Abstract

We have demonstrated a high-sensitivity, room-temperature quantum-cascade (QC) laser sensor for detection of SO2 and SO3 under conditions relevant to aircraft test combustor exhaust. Two QC lasers probe infrared absorption features at 7.50 and 7.16 μm for SO2 and SO3, respectively, with a common dual-beam detection system. We inferred a noise-equivalent absorbance of ~1 × 10−4 Hz−1/2. We have demonstrated detection limits for both SO2 and SO3 of 1–2 ppmv m/Hz1/2 (where ppmv is parts in 106 by volume) for 300 torr, elevated temperature, and path lengths near 1 m. This level of sensitivity permits measurement of <1 ppmv of SO2 and SO3 at these conditions with modest signal averaging.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  2. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. T. Rawlins, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Application of balanced detection to absorption measurements of trace gases with room-temperature, quasi-cw quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 812–820 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q.-V. Nguyen, M. J. Rabinowitz, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio (personal communication, 2000).
  6. R. C. Brown, M. R. Anderson, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, A. A. Sorokin, Y. Y. Buriko, “Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3603–3606 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. A. Berkoff, J. Wormhoudt, R. C. Miake-Lye, “Measurement of SO2 and SO3 using a tunable diode laser system,” in Environmental Monitoring and Remediation Technologies, T. Vo-Dinh, R. L. Spellicy, eds., Proc. SPIE3534, 686–693 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Weidmann, A. Hamdouni, D. Courtois, “CH4/air/SO2 premixed flame spectroscopy with a 7.5 μm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 85–91 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. G. Allen, K. L. Carleton, S. J. Davis, W. J. Kessler, C. E. Otis, D. A. Palombo, D. M. Sonnenfroh, “Ultra-sensitive dual-beam absorption and gain spectroscopy: applications for near-IR and visible diode laser sensors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3240–3249 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. S. Rothman, C. Camy-Peret, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Goorvitch, R. Hawkins, J. Schroeder, J. Selby, R. Wattson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic data base,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. M. Chu, S. J. Wetzel, W. J. Lafferty, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, Ph. Arcas, G. Guelachvili, “Line intensities for the 8-μm bands of SO2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 189, 55–63 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. S. Henfrey, B. A. Thrush, “The ν3 band of SO3 at high resolution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 102, 135–138 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Maki, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, N. Vulpanovici, J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, “High-resolution infrared spectra of the ν2, ν3, ν4, and 2ν3 bands of 32S16O3,” J. Molec. Spectrosc. 210, 240–249 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. T. H. Chrysostom, N. Vulpanovici, T. Masiello, J. Barber, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, A. Maki, T. A. Blake, “Coherent Raman and infrared studies of sulfur trioxide,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 210, 233–239 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Maki, A. Weber, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, “Analysis of ν2, ν4 infrared hot bands of 32S16O3: resolution of the puzzle of the ν1CARS spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 105–112 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. W. Nibler, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg. (personal communication to W. T. Rawlins, 2002).
  18. J. Schrage, “Vapor-liquid equilibrium of the system H2SO4–SO3. Part 1. Vapor pressure measurements with a new static vapor pressure apparatus,” Fluid Phase Equilibria 68, 229–245 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. M. Sonnenfroh, J. M. Hensley, P. A. Mulhall, S. D. Wehe, M. G. Allen, Quantum Cascade Laser Sensor for Trace Gases,, prepared for NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. (Physical Sciences Inc., September2003).

2002 (1)

J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Maki, A. Weber, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, “Analysis of ν2, ν4 infrared hot bands of 32S16O3: resolution of the puzzle of the ν1CARS spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 105–112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

D. Weidmann, A. Hamdouni, D. Courtois, “CH4/air/SO2 premixed flame spectroscopy with a 7.5 μm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 85–91 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Maki, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, N. Vulpanovici, J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, “High-resolution infrared spectra of the ν2, ν3, ν4, and 2ν3 bands of 32S16O3,” J. Molec. Spectrosc. 210, 240–249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. T. H. Chrysostom, N. Vulpanovici, T. Masiello, J. Barber, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, A. Maki, T. A. Blake, “Coherent Raman and infrared studies of sulfur trioxide,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 210, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. T. Rawlins, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Application of balanced detection to absorption measurements of trace gases with room-temperature, quasi-cw quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 812–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

