Abstract

Optimum fuel preparation and mixture formation are core issues in the development of modern direct-injection (DI) Diesel engines, as these are crucial for defining the border conditions for the subsequent combustion and pollutant formation process. The local fuel/air ratio can be seen as one of the key parameters for this optimization process, as it allows the characterization and comparison of the mixture formation quality. For what is the first time to the best of our knowledge, linear Raman spectroscopy is used to detect the fuel/air ratio and its change along a line of a few millimeters directly and nonintrusively inside the combustion bowl of a DI Diesel engine. By a careful optimization of the measurement setup, the weak Raman signals could be separated successfully from disturbing interferences. A simultaneous measurement of the densities of air and fuel was possible along a line of about 10 mm length, allowing a time- and space-resolved measurement of the local fuel/air ratio. This could be performed in a nonreacting atmosphere as well as during fired operating conditions. The positioning of the measurement volume next to the interaction point of one of the spray jets with the wall of the combustion bowl allowed a near-wall analysis of the mixture formation process for a six-hole nozzle under varying injection and engine conditions. The results clearly show the influence of the nozzle geometry and preinjection on the mixing process. In contrast, modulation of the intake air temperature merely led to minor changes of the fuel concentration in the measurement volume.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Fujimoto, D. Choi, Y. Shima, J. Senda, “Two-dimensional imaging of fuel-vapour concentration by use of LIEF technique during mixture formation in a DI Diesel engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 391–400 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Pauer, R. Wirth, D. Brüggemann, “Zeitaufgelöste Analyse der DI-Dieselgemischbildung mittels kombinierter Schlieren-/Streulichtmeβtechnik”, in Proceedings of Motorische Verbrennung, Vol. 99–1 of BEV-Schriftenreihe (Esytec, 1999), pp. 231–240.
  3. C. Espey, J. E. Dec, T. A. Litzinger, D. A. Santavicca, “Quantitative 2-D fuel vapor concentration imaging in a firing D.I. Diesel engine using planar laser-induced Rayleigh scattering,” in 1994 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1994), paper 940682.
  4. H. Fujimoto, S. Kusano, J. Senda, “Distribution of vapor Concentration in a Diesel spray impinging on a flat wall by means of exciplex fluorescence method—in case of high injection pressure,” in 1997 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997), paper 972916.
  5. P. C. Miles, M. Dilligan, “Quantitative in-cylinder fluid composition measurements using broadband spontaneous Raman scattering,” in 1996 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1996), paper 960828.
  6. P. C. Miles, P. C. Hinze, “Characterization of the mixing of fresh charge with combustion residuals using laser Raman scattering with broadband detection,” in 1998 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 981428.
  7. P. C. Miles, “Raman line imaging for spatially and temporally resolved mole fraction measurements in internal combustion engines,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1714–1732 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” in 1997 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997), paper 970827.
  9. G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major origin of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” in 1994 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1994), paper 941880.
  10. G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” in 1995 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1995), paper 952394.
  11. J. Egermann, W. Koebcke, W. Ipp, A. Leipertz, “Investigation of the mixture formation inside a GDI engine by means of linear Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1145–1152 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Heinze, T. Schmidt, “Fuel–air ratios in a spray, determined between injection and autoignition by pulsed spontaneous Raman spectroscopy,” (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Rabenstein, J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, N. D’Alfonso, “Vapor-phase structures of Diesel-type fuel sprays: an experimental analysis,” in 1998 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 982543.
  14. J. Egermann, M. Taschek, A. Leipertz, “Spray/wall interaction influences on the Diesel engine mixture formation process investigated by spontaneous Raman scattering,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 617–623 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Richter, A. Franke, M. Alden, A. Hultquist, B. Johansson, “Optical diagnostics applied to a naturally aspirated homogeneous charge compression ignition engine,” in 1999 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1999), paper 1999-01-3649.
