Abstract

Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of gas temperature and water concentration were made at the exit of a model scramjet combustor fueled on JP-7. Multiplexed, fiber-coupled, near-infrared distributed feedback lasers were used to probe three water vapor absorption features in the 1.34–1.47 μm spectral region (2v1 and v1 + v3 overtone bands). Ratio thermometry was performed using direct-absorption wavelength scans of isolated features at a 4-kHz repetition rate, as well as 2f wavelength modulation scans at a 2-kHz scan rate. Large signal-to-noise ratios demonstrate the ability of the optimally engineered optical hardware to reject beam steering and vibration noise. Successful measurements were made at full combustion conditions for a variety of fuel/air equivalence ratios and at eight vertical positions in the duct to investigate spatial uniformity. The use of three water vapor absorption features allowed for preliminary estimates of temperature distributions along the line of sight. The improved signal quality afforded by 2f measurements, in the case of weak absorption, demonstrates the utility of a scanned wavelength modulation strategy in such situations.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (2)

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 503–511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Large-modulation-depth 2f spectroscopy with diode lasers for rapid temperature and species measurements in gases with blended and broadened spectra,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6500–6509 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, V. Ebert, “Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2043–2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6728–6738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

T. Fernholtz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, “Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions,“ Appl. Phys. B 75, 229–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, R. K. Hanson, J. B. Jeffries, “High-sensitivity absorption diagnostic for NO2 using a blue diode laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 655–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

2000 (4)

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, F. K. Tittel, “Development of an automated diode laser based multicomponent gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4444–4450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in-situ-detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power-plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gamache, S. Kennedy, R. Hawkins, L. S. Rothman, “Total internal partition sums for molecules in the terrestrial atmosphere,” J. Mol. Structure 517–518, 407–425 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proce. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, “Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, “CW-integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343–349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, “Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Kluczynski, O. Axner, “Theoretical description based on Fourier analysis of wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of analytical and background signals,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5803–5815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Harris, S. Viti, H. Y. Mussa, J. Tennyson, “Calculated high-temperature partition function and related thermodynamic data for H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 9, 7197–7204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 489–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Furlong, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Combustion control and monitoring using a multiplexed diode-laser sensor system,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2851–2858 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

1989 (1)

1981 (2)

S. M. Schoenung, R. K. Hanson, “CO and temperature measurements in a flat flame by laser absorption spectroscopy and probe techniques,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 24, 227–237 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

R. Arndt, “Analytical line shapes for lorentzian signals broadened by modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522–2524 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

G. V. H. Wilson, “Modulation broadening of NMR and ESR line shapes,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3276–3285 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

H. Wahlquist, “Modulation broadening of unsaturated lorentzian lines,” J. Chem. Phys. 35, 1708–1710 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Adler-Golden, S.

Aizawa, T.

Allen, M. A.

M. A. Allen, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Tunable diode laser sensing and combustion control,” in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Hoeinghaus, J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), pp. 479–498.

Allen, M. G.

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arndt, R.

R. Arndt, “Analytical line shapes for lorentzian signals broadened by modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522–2524 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Arroyo, M. P.

Axner, O.

Baer, D. S.

S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, W. Z. Collison, T. Q. Ni, “HBr concentration and temperature measurements in a plasma etch reactor using diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 477–484 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proce. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Furlong, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Combustion control and monitoring using a multiplexed diode-laser sensor system,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2851–2858 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 489–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, J. A.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proce. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baurle, R. A.

R. A. Baurle, T. Mathur, M. R. Gruber, K. R. Jackson, “A numerical and experimental investigation of a scramjet combustor for hypersonic missile applications,” AIAA paper 98-3121, presented at the Thirty-Fourth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Cleveland, Ohio, 13–15 July 1998.

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bien, F.

Billig, F.

T. Mathur, G. Streby, M. Gruber, K. Jackson, J. Donbar, W. Donaldson, T. Jackson, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Supersonic combustion experiments with a cavity-based fuel injector,” AIAA paper 99-2102, presented at the Thirty-Fifth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Los Angeles, California, 20–24 June 1999.

M. Gruber, K. Jackson, T. Mathur, F. Billig, “Experiments with a cavity-based fuel injector for scramjet applications,” ISABE paper IS-7154, in proceding of the Twenty-Seventh international Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, September 1999.