L. S. Rothman, C. Camy-Peret, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Goorvitch, R. Hawkins, J. Schroeder, J. Selby, R. Wattson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic data base,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Chu, S. J. Wetzel, W. J. Lafferty, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, Ph. Arcas, G. Guelachvili, “Line intensities for the 8-μm bands of SO2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 189, 55–63 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. C. Brown, M. R. Anderson, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, A. A. Sorokin, Y. Y. Buriko, “Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3603–3606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Schrage, “Vapor-liquid equilibrium of the system H2SO4–SO3. Part 1. Vapor pressure measurements with a new static vapor pressure apparatus,” Fluid Phase Equilibria 68, 229–245 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

N. S. Henfrey, B. A. Thrush, “The ν3 band of SO3 at high resolution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 102, 135–138 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

Anderson, M. R.

R. C. Brown, M. R. Anderson, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, A. A. Sorokin, Y. Y. Buriko, “Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3603–3606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arcas, Ph.

P. M. Chu, S. J. Wetzel, W. J. Lafferty, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, Ph. Arcas, G. Guelachvili, “Line intensities for the 8-μm bands of SO2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 189, 55–63 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baillargeon, J. N.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. T. Rawlins, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Application of balanced detection to absorption measurements of trace gases with room-temperature, quasi-cw quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 812–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barber, J.

J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Maki, A. Weber, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, “Analysis of ν2, ν4 infrared hot bands of 32S16O3: resolution of the puzzle of the ν1CARS spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 105–112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. T. H. Chrysostom, N. Vulpanovici, T. Masiello, J. Barber, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, A. Maki, T. A. Blake, “Coherent Raman and infrared studies of sulfur trioxide,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 210, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Maki, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, N. Vulpanovici, J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, “High-resolution infrared spectra of the ν2, ν3, ν4, and 2ν3 bands of 32S16O3,” J. Molec. Spectrosc. 210, 240–249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. Ch.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Berkoff, T. A.

T. A. Berkoff, J. Wormhoudt, R. C. Miake-Lye, “Measurement of SO2 and SO3 using a tunable diode laser system,” in Environmental Monitoring and Remediation Technologies, T. Vo-Dinh, R. L. Spellicy, eds., Proc. SPIE3534, 686–693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blake, T. A.

J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Maki, A. Weber, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, “Analysis of ν2, ν4 infrared hot bands of 32S16O3: resolution of the puzzle of the ν1CARS spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 105–112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Maki, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, N. Vulpanovici, J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, “High-resolution infrared spectra of the ν2, ν3, ν4, and 2ν3 bands of 32S16O3,” J. Molec. Spectrosc. 210, 240–249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. T. H. Chrysostom, N. Vulpanovici, T. Masiello, J. Barber, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, A. Maki, T. A. Blake, “Coherent Raman and infrared studies of sulfur trioxide,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 210, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. C.

R. C. Brown, M. R. Anderson, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, A. A. Sorokin, Y. Y. Buriko, “Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3603–3606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buriko, Y. Y.

R. C. Brown, M. R. Anderson, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, A. A. Sorokin, Y. Y. Buriko, “Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3603–3606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. Camy-Peret, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Goorvitch, R. Hawkins, J. Schroeder, J. Selby, R. Wattson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic data base,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. T. Rawlins, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Application of balanced detection to absorption measurements of trace gases with room-temperature, quasi-cw quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 812–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carleton, K. L.

Cho, A. Y.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. T. Rawlins, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Application of balanced detection to absorption measurements of trace gases with room-temperature, quasi-cw quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 812–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chrysostom, E. T. H.

J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Maki, A. Weber, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, “Analysis of ν2, ν4 infrared hot bands of 32S16O3: resolution of the puzzle of the ν1CARS spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 105–112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. T. H. Chrysostom, N. Vulpanovici, T. Masiello, J. Barber, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, A. Maki, T. A. Blake, “Coherent Raman and infrared studies of sulfur trioxide,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 210, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Maki, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, N. Vulpanovici, J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, “High-resolution infrared spectra of the ν2, ν3, ν4, and 2ν3 bands of 32S16O3,” J. Molec. Spectrosc. 210, 240–249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. M.

P. M. Chu, S. J. Wetzel, W. J. Lafferty, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, Ph. Arcas, G. Guelachvili, “Line intensities for the 8-μm bands of SO2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 189, 55–63 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S. N. G.