  16. W. Meier, O. Keck, “Laser Raman scattering in fuel-rich flames: background levels at different excitation wavelengths” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 741–749 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Egermann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “On the application of 266 nm and 355 nm Nd:YAG laser radiation for the investigation of fuel-rich sooting hydrocarbon flames by linear Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5564–5574 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1977).
  19. B. Schrader, Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy (VCH Verlags-gesellschaft, 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion and Temperature and Species (Abacus, 1988).
  21. A. Weber, Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids (Springer-Verlag, 1979).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, “Nutzung der linearen Raman-Streuung zur Untersuchung motorischer Prozesse,” in Proceedings of Motorische Verbrennung, Vol. 3–1 of BEV-Schriftenreihe (Esytec, 2003), pp. 179–197.
  23. J. Egermann, Einsatz der linearen Raman-Streuung zur Analyse der Gemischbildung direkteinspritzender Ottomotoren, Vol. 4.3 of BEV-Schriftenreihe (Esytec2004).
  24. Y. Gu, Y. Zhou, H. Tang, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Pressure dependence of vibrational Raman scattering of narrow-band, 248-nm, laser light by H2, N2, O2, CO2, CH4, C2H6 and C3H8 as high as 97 bar,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 865–871 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. L. Siebers, “Liquid-phase fuel penetration in Diesel sprays,” in 1998 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 980809.
  26. R. E. Canaan, J. E. Dec, R. M. Green, D. T. Daly, “The influence of fuel volatility on the liquid-phase fuel penetration in a heavy-duty D.I. Diesel engine,” in 1998 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 980510.
  27. A. Leipertz, “Temperaturbestimmung in Gasen mittels linearer and nichtlinearer Raman-Prozesse,” Habilitation thesis (Ruhr-Universität, Bochum, 1984).
  28. S. C. Medina, R. M. Green, J. R. Smith, “Optical measurements of hydrocarbons emitted from a simulated crevice volume in an engine,” in 1984 SAE International Congress and Exposition, (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1984), paper 1984.
  29. M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI Engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2589–2596 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Kojima, Q.-V. Nguyen, “Laser pulse-stretching with multiple optical ring cavities,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6360–6370. (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. C. Fettes, S. Schraml, C. Heimgärtner, A. Leipertz, “Analysis of the combustion process in a transparent passenger car DI-Diesel engine by means of multidimensional optical measurement techniques,” in 2000 SAE International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2000), paper 2000-01-2860.
  32. C. Fettes, A. Leipertz, “Potentials of a piezo-driven passenger car common rail system to meet future emission legislations—an evaluation by means of in-cylinder analysis of injection and combustion,” in 2001 SAE International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2001), paper 2001-01-3499.
  33. R. Thurn, W. Kiefer, “Structural resonances observed in the Raman spectra of optically levitated liquid droplets,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1515–1519 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. R. Vehring, “Linear Raman spectroscopy on aqueous aerosols: influence of nonlinear effects on detection limits,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, 65–79 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  35. V. Sprynchak, C. Esen, G. Schweiger, “Enhancement of Raman scattering by deformation of microparticles,” Opt. Lett. 28, 221–223 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. D. C. Smith, “Laser radiation-induced air breakdown and plasma shielding,” Opt. Eng. 20, 962–969 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Portnov, S. Rosenwaks, I. Bar, “Emission following laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of organic compounds in ambient air,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2835–2842 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. T. D. Fansler, B. Stoikovic, M. C. Drake, M. E. Rosalik, “Local fuel concentration measurements in internal combustion engines using spark-emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 577–590 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

