Abstract

Design requirements for an 8000 frame/s dual-wavelength ratiometric chemical species tomography system, intended for hydrocarbon vapor imaging in one cylinder of a standard automobile engine, are examined. The design process is guided by spectroscopic measurements on iso-octane and by comprehensive results from laboratory phantoms and research engines, including results on temporal resolution performance. Novel image reconstruction techniques, necessary for this application, are presented. Recent progress toward implementation, including details of the optical access arrangement employed and signal-to-noise issues, is described. We present first cross-cylinder IR absorption measurements from a reduced channel-count (nontomographic) system and discuss the prospects for imaging.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2005 (2)

K. Salem, E. Tsotsas, D. Mewes, “Tomographic measurements of breakthrough in a packed bed adsorber,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 60, 517–522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. J. Carey, H. McCann, “Design of high-performance photodiode receivers for optical tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 281–288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, “Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing,” J. Phys. D 37, R197–R216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Near infra-red chemical species tomography of sprays of volatile hydrocarbons,” Tech. Mess. 69, 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Martin, “Near-infrared diode laser spectroscopy in chemical process and environmental air monitoring,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 31, 201–210 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Singh, K. Muralidhar, P. Munshi, “Image reconstruction from incomplete projection data using combined ARTCBP algorithm,” Def. Sci. J. 52, 303–316 (2002).

2001 (2)

K. L. McNesby, R. T. Wainner, R. G. Daniel, R. R. Skaggs, J. B. Morris, A. W. Miziolek, W. M. Jackson, I. A. McLaren, “Detection and measurement of middle-distillate fuel vapors by use of tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 840–845 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Measurement of gaseous hydrocarbon distribution by a near-infrared absorption tomography system,” J. Electron. Imaging 10, 593–600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. J. Carey, H. McCann, F. P. Hindle, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, “Chemical species tomography by near infra-red absorption,” Chem. Eng. J. 77, 111–118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. Q. Yang, D. M. Spink, T. A. York, H. McCann, “An image-reconstruction algorithm based on Landweber’s iteration method for electrical-capacitance tomography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1065–1069 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, “Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection — from concept to system realization,” Sens. Actuators B 51, 25–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Stewart, A. Mencaglia, W. Philp, W. Jin, “Interferometric signals in fiber optic methane sensors with wavelength modulation of the DFB laser source,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 43–53 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

T. S. Pan, A. E. Yagle, “Acceleration of Landweber-type algorithms by suppression of projection on the maximum singular vector,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 11, 479–487 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

A. H. Andersen, “Algebraic reconstruction in CT from limited views,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 8, 50–55 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Harmonic detection with tuneable diode lasers — two-tone modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279–285 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, P. J. Emmerman, R. Goulard, “Optical tomography for flow field diagnostics,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 24, 1139–1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. Gordon, R. Bender, G. T. Hermann, “Algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) for 3-dimensional electron microscopy and X-ray photography,” J. Theor. Biol. 29, 471–481 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, M. G.

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, A. H.

A. H. Andersen, “Algebraic reconstruction in CT from limited views,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 8, 50–55 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrag, A. E. M.

A. E. M. Barrag, B. Lawton, “Computer optical tomography in the study of internal combustion engine soot concentration,” in 26th International Symposium, Automotive Technology and Automation, Vol. The Motor Vehicle and the Environment — Demands of the Nineties and Beyond (ISATA, 1993), pp. 423–480.

Bender, R.

R. Gordon, R. Bender, G. T. Hermann, “Algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) for 3-dimensional electron microscopy and X-ray photography,” J. Theor. Biol. 29, 471–481 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertero, M.

M. Bertero, P. Boccacci, Introduction to Inverse Problems in Imaging (IOP, Bristol, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Boccacci, P.

M. Bertero, P. Boccacci, Introduction to Inverse Problems in Imaging (IOP, Bristol, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carey, S. J.

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. J. Carey, H. McCann, “Design of high-performance photodiode receivers for optical tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 281–288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Near infra-red chemical species tomography of sprays of volatile hydrocarbons,” Tech. Mess. 69, 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Measurement of gaseous hydrocarbon distribution by a near-infrared absorption tomography system,” J. Electron. Imaging 10, 593–600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Carey, H. McCann, F. P. Hindle, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, “Chemical species tomography by near infra-red absorption,” Chem. Eng. J. 77, 111–118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Carey, “Chemical species tomography by near infrared absorption,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, 2001).

Carny-Perrey, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cassidy, D. T.

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Harmonic detection with tuneable diode lasers — two-tone modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279–285 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clough, E.

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Near infra-red chemical species tomography of sprays of volatile hydrocarbons,” Tech. Mess. 69, 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Measurement of gaseous hydrocarbon distribution by a near-infrared absorption tomography system,” J. Electron. Imaging 10, 593–600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Carey, H. McCann, F. P. Hindle, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, “Chemical species tomography by near infra-red absorption,” Chem. Eng. J. 77, 111–118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colbourne, S.