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Courtois, D.

D. Weidmann, A. Hamdouni, D. Courtois, “CH4/air/SO2 premixed flame spectroscopy with a 7.5 μm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 85–91 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. J.

Faist, J.

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, C. Camy-Peret, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Goorvitch, R. Hawkins, J. Schroeder, J. Selby, R. Wattson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic data base,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Chu, S. J. Wetzel, W. J. Lafferty, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, Ph. Arcas, G. Guelachvili, “Line intensities for the 8-μm bands of SO2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 189, 55–63 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R.

L. S. Rothman, C. Camy-Peret, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Goorvitch, R. Hawkins, J. Schroeder, J. Selby, R. Wattson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic data base,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. T. Rawlins, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Application of balanced detection to absorption measurements of trace gases with room-temperature, quasi-cw quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 812–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. Camy-Peret, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Goorvitch, R. Hawkins, J. Schroeder, J. Selby, R. Wattson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic data base,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goorvitch, D.

L. S. Rothman, C. Camy-Peret, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Goorvitch, R. Hawkins, J. Schroeder, J. Selby, R. Wattson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic data base,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guelachvili, G.

P. M. Chu, S. J. Wetzel, W. J. Lafferty, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, Ph. Arcas, G. Guelachvili, “Line intensities for the 8-μm bands of SO2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 189, 55–63 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamdouni, A.

D. Weidmann, A. Hamdouni, D. Courtois, “CH4/air/SO2 premixed flame spectroscopy with a 7.5 μm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 85–91 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, R.

L. S. Rothman, C. Camy-Peret, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Goorvitch, R. Hawkins, J. Schroeder, J. Selby, R. Wattson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic data base,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Henfrey, N. S.

N. S. Henfrey, B. A. Thrush, “The ν3 band of SO3 at high resolution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 102, 135–138 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hensley, J. M.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, J. M. Hensley, P. A. Mulhall, S. D. Wehe, M. G. Allen, Quantum Cascade Laser Sensor for Trace Gases,, prepared for NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. (Physical Sciences Inc., September2003).

Hutchinson, A. L.

Kessler, W. J.

Kolb, C. E.

R. C. Brown, M. R. Anderson, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, A. A. Sorokin, Y. Y. Buriko, “Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3603–3606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

P. M. Chu, S. J. Wetzel, W. J. Lafferty, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, Ph. Arcas, G. Guelachvili, “Line intensities for the 8-μm bands of SO2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 189, 55–63 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maki, A.

J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Maki, A. Weber, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, “Analysis of ν2, ν4 infrared hot bands of 32S16O3: resolution of the puzzle of the ν1CARS spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 105–112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. T. H. Chrysostom, N. Vulpanovici, T. Masiello, J. Barber, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, A. Maki, T. A. Blake, “Coherent Raman and infrared studies of sulfur trioxide,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 210, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Maki, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, N. Vulpanovici, J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, “High-resolution infrared spectra of the ν2, ν3, ν4, and 2ν3 bands of 32S16O3,” J. Molec. Spectrosc. 210, 240–249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malathy Devi, V.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Masiello, T.

J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Maki, A. Weber, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, “Analysis of ν2, ν4 infrared hot bands of 32S16O3: resolution of the puzzle of the ν1CARS spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 105–112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. T. H. Chrysostom, N. Vulpanovici, T. Masiello, J. Barber, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, A. Maki, T. A. Blake, “Coherent Raman and infrared studies of sulfur trioxide,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 210, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Maki, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, N. Vulpanovici, J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, “High-resolution infrared spectra of the ν2, ν3, ν4, and 2ν3 bands of 32S16O3,” J. Molec. Spectrosc. 210, 240–249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miake-Lye, R. C.

R. C. Brown, M. R. Anderson, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, A. A. Sorokin, Y. Y. Buriko, “Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3603–3606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Berkoff, J. Wormhoudt, R. C. Miake-Lye, “Measurement of SO2 and SO3 using a tunable diode laser system,” in Environmental Monitoring and Remediation Technologies, T. Vo-Dinh, R. L. Spellicy, eds., Proc. SPIE3534, 686–693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mulhall, P. A.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, J. M. Hensley, P. A. Mulhall, S. D. Wehe, M. G. Allen, Quantum Cascade Laser Sensor for Trace Gases,, prepared for NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. (Physical Sciences Inc., September2003).