2002 (5)

T. D. Fansler, B. Stoikovic, M. C. Drake, M. E. Rosalik, “Local fuel concentration measurements in internal combustion engines using spark-emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 577–590 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kojima, Q.-V. Nguyen, “Laser pulse-stretching with multiple optical ring cavities,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6360–6370. (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fujimoto, D. Choi, Y. Shima, J. Senda, “Two-dimensional imaging of fuel-vapour concentration by use of LIEF technique during mixture formation in a DI Diesel engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 391–400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Egermann, M. Taschek, A. Leipertz, “Spray/wall interaction influences on the Diesel engine mixture formation process investigated by spontaneous Raman scattering,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 617–623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Meier, O. Keck, “Laser Raman scattering in fuel-rich flames: background levels at different excitation wavelengths” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 741–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

Y. Gu, Y. Zhou, H. Tang, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Pressure dependence of vibrational Raman scattering of narrow-band, 248-nm, laser light by H2, N2, O2, CO2, CH4, C2H6 and C3H8 as high as 97 bar,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 865–871 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Egermann, W. Koebcke, W. Ipp, A. Leipertz, “Investigation of the mixture formation inside a GDI engine by means of linear Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1145–1152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

R. Vehring, “Linear Raman spectroscopy on aqueous aerosols: influence of nonlinear effects on detection limits,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, 65–79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI Engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2589–2596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1981 (1)

D. C. Smith, “Laser radiation-induced air breakdown and plasma shielding,” Opt. Eng. 20, 962–969 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Alden, M.

M. Richter, A. Franke, M. Alden, A. Hultquist, B. Johansson, “Optical diagnostics applied to a naturally aspirated homogeneous charge compression ignition engine,” in 1999 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1999), paper 1999-01-3649.

Andresen, P.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI Engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2589–2596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” in 1997 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997), paper 970827.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major origin of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” in 1994 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1994), paper 941880.

G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” in 1995 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1995), paper 952394.

Bar, I.

Beushausen, V.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI Engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2589–2596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major origin of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” in 1994 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1994), paper 941880.

M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” in 1997 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997), paper 970827.

G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” in 1995 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1995), paper 952394.

Brüggemann, D.

T. Pauer, R. Wirth, D. Brüggemann, “Zeitaufgelöste Analyse der DI-Dieselgemischbildung mittels kombinierter Schlieren-/Streulichtmeβtechnik”, in Proceedings of Motorische Verbrennung, Vol. 99–1 of BEV-Schriftenreihe (Esytec, 1999), pp. 231–240.

Canaan, R. E.

R. E. Canaan, J. E. Dec, R. M. Green, D. T. Daly, “The influence of fuel volatility on the liquid-phase fuel penetration in a heavy-duty D.I. Diesel engine,” in 1998 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 980510.

Choi, D.

H. Fujimoto, D. Choi, Y. Shima, J. Senda, “Two-dimensional imaging of fuel-vapour concentration by use of LIEF technique during mixture formation in a DI Diesel engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 391–400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D’Alfonso, N.

F. Rabenstein, J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, N. D’Alfonso, “Vapor-phase structures of Diesel-type fuel sprays: an experimental analysis,” in 1998 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 982543.

Daly, D. T.

R. E. Canaan, J. E. Dec, R. M. Green, D. T. Daly, “The influence of fuel volatility on the liquid-phase fuel penetration in a heavy-duty D.I. Diesel engine,” in 1998 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 980510.

Dec, J. E.

R. E. Canaan, J. E. Dec, R. M. Green, D. T. Daly, “The influence of fuel volatility on the liquid-phase fuel penetration in a heavy-duty D.I. Diesel engine,” in 1998 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 980510.

C. Espey, J. E. Dec, T. A. Litzinger, D. A. Santavicca, “Quantitative 2-D fuel vapor concentration imaging in a firing D.I. Diesel engine using planar laser-induced Rayleigh scattering,” in 1994 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1994), paper 940682.

Dilligan, M.

P. C. Miles, M. Dilligan, “Quantitative in-cylinder fluid composition measurements using broadband spontaneous Raman scattering,” in 1996 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1996), paper 960828.

Drake, M. C.

T. D. Fansler, B. Stoikovic, M. C. Drake, M. E. Rosalik, “Local fuel concentration measurements in internal combustion engines using spark-emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 577–590 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion and Temperature and Species (Abacus, 1988).

Egermann, J.

J. Egermann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “On the application of 266 nm and 355 nm Nd:YAG laser radiation for the investigation of fuel-rich sooting hydrocarbon flames by linear Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5564–5574 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Egermann, M. Taschek, A. Leipertz, “Spray/wall interaction influences on the Diesel engine mixture formation process investigated by spontaneous Raman scattering,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 617–623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Egermann, W. Koebcke, W. Ipp, A. Leipertz, “Investigation of the mixture formation inside a GDI engine by means of linear Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1145–1152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Rabenstein, J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, N. D’Alfonso, “Vapor-phase structures of Diesel-type fuel sprays: an experimental analysis,” in 1998 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 982543.