K. Jackson, M. Gruber, T. Mathur, G. Streby, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Calibration of a newly developed direct-connect high-enthalpy supersonic combustion research facility,” AIAA paper 98-1510, presented at the Eighth AIAA International/Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, Norfolk, Virginia, 27–30 April 1998.

Bomse, D. S.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. I.

S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, W. Z. Collison, T. Q. Ni, “HBr concentration and temperature measurements in a plasma etch reactor using diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 477–484 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Collison, W. Z.

S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, W. Z. Collison, T. Q. Ni, “HBr concentration and temperature measurements in a plasma etch reactor using diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 477–484 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Creighton, S.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, S. Creighton, J. A. Lovett, D. T. Shouse, “Diode laser absorption diagnostics for measurements in practical combustion flow fields,” paper AIAA-2003-4581, presented at the Thirty Ninth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, Alabama, 20–23 July 2003.

Curran, E. T.

E. T. Curran, “Scramjet engines: the first forty years,” J. Propulsion and Power 17, 1138–1148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DeBarber, P. A.

T. P. Jenkins, P. A. DeBarber, M. Oljaca, “A rugged low-cost diode laser sensor for H2O and temperature applied to a spray flame,” paper AIAA 2003-0585, presented at the Forty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reno, Nevada, 6–9 January 2003.

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donaldson, W.

T. Mathur, G. Streby, M. Gruber, K. Jackson, J. Donbar, W. Donaldson, T. Jackson, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Supersonic combustion experiments with a cavity-based fuel injector,” AIAA paper 99-2102, presented at the Thirty-Fifth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Los Angeles, California, 20–24 June 1999.

Donbar, J.

T. Mathur, G. Streby, M. Gruber, K. Jackson, J. Donbar, W. Donaldson, T. Jackson, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Supersonic combustion experiments with a cavity-based fuel injector,” AIAA paper 99-2102, presented at the Thirty-Fifth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Los Angeles, California, 20–24 June 1999.

Ebert, V.

H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, V. Ebert, “Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2043–2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fernholtz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, “Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions,“ Appl. Phys. B 75, 229–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in-situ-detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power-plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fernholtz, T.

H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, V. Ebert, “Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2043–2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fernholtz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, “Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions,“ Appl. Phys. B 75, 229–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernholz, T.

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in-situ-detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power-plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Furlong, E. R.

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 489–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Furlong, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Combustion control and monitoring using a multiplexed diode-laser sensor system,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2851–2858 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Allen, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Tunable diode laser sensing and combustion control,” in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Hoeinghaus, J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), pp. 479–498.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gamache, S. Kennedy, R. Hawkins, L. S. Rothman, “Total internal partition sums for molecules in the terrestrial atmosphere,” J. Mol. Structure 517–518, 407–425 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giesemann, C.

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in-situ-detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power-plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, N.

Gruber, M.

T. Mathur, G. Streby, M. Gruber, K. Jackson, J. Donbar, W. Donaldson, T. Jackson, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Supersonic combustion experiments with a cavity-based fuel injector,” AIAA paper 99-2102, presented at the Thirty-Fifth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Los Angeles, California, 20–24 June 1999.

M. Gruber, K. Jackson, T. Mathur, F. Billig, “Experiments with a cavity-based fuel injector for scramjet applications,” ISABE paper IS-7154, in proceding of the Twenty-Seventh international Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, September 1999.

K. Jackson, M. Gruber, T. Mathur, G. Streby, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Calibration of a newly developed direct-connect high-enthalpy supersonic combustion research facility,” AIAA paper 98-1510, presented at the Eighth AIAA International/Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, Norfolk, Virginia, 27–30 April 1998.

Gruber, M. R.

R. A. Baurle, T. Mathur, M. R. Gruber, K. R. Jackson, “A numerical and experimental investigation of a scramjet combustor for hypersonic missile applications,” AIAA paper 98-3121, presented at the Thirty-Fourth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Cleveland, Ohio, 13–15 July 1998.