Nguyen, Q.-V.

Q.-V. Nguyen, M. J. Rabinowitz, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio (personal communication, 2000).

Nibler, J. W.

J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Maki, A. Weber, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, “Analysis of ν2, ν4 infrared hot bands of 32S16O3: resolution of the puzzle of the ν1CARS spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 105–112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. T. H. Chrysostom, N. Vulpanovici, T. Masiello, J. Barber, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, A. Maki, T. A. Blake, “Coherent Raman and infrared studies of sulfur trioxide,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 210, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Maki, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, N. Vulpanovici, J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, “High-resolution infrared spectra of the ν2, ν3, ν4, and 2ν3 bands of 32S16O3,” J. Molec. Spectrosc. 210, 240–249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Nibler, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg. (personal communication to W. T. Rawlins, 2002).

Otis, C. E.

Palombo, D. A.

Perrin, A.

P. M. Chu, S. J. Wetzel, W. J. Lafferty, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, Ph. Arcas, G. Guelachvili, “Line intensities for the 8-μm bands of SO2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 189, 55–63 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rabinowitz, M. J.

Q.-V. Nguyen, M. J. Rabinowitz, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio (personal communication, 2000).

Rawlins, W. T.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. Camy-Peret, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Goorvitch, R. Hawkins, J. Schroeder, J. Selby, R. Wattson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic data base,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sams, R. L.

J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Maki, A. Weber, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, “Analysis of ν2, ν4 infrared hot bands of 32S16O3: resolution of the puzzle of the ν1CARS spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 105–112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Maki, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, N. Vulpanovici, J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, “High-resolution infrared spectra of the ν2, ν3, ν4, and 2ν3 bands of 32S16O3,” J. Molec. Spectrosc. 210, 240–249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sartori, C.

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schrage, J.

J. Schrage, “Vapor-liquid equilibrium of the system H2SO4–SO3. Part 1. Vapor pressure measurements with a new static vapor pressure apparatus,” Fluid Phase Equilibria 68, 229–245 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. Camy-Peret, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Goorvitch, R. Hawkins, J. Schroeder, J. Selby, R. Wattson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic data base,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Selby, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. Camy-Peret, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Goorvitch, R. Hawkins, J. Schroeder, J. Selby, R. Wattson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic data base,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, W. T. Rawlins, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Application of balanced detection to absorption measurements of trace gases with room-temperature, quasi-cw quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 812–820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

Sorokin, A. A.

R. C. Brown, M. R. Anderson, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, A. A. Sorokin, Y. Y. Buriko, “Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3603–3606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thrush, B. A.

N. S. Henfrey, B. A. Thrush, “The ν3 band of SO3 at high resolution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 102, 135–138 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vulpanovici, N.

A. Maki, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, N. Vulpanovici, J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, “High-resolution infrared spectra of the ν2, ν3, ν4, and 2ν3 bands of 32S16O3,” J. Molec. Spectrosc. 210, 240–249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. T. H. Chrysostom, N. Vulpanovici, T. Masiello, J. Barber, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, A. Maki, T. A. Blake, “Coherent Raman and infrared studies of sulfur trioxide,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 210, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R.

L. S. Rothman, C. Camy-Peret, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Goorvitch, R. Hawkins, J. Schroeder, J. Selby, R. Wattson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic data base,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, A.

J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Maki, A. Weber, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, “Analysis of ν2, ν4 infrared hot bands of 32S16O3: resolution of the puzzle of the ν1CARS spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 105–112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. T. H. Chrysostom, N. Vulpanovici, T. Masiello, J. Barber, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, A. Maki, T. A. Blake, “Coherent Raman and infrared studies of sulfur trioxide,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 210, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Maki, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, N. Vulpanovici, J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, “High-resolution infrared spectra of the ν2, ν3, ν4, and 2ν3 bands of 32S16O3,” J. Molec. Spectrosc. 210, 240–249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wehe, S. D.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, J. M. Hensley, P. A. Mulhall, S. D. Wehe, M. G. Allen, Quantum Cascade Laser Sensor for Trace Gases,, prepared for NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. (Physical Sciences Inc., September2003).

Weidmann, D.

D. Weidmann, A. Hamdouni, D. Courtois, “CH4/air/SO2 premixed flame spectroscopy with a 7.5 μm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 85–91 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, S. J.