J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, “Nutzung der linearen Raman-Streuung zur Untersuchung motorischer Prozesse,” in Proceedings of Motorische Verbrennung, Vol. 3–1 of BEV-Schriftenreihe (Esytec, 2003), pp. 179–197.

J. Egermann, Einsatz der linearen Raman-Streuung zur Analyse der Gemischbildung direkteinspritzender Ottomotoren, Vol. 4.3 of BEV-Schriftenreihe (Esytec2004).

Esen, C.

Espey, C.

C. Espey, J. E. Dec, T. A. Litzinger, D. A. Santavicca, “Quantitative 2-D fuel vapor concentration imaging in a firing D.I. Diesel engine using planar laser-induced Rayleigh scattering,” in 1994 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1994), paper 940682.

Fansler, T. D.

T. D. Fansler, B. Stoikovic, M. C. Drake, M. E. Rosalik, “Local fuel concentration measurements in internal combustion engines using spark-emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 577–590 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fettes, C.

C. Fettes, A. Leipertz, “Potentials of a piezo-driven passenger car common rail system to meet future emission legislations—an evaluation by means of in-cylinder analysis of injection and combustion,” in 2001 SAE International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2001), paper 2001-01-3499.

C. Fettes, S. Schraml, C. Heimgärtner, A. Leipertz, “Analysis of the combustion process in a transparent passenger car DI-Diesel engine by means of multidimensional optical measurement techniques,” in 2000 SAE International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2000), paper 2000-01-2860.

Franke, A.

M. Richter, A. Franke, M. Alden, A. Hultquist, B. Johansson, “Optical diagnostics applied to a naturally aspirated homogeneous charge compression ignition engine,” in 1999 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1999), paper 1999-01-3649.

Fujimoto, H.

H. Fujimoto, D. Choi, Y. Shima, J. Senda, “Two-dimensional imaging of fuel-vapour concentration by use of LIEF technique during mixture formation in a DI Diesel engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 391–400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujimoto, S. Kusano, J. Senda, “Distribution of vapor Concentration in a Diesel spray impinging on a flat wall by means of exciplex fluorescence method—in case of high injection pressure,” in 1997 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997), paper 972916.

Green, R. M.

R. E. Canaan, J. E. Dec, R. M. Green, D. T. Daly, “The influence of fuel volatility on the liquid-phase fuel penetration in a heavy-duty D.I. Diesel engine,” in 1998 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 980510.

S. C. Medina, R. M. Green, J. R. Smith, “Optical measurements of hydrocarbons emitted from a simulated crevice volume in an engine,” in 1984 SAE International Congress and Exposition, (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1984), paper 1984.

Grünefeld, G.

G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” in 1995 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1995), paper 952394.

M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” in 1997 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997), paper 970827.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major origin of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” in 1994 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1994), paper 941880.

Gu, Y.

Y. Gu, Y. Zhou, H. Tang, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Pressure dependence of vibrational Raman scattering of narrow-band, 248-nm, laser light by H2, N2, O2, CO2, CH4, C2H6 and C3H8 as high as 97 bar,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 865–871 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heimgärtner, C.

C. Fettes, S. Schraml, C. Heimgärtner, A. Leipertz, “Analysis of the combustion process in a transparent passenger car DI-Diesel engine by means of multidimensional optical measurement techniques,” in 2000 SAE International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2000), paper 2000-01-2860.

Heinze, T.

T. Heinze, T. Schmidt, “Fuel–air ratios in a spray, determined between injection and autoignition by pulsed spontaneous Raman spectroscopy,” (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, W.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI Engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2589–2596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” in 1997 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997), paper 970827.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major origin of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” in 1994 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1994), paper 941880.

G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” in 1995 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1995), paper 952394.

Hinze, P. C.

P. C. Miles, P. C. Hinze, “Characterization of the mixing of fresh charge with combustion residuals using laser Raman scattering with broadband detection,” in 1998 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 981428.

Hultquist, A.

M. Richter, A. Franke, M. Alden, A. Hultquist, B. Johansson, “Optical diagnostics applied to a naturally aspirated homogeneous charge compression ignition engine,” in 1999 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1999), paper 1999-01-3649.

