa, F.

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passvogel, G. Pilbratt, “A 3.5-m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission,” in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 606–618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sakon, I.

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, K.

E. Hoffmann, H. Herper, P. Entel, S. G. Mishra, P. Mohn, K. Schwarz, “Microscopic theory of the martensitic transition in Fe1−xNix,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 5589–5596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schwenker, J. P.

R. D. Gehrz, E. A. Romana, W. F. Hoffmann, J. P. Schwenker, J. E. Mentzell, J. L. Hora, P. R. Eisenhardt, B. R. Brandl, L. Armus, K. R. Stapelfeldt, D. C. Hines, A. K. Mainzer, E. T. Young, D. G. Elliott, “The state of the focus and image quality of the Spitzer Space Telescope as measured in orbit,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 166–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sein, E.

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passvogel, G. Pilbratt, “A 3.5-m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission,” in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 606–618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stahl, H. P.

J. B. Hadaway, R. Eng, H. P. Stahl, J. Carpenter, J. Kegley, W. Hogue, “Cryogenic performance of lightweight SiC and C/SiC mirrors,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 1018–1029 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stapelfeldt, K. R.

R. D. Gehrz, E. A. Romana, W. F. Hoffmann, J. P. Schwenker, J. E. Mentzell, J. L. Hora, P. R. Eisenhardt, B. R. Brandl, L. Armus, K. R. Stapelfeldt, D. C. Hines, A. K. Mainzer, E. T. Young, D. G. Elliott, “The state of the focus and image quality of the Spitzer Space Telescope as measured in orbit,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 166–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, Y.

T. Onaka, Y. Sugiyama, S. Miura, “Telescope system of the Infrared Imaging Surveyor (IRIS),” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 900–904 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugiyama, R. Yamashiro, Y. Numao, T. Onaka, H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, “Wavefront measurement of infrared telescope at cryogenic temperatures,” in 27th Optics Symposium Proceedings (Optical Society of Japan, 2002), pp. 13–16.

Svelto, G.

A. Novi, G. Basile, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, A. Caso, G. Cattaneo, G. Svelto, “Lightweight SiC foamed mirrors for space applications,” in Optomechanical Design and Engineering, A. Hatheway, ed., Proc. SPIE4444, 59–65 (2001).

Tamura, M.

T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, K. Enya, Y. Y. Yui, M. Tamura, “Telescope system of the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) Mission,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-554 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 297–302.

Toulemont, Y.

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passvogel, G. Pilbratt, “A 3.5-m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission,” in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 606–618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Triebes, H. J.

H. J. Triebes, L. W. Huff, C. D. Cox, J. W. Pepi, “Cryogenic optical performance of a lightweighted 20-inch SiC mirror and indications for thermal strain homogeneity and hysteresis,” in Silicon Carbide Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE2543, 213–218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uemizu, K.

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, M.

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wada, T.

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watarai, H.

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamashiro, R.

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, R. Yamashiro, T. Nakagawa, “Optical performance of the ASTRO-F telescope at cryogenic temperatures,” in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 230–240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugiyama, R. Yamashiro, Y. Numao, T. Onaka, H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, “Wavefront measurement of infrared telescope at cryogenic temperatures,” in 27th Optics Symposium Proceedings (Optical Society of Japan, 2002), pp. 13–16.

Young, E. T.

R. D. Gehrz, E. A. Romana, W. F. Hoffmann, J. P. Schwenker, J. E. Mentzell, J. L. Hora, P. R. Eisenhardt, B. R. Brandl, L. Armus, K. R. Stapelfeldt, D. C. Hines, A. K. Mainzer, E. T. Young, D. G. Elliott, “The state of the focus and image quality of the Spitzer Space Telescope as measured in orbit,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 166–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yui, Y. Y.

H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, T. Onaka, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, K. Enya, H. Kataza, H. Matsuhara, Y. Y. Yui, “Development of space infrared telescope for the SPICA mission,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 991–1000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, K. Enya, Y. Y. Yui, M. Tamura, “Telescope system of the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) Mission,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-554 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 297–302.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

E. Hoffmann, H. Herper, P. Entel, S. G. Mishra, P. Mohn, K. Schwarz, “Microscopic theory of the martensitic transition in Fe1−xNix,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 5589–5596 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

Y. Sugiyama, R. Yamashiro, Y. Numao, T. Onaka, H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, “Wavefront measurement of infrared telescope at cryogenic temperatures,” in 27th Optics Symposium Proceedings (Optical Society of Japan, 2002), pp. 13–16.

R. D. Gehrz, E. A. Romana, W. F. Hoffmann, J. P. Schwenker, J. E. Mentzell, J. L. Hora, P. R. Eisenhardt, B. R. Brandl, L. Armus, K. R. Stapelfeldt, D. C. Hines, A. K. Mainzer, E. T. Young, D. G. Elliott, “The state of the focus and image quality of the Spitzer Space Telescope as measured in orbit,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 166–176 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, H. Matsuhara, H. Kataza, H. Kaneda, K. Enya, Y. Y. Yui, M. Tamura, “Telescope system of the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) Mission,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Space Optics, ESA SP-554 (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 297–302.