Hanson, R. K.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 503–511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Large-modulation-depth 2f spectroscopy with diode lasers for rapid temperature and species measurements in gases with blended and broadened spectra,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6500–6509 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, R. K. Hanson, J. B. Jeffries, “High-sensitivity absorption diagnostic for NO2 using a blue diode laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 655–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, W. Z. Collison, T. Q. Ni, “HBr concentration and temperature measurements in a plasma etch reactor using diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 477–484 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. Wang, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser absorption sensor for line-of-sight gas temperature distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4404–4415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proce. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Furlong, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Combustion control and monitoring using a multiplexed diode-laser sensor system,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2851–2858 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 489–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Philippe, R. K. Hanson, “Laser diode wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature, pressure, and velocity in shock-heated oxygen flows,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6090–6103 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Arroyo, R. K. Hanson, “Absorption measurements of water-vapor concentration, temperature, and line-shape parameters using a tunable InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6104–6116 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Schoenung, R. K. Hanson, “CO and temperature measurements in a flat flame by laser absorption spectroscopy and probe techniques,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 24, 227–237 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Allen, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Tunable diode laser sensing and combustion control,” in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Hoeinghaus, J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), pp. 479–498.

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Experimental study of H2O spectroscopic parameters in the near-IR,” paper AIAA-2005-0829, presented at the Forty-Third AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, 10–13 January 2005.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, S. Creighton, J. A. Lovett, D. T. Shouse, “Diode laser absorption diagnostics for measurements in practical combustion flow fields,” paper AIAA-2003-4581, presented at the Thirty Ninth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, Alabama, 20–23 July 2003.

Harris, G. J.

G. J. Harris, S. Viti, H. Y. Mussa, J. Tennyson, “Calculated high-temperature partition function and related thermodynamic data for H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 9, 7197–7204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, R.

R. R. Gamache, S. Kennedy, R. Hawkins, L. S. Rothman, “Total internal partition sums for molecules in the terrestrial atmosphere,” J. Mol. Structure 517–518, 407–425 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hodges, J. T.

Hovde, D. C.

Jackson, K.

K. Jackson, M. Gruber, T. Mathur, G. Streby, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Calibration of a newly developed direct-connect high-enthalpy supersonic combustion research facility,” AIAA paper 98-1510, presented at the Eighth AIAA International/Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, Norfolk, Virginia, 27–30 April 1998.

M. Gruber, K. Jackson, T. Mathur, F. Billig, “Experiments with a cavity-based fuel injector for scramjet applications,” ISABE paper IS-7154, in proceding of the Twenty-Seventh international Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, September 1999.

T. Mathur, G. Streby, M. Gruber, K. Jackson, J. Donbar, W. Donaldson, T. Jackson, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Supersonic combustion experiments with a cavity-based fuel injector,” AIAA paper 99-2102, presented at the Thirty-Fifth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Los Angeles, California, 20–24 June 1999.

Jackson, K. R.

R. A. Baurle, T. Mathur, M. R. Gruber, K. R. Jackson, “A numerical and experimental investigation of a scramjet combustor for hypersonic missile applications,” AIAA paper 98-3121, presented at the Thirty-Fourth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Cleveland, Ohio, 13–15 July 1998.

Jackson, T.

T. Mathur, G. Streby, M. Gruber, K. Jackson, J. Donbar, W. Donaldson, T. Jackson, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Supersonic combustion experiments with a cavity-based fuel injector,” AIAA paper 99-2102, presented at the Thirty-Fifth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Los Angeles, California, 20–24 June 1999.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jaritz, H.

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in-situ-detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power-plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, J. B.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Large-modulation-depth 2f spectroscopy with diode lasers for rapid temperature and species measurements in gases with blended and broadened spectra,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6500–6509 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 503–511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, R. K. Hanson, J. B. Jeffries, “High-sensitivity absorption diagnostic for NO2 using a blue diode laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 655–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. Wang, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser absorption sensor for line-of-sight gas temperature distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4404–4415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Experimental study of H2O spectroscopic parameters in the near-IR,” paper AIAA-2005-0829, presented at the Forty-Third AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, 10–13 January 2005.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, S. Creighton, J. A. Lovett, D. T. Shouse, “Diode laser absorption diagnostics for measurements in practical combustion flow fields,” paper AIAA-2003-4581, presented at the Thirty Ninth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, Alabama, 20–23 July 2003.