Ipp, W.

J. Egermann, W. Koebcke, W. Ipp, A. Leipertz, “Investigation of the mixture formation inside a GDI engine by means of linear Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1145–1152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, B.

M. Richter, A. Franke, M. Alden, A. Hultquist, B. Johansson, “Optical diagnostics applied to a naturally aspirated homogeneous charge compression ignition engine,” in 1999 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1999), paper 1999-01-3649.

Keck, O.

W. Meier, O. Keck, “Laser Raman scattering in fuel-rich flames: background levels at different excitation wavelengths” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 741–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, W.

Knapp, M.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI Engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2589–2596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” in 1995 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1995), paper 952394.

M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” in 1997 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997), paper 970827.

Koebcke, W.

J. Egermann, W. Koebcke, W. Ipp, A. Leipertz, “Investigation of the mixture formation inside a GDI engine by means of linear Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1145–1152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, J.

Kusano, S.

H. Fujimoto, S. Kusano, J. Senda, “Distribution of vapor Concentration in a Diesel spray impinging on a flat wall by means of exciplex fluorescence method—in case of high injection pressure,” in 1997 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997), paper 972916.

Leipertz, A.

J. Egermann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “On the application of 266 nm and 355 nm Nd:YAG laser radiation for the investigation of fuel-rich sooting hydrocarbon flames by linear Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5564–5574 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Egermann, M. Taschek, A. Leipertz, “Spray/wall interaction influences on the Diesel engine mixture formation process investigated by spontaneous Raman scattering,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 617–623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Egermann, W. Koebcke, W. Ipp, A. Leipertz, “Investigation of the mixture formation inside a GDI engine by means of linear Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1145–1152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Rabenstein, J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, N. D’Alfonso, “Vapor-phase structures of Diesel-type fuel sprays: an experimental analysis,” in 1998 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 982543.

J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, “Nutzung der linearen Raman-Streuung zur Untersuchung motorischer Prozesse,” in Proceedings of Motorische Verbrennung, Vol. 3–1 of BEV-Schriftenreihe (Esytec, 2003), pp. 179–197.

C. Fettes, S. Schraml, C. Heimgärtner, A. Leipertz, “Analysis of the combustion process in a transparent passenger car DI-Diesel engine by means of multidimensional optical measurement techniques,” in 2000 SAE International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2000), paper 2000-01-2860.

A. Leipertz, “Temperaturbestimmung in Gasen mittels linearer and nichtlinearer Raman-Prozesse,” Habilitation thesis (Ruhr-Universität, Bochum, 1984).

C. Fettes, A. Leipertz, “Potentials of a piezo-driven passenger car common rail system to meet future emission legislations—an evaluation by means of in-cylinder analysis of injection and combustion,” in 2001 SAE International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2001), paper 2001-01-3499.

Litzinger, T. A.

C. Espey, J. E. Dec, T. A. Litzinger, D. A. Santavicca, “Quantitative 2-D fuel vapor concentration imaging in a firing D.I. Diesel engine using planar laser-induced Rayleigh scattering,” in 1994 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1994), paper 940682.

Long, D. A.

D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1977).

Luczak, A.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI Engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2589–2596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Manz, P.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI Engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2589–2596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” in 1995 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1995), paper 952394.

M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” in 1997 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997), paper 970827.

Medina, S. C.

S. C. Medina, R. M. Green, J. R. Smith, “Optical measurements of hydrocarbons emitted from a simulated crevice volume in an engine,” in 1984 SAE International Congress and Exposition, (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1984), paper 1984.

Meier, W.

W. Meier, O. Keck, “Laser Raman scattering in fuel-rich flames: background levels at different excitation wavelengths” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 741–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miles, P. C.

P. C. Miles, “Raman line imaging for spatially and temporally resolved mole fraction measurements in internal combustion engines,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1714–1732 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Miles, P. C. Hinze, “Characterization of the mixing of fresh charge with combustion residuals using laser Raman scattering with broadband detection,” in 1998 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 981428.