P. M. Chu, S. J. Wetzel, W. J. Lafferty, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, Ph. Arcas, G. Guelachvili, “Line intensities for the 8-μm bands of SO2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 189, 55–63 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wormhoudt, J.

T. A. Berkoff, J. Wormhoudt, R. C. Miake-Lye, “Measurement of SO2 and SO3 using a tunable diode laser system,” in Environmental Monitoring and Remediation Technologies, T. Vo-Dinh, R. L. Spellicy, eds., Proc. SPIE3534, 686–693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Weidmann, A. Hamdouni, D. Courtois, “CH4/air/SO2 premixed flame spectroscopy with a 7.5 μm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 85–91 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. S. Henfrey, B. A. Thrush, “The ν3 band of SO3 at high resolution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 102, 135–138 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fluid Phase Equilibria (1)

J. Schrage, “Vapor-liquid equilibrium of the system H2SO4–SO3. Part 1. Vapor pressure measurements with a new static vapor pressure apparatus,” Fluid Phase Equilibria 68, 229–245 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

R. C. Brown, M. R. Anderson, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, A. A. Sorokin, Y. Y. Buriko, “Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3603–3606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Gmachl, J. Faist, J. N. Baillargeon, F. Capasso, C. Sartori, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Complex-coupled quantum cascade distributed feedback laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1090–1092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (3)

E. T. H. Chrysostom, N. Vulpanovici, T. Masiello, J. Barber, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, A. Maki, T. A. Blake, “Coherent Raman and infrared studies of sulfur trioxide,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 210, 233–239 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Maki, A. Weber, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, “Analysis of ν2, ν4 infrared hot bands of 32S16O3: resolution of the puzzle of the ν1CARS spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 105–112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Chu, S. J. Wetzel, W. J. Lafferty, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, Ph. Arcas, G. Guelachvili, “Line intensities for the 8-μm bands of SO2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 189, 55–63 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Molec. Spectrosc. (1)

A. Maki, T. A. Blake, R. L. Sams, N. Vulpanovici, J. Barber, E. T. H. Chrysostom, T. Masiello, J. W. Nibler, A. Weber, “High-resolution infrared spectra of the ν2, ν3, ν4, and 2ν3 bands of 32S16O3,” J. Molec. Spectrosc. 210, 240–249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Ch. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. Camy-Peret, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Goorvitch, R. Hawkins, J. Schroeder, J. Selby, R. Wattson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic data base,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

R. R. Friedl, ed., Atmospheric Effects of Subsonic Aircraft: Interim Assessment Report of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program, NASA Reference Publication 1400 (NASA, 1997).

Q.-V. Nguyen, M. J. Rabinowitz, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio (personal communication, 2000).

T. A. Berkoff, J. Wormhoudt, R. C. Miake-Lye, “Measurement of SO2 and SO3 using a tunable diode laser system,” in Environmental Monitoring and Remediation Technologies, T. Vo-Dinh, R. L. Spellicy, eds., Proc. SPIE3534, 686–693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Nibler, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg. (personal communication to W. T. Rawlins, 2002).

D. M. Sonnenfroh, J. M. Hensley, P. A. Mulhall, S. D. Wehe, M. G. Allen, Quantum Cascade Laser Sensor for Trace Gases,, prepared for NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. (Physical Sciences Inc., September2003).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

HITRAN–HITEMP prediction for SO2 absorption near 1332 cm−1: 700 K, 0.2 atm, 10% H2O, 10% CO2, 60 ppmv SO2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) HITEMP H2O prediction for SO3 region: 700 K, 0.2 atm, 10% H2O; (b) SO3 absorption spectrum from Ref. 14, 300 K, 0.071 torr, scaled to 1 ppmv SO3 at 0.2 atm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of high-temperature, low-pressure flow system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of optical layout for SOx sensor system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical power versus drive current, SO2 laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

QC laser scans of SO2 composite feature at 1332.4 cm−1; 300 torr, 473 K.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative QC laser integrated absorbance versus [SO2], 300 torr, 294 and 473 K.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical power versus drive current, SO3 laser.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

QC laser scans of SO3 composite feature at 1396.6 cm−1, 20 torr, 294 K.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Relative QC laser integrated absorbance versus [SO3], 20 torr, 294 K.

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