Jenkins, T. P.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proce. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Jenkins, P. A. DeBarber, M. Oljaca, “A rugged low-cost diode laser sensor for H2O and temperature applied to a spray flame,” paper AIAA 2003-0585, presented at the Forty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reno, Nevada, 6–9 January 2003.

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, “Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, “Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, S.

R. R. Gamache, S. Kennedy, R. Hawkins, L. S. Rothman, “Total internal partition sums for molecules in the terrestrial atmosphere,” J. Mol. Structure 517–518, 407–425 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kluczynski, P.

Labrie, D.

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

Lee, J.

Lenth, W.

Liu, J. T. C.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Large-modulation-depth 2f spectroscopy with diode lasers for rapid temperature and species measurements in gases with blended and broadened spectra,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6500–6509 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 503–511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, R. K. Hanson, J. B. Jeffries, “High-sensitivity absorption diagnostic for NO2 using a blue diode laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 655–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, S. Creighton, J. A. Lovett, D. T. Shouse, “Diode laser absorption diagnostics for measurements in practical combustion flow fields,” paper AIAA-2003-4581, presented at the Thirty Ninth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, Alabama, 20–23 July 2003.

Liu, X.

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Experimental study of H2O spectroscopic parameters in the near-IR,” paper AIAA-2005-0829, presented at the Forty-Third AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, 10–13 January 2005.

Lovett, J. A.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, S. Creighton, J. A. Lovett, D. T. Shouse, “Diode laser absorption diagnostics for measurements in practical combustion flow fields,” paper AIAA-2003-4581, presented at the Thirty Ninth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, Alabama, 20–23 July 2003.

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, T.

R. A. Baurle, T. Mathur, M. R. Gruber, K. R. Jackson, “A numerical and experimental investigation of a scramjet combustor for hypersonic missile applications,” AIAA paper 98-3121, presented at the Thirty-Fourth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Cleveland, Ohio, 13–15 July 1998.

T. Mathur, G. Streby, M. Gruber, K. Jackson, J. Donbar, W. Donaldson, T. Jackson, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Supersonic combustion experiments with a cavity-based fuel injector,” AIAA paper 99-2102, presented at the Thirty-Fifth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Los Angeles, California, 20–24 June 1999.

K. Jackson, M. Gruber, T. Mathur, G. Streby, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Calibration of a newly developed direct-connect high-enthalpy supersonic combustion research facility,” AIAA paper 98-1510, presented at the Eighth AIAA International/Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, Norfolk, Virginia, 27–30 April 1998.

M. Gruber, K. Jackson, T. Mathur, F. Billig, “Experiments with a cavity-based fuel injector for scramjet applications,” ISABE paper IS-7154, in proceding of the Twenty-Seventh international Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, September 1999.

Mussa, H. Y.

G. J. Harris, S. Viti, H. Y. Mussa, J. Tennyson, “Calculated high-temperature partition function and related thermodynamic data for H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 9, 7197–7204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nagali, V.

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 489–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ni, T. Q.

S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, W. Z. Collison, T. Q. Ni, “HBr concentration and temperature measurements in a plasma etch reactor using diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 477–484 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O’Keefe, A.

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, “CW-integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343–349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oljaca, M.

T. P. Jenkins, P. A. DeBarber, M. Oljaca, “A rugged low-cost diode laser sensor for H2O and temperature applied to a spray flame,” paper AIAA 2003-0585, presented at the Forty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reno, Nevada, 6–9 January 2003.

Ouyang, X.

Paul, J. B.

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, “CW-integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343–349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Philippe, L. C.

Pitz, H.

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in-situ-detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power-plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J.

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robert, P.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gamache, S. Kennedy, R. Hawkins, L. S. Rothman, “Total internal partition sums for molecules in the terrestrial atmosphere,” J. Mol. Structure 517–518, 407–425 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S. T.

S. T. Sanders, J. Wang, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser absorption sensor for line-of-sight gas temperature distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4404–4415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proce. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scace, G. E.

Scherer, J. J.

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, “CW-integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343–349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schilt, S.

Schoenung, S. M.