P. C. Miles, M. Dilligan, “Quantitative in-cylinder fluid composition measurements using broadband spontaneous Raman scattering,” in 1996 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1996), paper 960828.

Nguyen, Q.-V.

Pauer, T.

T. Pauer, R. Wirth, D. Brüggemann, “Zeitaufgelöste Analyse der DI-Dieselgemischbildung mittels kombinierter Schlieren-/Streulichtmeβtechnik”, in Proceedings of Motorische Verbrennung, Vol. 99–1 of BEV-Schriftenreihe (Esytec, 1999), pp. 231–240.

Portnov, A.

Rabenstein, F.

F. Rabenstein, J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, N. D’Alfonso, “Vapor-phase structures of Diesel-type fuel sprays: an experimental analysis,” in 1998 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 982543.

Reck, G. P.

Y. Gu, Y. Zhou, H. Tang, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Pressure dependence of vibrational Raman scattering of narrow-band, 248-nm, laser light by H2, N2, O2, CO2, CH4, C2H6 and C3H8 as high as 97 bar,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 865–871 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richter, M.

M. Richter, A. Franke, M. Alden, A. Hultquist, B. Johansson, “Optical diagnostics applied to a naturally aspirated homogeneous charge compression ignition engine,” in 1999 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1999), paper 1999-01-3649.

Rosalik, M. E.

T. D. Fansler, B. Stoikovic, M. C. Drake, M. E. Rosalik, “Local fuel concentration measurements in internal combustion engines using spark-emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 577–590 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosenwaks, S.

Rothe, E. W.

Y. Gu, Y. Zhou, H. Tang, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Pressure dependence of vibrational Raman scattering of narrow-band, 248-nm, laser light by H2, N2, O2, CO2, CH4, C2H6 and C3H8 as high as 97 bar,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 865–871 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Santavicca, D. A.

C. Espey, J. E. Dec, T. A. Litzinger, D. A. Santavicca, “Quantitative 2-D fuel vapor concentration imaging in a firing D.I. Diesel engine using planar laser-induced Rayleigh scattering,” in 1994 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1994), paper 940682.

Schmidt, T.

T. Heinze, T. Schmidt, “Fuel–air ratios in a spray, determined between injection and autoignition by pulsed spontaneous Raman spectroscopy,” (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Schrader, B.

B. Schrader, Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy (VCH Verlags-gesellschaft, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Schraml, S.

C. Fettes, S. Schraml, C. Heimgärtner, A. Leipertz, “Analysis of the combustion process in a transparent passenger car DI-Diesel engine by means of multidimensional optical measurement techniques,” in 2000 SAE International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2000), paper 2000-01-2860.

Schweiger, G.

Seeger, T.

Senda, J.

H. Fujimoto, D. Choi, Y. Shima, J. Senda, “Two-dimensional imaging of fuel-vapour concentration by use of LIEF technique during mixture formation in a DI Diesel engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 391–400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujimoto, S. Kusano, J. Senda, “Distribution of vapor Concentration in a Diesel spray impinging on a flat wall by means of exciplex fluorescence method—in case of high injection pressure,” in 1997 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997), paper 972916.

Shima, Y.

H. Fujimoto, D. Choi, Y. Shima, J. Senda, “Two-dimensional imaging of fuel-vapour concentration by use of LIEF technique during mixture formation in a DI Diesel engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 391–400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Siebers, D. L.

D. L. Siebers, “Liquid-phase fuel penetration in Diesel sprays,” in 1998 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 980809.

Smith, D. C.

D. C. Smith, “Laser radiation-induced air breakdown and plasma shielding,” Opt. Eng. 20, 962–969 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. R.

S. C. Medina, R. M. Green, J. R. Smith, “Optical measurements of hydrocarbons emitted from a simulated crevice volume in an engine,” in 1984 SAE International Congress and Exposition, (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1984), paper 1984.

Sprynchak, V.

Stoikovic, B.

T. D. Fansler, B. Stoikovic, M. C. Drake, M. E. Rosalik, “Local fuel concentration measurements in internal combustion engines using spark-emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 577–590 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

Y. Gu, Y. Zhou, H. Tang, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Pressure dependence of vibrational Raman scattering of narrow-band, 248-nm, laser light by H2, N2, O2, CO2, CH4, C2H6 and C3H8 as high as 97 bar,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 865–871 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taschek, M.