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. C. Murray, T. J. Litt, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, H. McCann, “First optical attenuation measurements across the cylinder of a production IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, A. de Jong, M. Takei, R. A. Williams, M. Zeidan, eds. (University of Leeds, 2005), pp. 165–170.

Culshaw, B.

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, “Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection — from concept to system realization,” Sens. Actuators B 51, 25–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, “Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing,” J. Phys. D 37, R197–R216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daniel, R. G.

K. L. McNesby, R. T. Wainner, R. G. Daniel, R. R. Skaggs, J. B. Morris, A. W. Miziolek, W. M. Jackson, I. A. McLaren, “Detection and measurement of middle-distillate fuel vapors by use of tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 840–845 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dong, F.

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, “Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection — from concept to system realization,” Sens. Actuators B 51, 25–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Emmerman, P. J.

R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, P. J. Emmerman, R. Goulard, “Optical tomography for flow field diagnostics,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 24, 1139–1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

J. Feng, “Reconstruction in tomography from severe incomplete projection data using multiresolution analysis and optimization,” in Proceedings of 7th IEEE Digital Signal Processing Workshop (IEEE, 1996), pp. 133–136.

Fernitz, G.

H. Philipp, A. Plimon, G. Fernitz, A. Hirsch, G. Fraidl, E. Winklhofer, “A tomographic camera system for combustion diagnostics in SI engines,” (Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 1995).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fraidl, G.

H. Philipp, A. Plimon, G. Fernitz, A. Hirsch, G. Fraidl, E. Winklhofer, “A tomographic camera system for combustion diagnostics in SI engines,” (Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 1995).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Stewart, C. A.

C. A. Garcia-Stewart, N. Polydorides, K. B. Ozanyan, H. McCann, “Image reconstruction algorithms for high-speed chemical species tomography,” in Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, T. Dyakowski, A. Kantzas, eds. (University of Leeds, 2003), pp. 80–85.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

R. Gordon, R. Bender, G. T. Hermann, “Algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) for 3-dimensional electron microscopy and X-ray photography,” J. Theor. Biol. 29, 471–481 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulard, R.

R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, P. J. Emmerman, R. Goulard, “Optical tomography for flow field diagnostics,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 24, 1139–1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hardiman, L.

S. M. Skippon, S. R. Nattrass, J. S. Kitching, L. Hardiman, H. Millar, “Effects of fuel composition on in-cylinder air/fuel ratio during fuelling transients in an SI engine, measured using differential infrared absorption,” (Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 1996).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, G. T.

R. Gordon, R. Bender, G. T. Hermann, “Algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) for 3-dimensional electron microscopy and X-ray photography,” J. Theor. Biol. 29, 471–481 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hindle, F. P.

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Near infra-red chemical species tomography of sprays of volatile hydrocarbons,” Tech. Mess. 69, 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Measurement of gaseous hydrocarbon distribution by a near-infrared absorption tomography system,” J. Electron. Imaging 10, 593–600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Carey, H. McCann, F. P. Hindle, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, “Chemical species tomography by near infra-red absorption,” Chem. Eng. J. 77, 111–118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, A.

H. Philipp, A. Plimon, G. Fernitz, A. Hirsch, G. Fraidl, E. Winklhofer, “A tomographic camera system for combustion diagnostics in SI engines,” (Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 1995).
[CrossRef]

Hoyle, B. S.

B. S. Hoyle, H. McCann, D. M. Scott, “Process Tomography,” in Process Imaging for Automatic ControlD. M. Scott, H. McCann, eds. (CRC Press, 2005), chap. 4.

Jackson, W. M.

K. L. McNesby, R. T. Wainner, R. G. Daniel, R. R. Skaggs, J. B. Morris, A. W. Miziolek, W. M. Jackson, I. A. McLaren, “Detection and measurement of middle-distillate fuel vapors by use of tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 840–845 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Juck, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kirkendall, C. K.

C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, “Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing,” J. Phys. D 37, R197–R216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kitching, J. S.

S. M. Skippon, S. R. Nattrass, J. S. Kitching, L. Hardiman, H. Millar, “Effects of fuel composition on in-cylinder air/fuel ratio during fuelling transients in an SI engine, measured using differential infrared absorption,” (Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 1996).
[CrossRef]

Lawton, B.

A. E. M. Barrag, B. Lawton, “Computer optical tomography in the study of internal combustion engine soot concentration,” in 26th International Symposium, Automotive Technology and Automation, Vol. The Motor Vehicle and the Environment — Demands of the Nineties and Beyond (ISATA, 1993), pp. 423–480.

Litt, T. J.

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. C. Murray, T. J. Litt, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, H. McCann, “First optical attenuation measurements across the cylinder of a production IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, A. de Jong, M. Takei, R. A. Williams, M. Zeidan, eds. (University of Leeds, 2005), pp. 165–170.

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Martin, P. A.