S. M. Schoenung, R. K. Hanson, “CO and temperature measurements in a flat flame by laser absorption spectroscopy and probe techniques,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 24, 227–237 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shouse, D. T.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, S. Creighton, J. A. Lovett, D. T. Shouse, “Diode laser absorption diagnostics for measurements in practical combustion flow fields,” paper AIAA-2003-4581, presented at the Thirty Ninth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, Alabama, 20–23 July 2003.

Silver, J. A.

D. C. Hovde, J. T. Hodges, G. E. Scace, J. A. Silver, “Wavelength-modulation laser hydrometer for ultrasensitive detection of water vapor in semiconductor gases,” Appl. Opt. 40, 829–839 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, “Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, “Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Bomse, A. S. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, C.

K. Jackson, M. Gruber, T. Mathur, G. Streby, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Calibration of a newly developed direct-connect high-enthalpy supersonic combustion research facility,” AIAA paper 98-1510, presented at the Eighth AIAA International/Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, Norfolk, Virginia, 27–30 April 1998.

T. Mathur, G. Streby, M. Gruber, K. Jackson, J. Donbar, W. Donaldson, T. Jackson, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Supersonic combustion experiments with a cavity-based fuel injector,” AIAA paper 99-2102, presented at the Thirty-Fifth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Los Angeles, California, 20–24 June 1999.

Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, A. S.

Streby, G.

K. Jackson, M. Gruber, T. Mathur, G. Streby, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Calibration of a newly developed direct-connect high-enthalpy supersonic combustion research facility,” AIAA paper 98-1510, presented at the Eighth AIAA International/Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, Norfolk, Virginia, 27–30 April 1998.

T. Mathur, G. Streby, M. Gruber, K. Jackson, J. Donbar, W. Donaldson, T. Jackson, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Supersonic combustion experiments with a cavity-based fuel injector,” AIAA paper 99-2102, presented at the Thirty-Fifth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Los Angeles, California, 20–24 June 1999.

Supplee, J. M.

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Teichert, H.

H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, V. Ebert, “Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2043–2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fernholtz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, “Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions,“ Appl. Phys. B 75, 229–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in-situ-detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power-plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

G. J. Harris, S. Viti, H. Y. Mussa, J. Tennyson, “Calculated high-temperature partition function and related thermodynamic data for H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 9, 7197–7204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thevenaz, L.

Tittel, F. K.

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, P. L.

Viti, S.

G. J. Harris, S. Viti, H. Y. Mussa, J. Tennyson, “Calculated high-temperature partition function and related thermodynamic data for H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 9, 7197–7204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wahlquist, H.

H. Wahlquist, “Modulation broadening of unsaturated lorentzian lines,” J. Chem. Phys. 35, 1708–1710 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Whittaker, E. A.

Wilson, G. V. H.

G. V. H. Wilson, “Modulation broadening of NMR and ESR line shapes,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3276–3285 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, J.

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in-situ-detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power-plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Experimental study of H2O spectroscopic parameters in the near-IR,” paper AIAA-2005-0829, presented at the Forty-Third AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, 10–13 January 2005.

AIAA J. (1)

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 489–793 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (14)

X. Ouyang, P. L. Varghese, “Line-of-sight absorption measurements of high temperature gases with thermal and concentration boundary layers,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3979–3984 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Bomse, A. S. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 718–731 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Goldstein, S. Adler-Golden, J. Lee, F. Bien, “Measurement of molecular concentrations and line parameters using line-locked second harmonic spectroscopy with an AlGaAs diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3409–3415 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Philippe, R. K. Hanson, “Laser diode wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature, pressure, and velocity in shock-heated oxygen flows,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6090–6103 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Arroyo, R. K. Hanson, “Absorption measurements of water-vapor concentration, temperature, and line-shape parameters using a tunable InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6104–6116 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Supplee, E. A. Whittaker, W. Lenth, “Theoretical description of frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6294–6302 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kluczynski, O. Axner, “Theoretical description based on Fourier analysis of wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of analytical and background signals,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5803–5815 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, F. K. Tittel, “Development of an automated diode laser based multicomponent gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4444–4450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hovde, J. T. Hodges, G. E. Scace, J. A. Silver, “Wavelength-modulation laser hydrometer for ultrasensitive detection of water vapor in semiconductor gases,” Appl. Opt. 40, 829–839 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. Wang, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser absorption sensor for line-of-sight gas temperature distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4404–4415 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Aizawa, “Diode-laser wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy for quantitative in situ measurements of temperature and OH radical concentration in combustion gases,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4894–4903 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, V. Ebert, “Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2043–2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6728–6738 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Large-modulation-depth 2f spectroscopy with diode lasers for rapid temperature and species measurements in gases with blended and broadened spectra,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6500–6509 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