J. Egermann, M. Taschek, A. Leipertz, “Spray/wall interaction influences on the Diesel engine mixture formation process investigated by spontaneous Raman scattering,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 617–623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thurn, R.

Vehring, R.

R. Vehring, “Linear Raman spectroscopy on aqueous aerosols: influence of nonlinear effects on detection limits,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, 65–79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, A.

A. Weber, Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids (Springer-Verlag, 1979).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, R.

T. Pauer, R. Wirth, D. Brüggemann, “Zeitaufgelöste Analyse der DI-Dieselgemischbildung mittels kombinierter Schlieren-/Streulichtmeβtechnik”, in Proceedings of Motorische Verbrennung, Vol. 99–1 of BEV-Schriftenreihe (Esytec, 1999), pp. 231–240.

Zhou, Y.

Y. Gu, Y. Zhou, H. Tang, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Pressure dependence of vibrational Raman scattering of narrow-band, 248-nm, laser light by H2, N2, O2, CO2, CH4, C2H6 and C3H8 as high as 97 bar,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 865–871 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

T. D. Fansler, B. Stoikovic, M. C. Drake, M. E. Rosalik, “Local fuel concentration measurements in internal combustion engines using spark-emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 577–590 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gu, Y. Zhou, H. Tang, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Pressure dependence of vibrational Raman scattering of narrow-band, 248-nm, laser light by H2, N2, O2, CO2, CH4, C2H6 and C3H8 as high as 97 bar,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 865–871 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

R. Vehring, “Linear Raman spectroscopy on aqueous aerosols: influence of nonlinear effects on detection limits,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, 65–79 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

W. Meier, O. Keck, “Laser Raman scattering in fuel-rich flames: background levels at different excitation wavelengths” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 741–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujimoto, D. Choi, Y. Shima, J. Senda, “Two-dimensional imaging of fuel-vapour concentration by use of LIEF technique during mixture formation in a DI Diesel engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 391–400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. C. Smith, “Laser radiation-induced air breakdown and plasma shielding,” Opt. Eng. 20, 962–969 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Combust. Inst. (3)

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI Engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2589–2596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Egermann, W. Koebcke, W. Ipp, A. Leipertz, “Investigation of the mixture formation inside a GDI engine by means of linear Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 1145–1152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Egermann, M. Taschek, A. Leipertz, “Spray/wall interaction influences on the Diesel engine mixture formation process investigated by spontaneous Raman scattering,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 617–623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (23)

M. Richter, A. Franke, M. Alden, A. Hultquist, B. Johansson, “Optical diagnostics applied to a naturally aspirated homogeneous charge compression ignition engine,” in 1999 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1999), paper 1999-01-3649.

T. Heinze, T. Schmidt, “Fuel–air ratios in a spray, determined between injection and autoignition by pulsed spontaneous Raman spectroscopy,” (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Rabenstein, J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, N. D’Alfonso, “Vapor-phase structures of Diesel-type fuel sprays: an experimental analysis,” in 1998 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 982543.

D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1977).

B. Schrader, Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy (VCH Verlags-gesellschaft, 1995).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion and Temperature and Species (Abacus, 1988).

A. Weber, Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids (Springer-Verlag, 1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, “Nutzung der linearen Raman-Streuung zur Untersuchung motorischer Prozesse,” in Proceedings of Motorische Verbrennung, Vol. 3–1 of BEV-Schriftenreihe (Esytec, 2003), pp. 179–197.

J. Egermann, Einsatz der linearen Raman-Streuung zur Analyse der Gemischbildung direkteinspritzender Ottomotoren, Vol. 4.3 of BEV-Schriftenreihe (Esytec2004).

T. Pauer, R. Wirth, D. Brüggemann, “Zeitaufgelöste Analyse der DI-Dieselgemischbildung mittels kombinierter Schlieren-/Streulichtmeβtechnik”, in Proceedings of Motorische Verbrennung, Vol. 99–1 of BEV-Schriftenreihe (Esytec, 1999), pp. 231–240.