H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, T. Onaka, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, K. Enya, H. Kataza, H. Matsuhara, Y. Y. Yui, “Development of space infrared telescope for the SPICA mission,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 991–1000 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Murakami, “ASTRO-F Infrared Sky Survey mission,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space-Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 330–337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawada, H. Shibai, H. Kaneda, T. Nakagawa, “Far-Infrared Surveyor: design, operation, and performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 359–368 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, N. Fujishiro, C. Ihara, D. Ishihara, Y. Ita, H. Kataza, W. Kim, H. Matsuhara, T. Matsumoto, H. Murakami, I. Sakon, K. Uemizu, M. Ueno, T. Wada, H. Watarai, “The Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the ASTRO-F: laboratory tests and expected performance,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 338–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onaka, Y. Sugiyama, S. Miura, “Telescope system of the Infrared Imaging Surveyor (IRIS),” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 900–904 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Kaneda, T. Onaka, R. Yamashiro, T. Nakagawa, “Optical performance of the ASTRO-F telescope at cryogenic temperatures,” in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 230–240 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Triebes, L. W. Huff, C. D. Cox, J. W. Pepi, “Cryogenic optical performance of a lightweighted 20-inch SiC mirror and indications for thermal strain homogeneity and hysteresis,” in Silicon Carbide Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE2543, 213–218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Robb, L. W. Huff, P. B. Forney, G. T. Petrovsky, S. V. Lubarsky, Y. Khimitch, “Interferometric measurements of silicon carbide mirrors at liquid helium temperature,” in Silicon Carbide Materials for Optics and Precision Structures, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE2543, 196–200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Hadaway, R. Eng, H. P. Stahl, J. Carpenter, J. Kegley, W. Hogue, “Cryogenic performance of lightweight SiC and C/SiC mirrors,” in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE5487, 1018–1029 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Sein, Y. Toulemont, F. Safa, M. Duran, P. Deny, D. de Chambure, T. Passvogel, G. Pilbratt, “A 3.5-m diameter SiC telescope for the Herschel mission,” in IR Space Telescope and Instruments, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE4850, 606–618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Novi, G. Basile, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, A. Caso, G. Cattaneo, G. Svelto, “Lightweight SiC foamed mirrors for space applications,” in Optomechanical Design and Engineering, A. Hatheway, ed., Proc. SPIE4444, 59–65 (2001).

A. Novi, G. Mondello, C. Devilliers, A. Caso, M. Kroedel, M. Ghigo, C. duJeu, “Comparison of sintered-SiC and C/SiC mirror behavior at cryogenic temperatures,” in Optical Materials and Structures Technologies, W. Goodman, ed., Proc. SPIE5179, 246–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic view of the measurement configuration of the ASTRO-F telescope assembly. (b) The flight model ASTRO-F telescope being installed into the telescope test chamber. (c) The reflecting flat mirror mounted on the optical adjustment stage inside the chamber. (d) The rear side structure of the primary mirror onto which the flexures made of titanium alloy are attached. The attachment positions of the thermometers and the thermal anchors are indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Temperature profiles of the primary and secondary mirrors and the flat mirror during the cryogenic optical testing. (b) Differences in the temperature between the thermometers of the primary and secondary mirrors and the flat mirror. The arrows indicate the time for each measurement in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Changes of the wavefront figures of the telescope assembly with temperature, measured under the configuration in Fig. 1(a): (a) the initial wavefront figure measured at room temperature; (b)–(f) the wavefront figures measured at temperatures ranging from 9 to 284 K while the telescope was being warmed up. All the graphs are shown in the same scale in units of the He–Ne laser wavelength of 632.8 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3, but plotted with two-dimensional contours drawn from peak to valley. The rms wavefront error is indicated in each graph.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Wavefront figure of the telescope assembly at 9 K after subtraction of the figure at 297 K. (b) Wavefront figure at 45 K after subtraction of the figure at 9 K.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same as Fig. 5, but plotted with two-dimensional contours drawn from peak to valley. The rms wavefront error is indicated in both graphs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Changes of the total wavefront error of the telescope assembly with temperature measured during the cooldown and the warmup processes. The curves are composed of 61 data points.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Surface figure of the reflecting flat mirror at 22 K calculated by differentiation of the total wavefront figures measured before and after a 40 mm shift of the flat mirror. The data are given in units of the He–Ne laser wavelength of 632.8 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

On-axis PSF of the ASTRO-F telescope expected on an orbit at a wavelength of 5 µm, which is calculated on the basis of the total wavefront figure of the telescope assembly measured at 9 K after subtraction of the gravitational distortion of the primary and secondary mirrors and the cryogenic deformation of the reflecting flat mirror. Diffraction by the telescope structures is also taken into account.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of the Designed and Measured Wavefront Errors

Metrics