T. Fernholtz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, “Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions,“ Appl. Phys. B 75, 229–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 503–511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—comparison experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. O’Keefe, J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, “CW-integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343–349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. M. Schoenung, R. K. Hanson, “CO and temperature measurements in a flat flame by laser absorption spectroscopy and probe techniques,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 24, 227–237 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. V. H. Wilson, “Modulation broadening of NMR and ESR line shapes,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3276–3285 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. Arndt, “Analytical line shapes for lorentzian signals broadened by modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2522–2524 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

G. J. Harris, S. Viti, H. Y. Mussa, J. Tennyson, “Calculated high-temperature partition function and related thermodynamic data for H2O,” J. Chem. Phys. 9, 7197–7204 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Wahlquist, “Modulation broadening of unsaturated lorentzian lines,” J. Chem. Phys. 35, 1708–1710 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Structure (1)

R. R. Gamache, S. Kennedy, R. Hawkins, L. S. Rothman, “Total internal partition sums for molecules in the terrestrial atmosphere,” J. Mol. Structure 517–518, 407–425 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Propulsion and Power (1)

E. T. Curran, “Scramjet engines: the first forty years,” J. Propulsion and Power 17, 1138–1148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

J. T. C. Liu, R. K. Hanson, J. B. Jeffries, “High-sensitivity absorption diagnostic for NO2 using a blue diode laser,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 655–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates of 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, W. Z. Collison, T. Q. Ni, “HBr concentration and temperature measurements in a plasma etch reactor using diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 477–484 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (4)

J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, “Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, “Diode laser measurements of concentration and temperature in microgravity combustion,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (2)

V. Ebert, T. Fernholz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, H. Jaritz, “A NIR-diode laser spectrometer with closed-loop alignment control for simultaneous in-situ-detection of multiple species and temperature in a gas-fired power-plant for active combustion control purposes,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 423–430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Furlong, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Combustion control and monitoring using a multiplexed diode-laser sensor system,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2851–2858 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proce. Combust. Inst. (1)

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proce. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

M. A. Allen, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, “Tunable diode laser sensing and combustion control,” in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Hoeinghaus, J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor and Francis, 2002), pp. 479–498.

http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/hitran/ .

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Experimental study of H2O spectroscopic parameters in the near-IR,” paper AIAA-2005-0829, presented at the Forty-Third AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, 10–13 January 2005.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, S. Creighton, J. A. Lovett, D. T. Shouse, “Diode laser absorption diagnostics for measurements in practical combustion flow fields,” paper AIAA-2003-4581, presented at the Thirty Ninth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, Alabama, 20–23 July 2003.

T. P. Jenkins, P. A. DeBarber, M. Oljaca, “A rugged low-cost diode laser sensor for H2O and temperature applied to a spray flame,” paper AIAA 2003-0585, presented at the Forty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reno, Nevada, 6–9 January 2003.

R. A. Baurle, T. Mathur, M. R. Gruber, K. R. Jackson, “A numerical and experimental investigation of a scramjet combustor for hypersonic missile applications,” AIAA paper 98-3121, presented at the Thirty-Fourth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Cleveland, Ohio, 13–15 July 1998.

K. Jackson, M. Gruber, T. Mathur, G. Streby, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Calibration of a newly developed direct-connect high-enthalpy supersonic combustion research facility,” AIAA paper 98-1510, presented at the Eighth AIAA International/Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, Norfolk, Virginia, 27–30 April 1998.

T. Mathur, G. Streby, M. Gruber, K. Jackson, J. Donbar, W. Donaldson, T. Jackson, C. Smith, F. Billig, “Supersonic combustion experiments with a cavity-based fuel injector,” AIAA paper 99-2102, presented at the Thirty-Fifth AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Los Angeles, California, 20–24 June 1999.