C. Espey, J. E. Dec, T. A. Litzinger, D. A. Santavicca, “Quantitative 2-D fuel vapor concentration imaging in a firing D.I. Diesel engine using planar laser-induced Rayleigh scattering,” in 1994 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1994), paper 940682.

H. Fujimoto, S. Kusano, J. Senda, “Distribution of vapor Concentration in a Diesel spray impinging on a flat wall by means of exciplex fluorescence method—in case of high injection pressure,” in 1997 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997), paper 972916.

P. C. Miles, M. Dilligan, “Quantitative in-cylinder fluid composition measurements using broadband spontaneous Raman scattering,” in 1996 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1996), paper 960828.

P. C. Miles, P. C. Hinze, “Characterization of the mixing of fresh charge with combustion residuals using laser Raman scattering with broadband detection,” in 1998 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 981428.

M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “In-cylinder mixture formation analysis with spontaneous Raman scattering applied to a mass-production SI engine,” in 1997 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997), paper 970827.

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major origin of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” in 1994 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1994), paper 941880.

G. Grünefeld, M. Knapp, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, P. Manz, “In-cylinder measurements and analysis on fundamental cold start and warm-up phenomena of SI engines,” in 1995 SAE International Fall Fuel and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1995), paper 952394.

C. Fettes, S. Schraml, C. Heimgärtner, A. Leipertz, “Analysis of the combustion process in a transparent passenger car DI-Diesel engine by means of multidimensional optical measurement techniques,” in 2000 SAE International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2000), paper 2000-01-2860.

C. Fettes, A. Leipertz, “Potentials of a piezo-driven passenger car common rail system to meet future emission legislations—an evaluation by means of in-cylinder analysis of injection and combustion,” in 2001 SAE International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2001), paper 2001-01-3499.

D. L. Siebers, “Liquid-phase fuel penetration in Diesel sprays,” in 1998 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 980809.

R. E. Canaan, J. E. Dec, R. M. Green, D. T. Daly, “The influence of fuel volatility on the liquid-phase fuel penetration in a heavy-duty D.I. Diesel engine,” in 1998 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998), paper 980510.

A. Leipertz, “Temperaturbestimmung in Gasen mittels linearer and nichtlinearer Raman-Prozesse,” Habilitation thesis (Ruhr-Universität, Bochum, 1984).

S. C. Medina, R. M. Green, J. R. Smith, “Optical measurements of hydrocarbons emitted from a simulated crevice volume in an engine,” in 1984 SAE International Congress and Exposition, (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1984), paper 1984.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calibration graph for the nitrogen–propane mixture and various concentrations of the aromatics-free Diesel fuel in a nitrogen atmosphere.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of two typical Raman spectra obtained during mixture formation in a DI Diesel engine operated (a) with pure nitrogen, (b) with air (images are averaged over 32 raw single-laser-shot measurements).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image of vertical (V) and horizontal (H) polarization direction and resulting background corrected image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the optical setup for the polarization-resolved Raman measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Position of the measurement volume inside the combustion bowl of the DI Diesel engine.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Influence of the nozzle orifice geometry on the average fuel/air ratio in the measurement volume.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Influence of preinjection and main injection on the average fuel/air ratio for the nozzle with μ = 0.77 (measurement in pure nitrogen atmosphere).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Influence of the intake air temperature on the average fuel/air ratio for the nozzle with μ = 0.77 (measurement in pure nitrogen atmosphere).

Tables (2)

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I i = k Ω σ Ω n i l I 0 ,
( σ Ω ) g i ( ν 0 - Δ ν R ) 4 Δ ν R [ 1 - exp ( - h c Δ ν R / k T ) ] × [ ( a i ) 2 + 4 45 ( γ i ) 2 ] .
( σ Ω ) g i ( ν 0 - Δ ν R ) 4 Δ ν R · [ 1 - exp ( - h c Δ ν R / k T ) ] [ 1 15 ( γ i ) 2 ] .
I C - H I N 2 = k 1 n C - H ( σ Ω ) C - H n O 2 ( σ Ω ) N 2 = k 1 c 1 n C - H n N 2 = C Φ .

Metrics