M. Gruber, K. Jackson, T. Mathur, F. Billig, “Experiments with a cavity-based fuel injector for scramjet applications,” ISABE paper IS-7154, in proceding of the Twenty-Seventh international Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, September 1999.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left, detected signal for a direct-absorption scan (one scan) near 1392 nm. (b) Right, a typical absorbance plot for an isolated absorption feature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical configuration for two multiplexed lasers. The actual sensor used in these measurements contained four multiplexed lasers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram of the SCRAMJET facility.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the SCRAMJET facility.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Location of eight measurement beam paths through the optical access windows (vertical positions A through H).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Line strength versus temperature for water features at 1392, 1343, and 1469 nm, using validated parameters (see Table 1).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Left, single multiplexed absorption scan taken at 1 kHz (1-ms scan). Data taken 9/2002. Right, single multiplexed absorption scan taken at 4 kHz (0.25-ms scan). Data taken September 2004.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vitiator only: Temperature versus time (left axis) and water partial pressure versus time (right axis); 4-kHz bandwidth; position C.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Full combustion run: Temperature versus time (left axis) and water partial pressure versus time (right axis). Fuel/air equivalence ratio: Φ = 1.02; position C; 4-kHz measurement bandwidth filtered to 1 kHz in this plot.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Left, average temperature versus combustor fuel/air equivalence ratio, Φ. Measured and expected results (based on a combustor 1D model) are shown. The error bars represent a standard deviation in the data at the full 4-kHz bandwidth; position C. Right, average water partial pressure versus combustor fuel/air equivalence ratio, Φ. Measured and expected results (based on a combustor 1D model) are shown. The error bars represent a standard deviation in the data at the full 4-kHz bandwidth; position C.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Time-averaged temperature (left axis) and water partial pressure (right axis) versus vertical measurement path location. Fuel/air equivalence ratio: Φ ~ 1.00; 4-kHz; bandwidth.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

FFT power spectrum (0–150 Hz shown) of the temperature versus time data plotted in Fig. 10. Fuel/air equivalence ratio: Φ = 1.02; position C.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Temperatures calculated assuming a uniform path and using various area ratio combinations. Fuel/air equivalence ratio: Φ = 1.02; position C.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Numerical solution assuming two temperature bins (T1 and T2) of size 90% and 10% of the total path length and a uniform water concentration. Fuel/air equivalence ratio: Φ = 1.02; position C.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Temperature versus time using scanned-2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The 2f peak ratios of water features at 1392 and 1469 nm are used. Fuel/air equivalence ratio: Φ = 1.02; 1-kHz bandwidth; position C.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

SNR comparison for direct absorption area and 2f peak height measurements as a function of peak absorbance magnitude. Fuel/air equivalence ratio: Φ = 1.02; 1-kHz bandwidth; position C.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Line Strength and Lower-State Energy Parameters for Water Vapor Features Used in Measurement Campaigns

Equations (7)

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τ ( v ) = ( I t I 0 ) v = exp [ - α ( v ) L ] ,
S ( T ) = S ( T 0 ) T 0 T Q ( T 0 ) Q ( T ) 1 - exp ( - h c v 0 K T ) 1 - exp ( - h c v 0 K T 0 ) × exp [ - h c K E ( 1 T - 1 T 0 ) ] .
area = - - ln ( I I 0 ) d v = S ( T ) p species L .
area 1 area 2 = S 1 ( T ) S 2 ( T ) .
[ S 1 ( T 1 ) S 1 ( T 2 ) S 1 ( T n ) S 2 ( T 1 ) S 2 ( T 2 ) S 2 ( T n ) S m ( T 1 ) S 2 ( T 2 ) S m ( T n ) ] [ p 1 L 1 p 2 L 2 p n L n ] = [ area 1 area 2 area m ] .
[ S 1 ( T 1 ) S 2 ( T 1 ) ] p 1 L 1 = [ area 1 area 2 ] .
[ S 1 ( T 1 ) S 1 ( T 2 ) S 2 ( T 1 ) S 2 ( T 2 ) S 3 ( T 1 ) S 3 ( T 2 ) ] [ p 1 L 1 p 2 L 2 ] = [ area 1 area 2 area 3 ] .

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