P. A. Martin, “Near-infrared diode laser spectroscopy in chemical process and environmental air monitoring,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 31, 201–210 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, H.

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. J. Carey, H. McCann, “Design of high-performance photodiode receivers for optical tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 281–288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Near infra-red chemical species tomography of sprays of volatile hydrocarbons,” Tech. Mess. 69, 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Measurement of gaseous hydrocarbon distribution by a near-infrared absorption tomography system,” J. Electron. Imaging 10, 593–600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Carey, H. McCann, F. P. Hindle, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, “Chemical species tomography by near infra-red absorption,” Chem. Eng. J. 77, 111–118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. Yang, D. M. Spink, T. A. York, H. McCann, “An image-reconstruction algorithm based on Landweber’s iteration method for electrical-capacitance tomography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1065–1069 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. C. Murray, T. J. Litt, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, H. McCann, “First optical attenuation measurements across the cylinder of a production IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, A. de Jong, M. Takei, R. A. Williams, M. Zeidan, eds. (University of Leeds, 2005), pp. 165–170.

C. A. Garcia-Stewart, N. Polydorides, K. B. Ozanyan, H. McCann, “Image reconstruction algorithms for high-speed chemical species tomography,” in Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, T. Dyakowski, A. Kantzas, eds. (University of Leeds, 2003), pp. 80–85.

B. S. Hoyle, H. McCann, D. M. Scott, “Process Tomography,” in Process Imaging for Automatic ControlD. M. Scott, H. McCann, eds. (CRC Press, 2005), chap. 4.

McLaren, I. A.

K. L. McNesby, R. T. Wainner, R. G. Daniel, R. R. Skaggs, J. B. Morris, A. W. Miziolek, W. M. Jackson, I. A. McLaren, “Detection and measurement of middle-distillate fuel vapors by use of tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 840–845 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McNesby, K. L.

K. L. McNesby, R. T. Wainner, R. G. Daniel, R. R. Skaggs, J. B. Morris, A. W. Miziolek, W. M. Jackson, I. A. McLaren, “Detection and measurement of middle-distillate fuel vapors by use of tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 840–845 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mencaglia, A.

Mewes, D.

K. Salem, E. Tsotsas, D. Mewes, “Tomographic measurements of breakthrough in a packed bed adsorber,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 60, 517–522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Millar, H.

S. M. Skippon, S. R. Nattrass, J. S. Kitching, L. Hardiman, H. Millar, “Effects of fuel composition on in-cylinder air/fuel ratio during fuelling transients in an SI engine, measured using differential infrared absorption,” (Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 1996).
[CrossRef]

Miziolek, A. W.

K. L. McNesby, R. T. Wainner, R. G. Daniel, R. R. Skaggs, J. B. Morris, A. W. Miziolek, W. M. Jackson, I. A. McLaren, “Detection and measurement of middle-distillate fuel vapors by use of tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 840–845 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D.

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, “Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection — from concept to system realization,” Sens. Actuators B 51, 25–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morris, J. B.

K. L. McNesby, R. T. Wainner, R. G. Daniel, R. R. Skaggs, J. B. Morris, A. W. Miziolek, W. M. Jackson, I. A. McLaren, “Detection and measurement of middle-distillate fuel vapors by use of tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 840–845 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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S. Singh, K. Muralidhar, P. Munshi, “Image reconstruction from incomplete projection data using combined ARTCBP algorithm,” Def. Sci. J. 52, 303–316 (2002).

Muralidhar, K.

S. Singh, K. Muralidhar, P. Munshi, “Image reconstruction from incomplete projection data using combined ARTCBP algorithm,” Def. Sci. J. 52, 303–316 (2002).

Murray, S. C.

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. C. Murray, T. J. Litt, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, H. McCann, “First optical attenuation measurements across the cylinder of a production IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, A. de Jong, M. Takei, R. A. Williams, M. Zeidan, eds. (University of Leeds, 2005), pp. 165–170.

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F. Natterer, The Mathematics of Computerised Tomography (Wiley, 1986).

Nattrass, S. R.

S. M. Skippon, S. R. Nattrass, J. S. Kitching, L. Hardiman, H. Millar, “Effects of fuel composition on in-cylinder air/fuel ratio during fuelling transients in an SI engine, measured using differential infrared absorption,” (Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 1996).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchechin, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ozanyan, K. B.

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. J. Carey, H. McCann, “Design of high-performance photodiode receivers for optical tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 281–288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Near infra-red chemical species tomography of sprays of volatile hydrocarbons,” Tech. Mess. 69, 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Measurement of gaseous hydrocarbon distribution by a near-infrared absorption tomography system,” J. Electron. Imaging 10, 593–600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Carey, H. McCann, F. P. Hindle, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, “Chemical species tomography by near infra-red absorption,” Chem. Eng. J. 77, 111–118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Garcia-Stewart, N. Polydorides, K. B. Ozanyan, H. McCann, “Image reconstruction algorithms for high-speed chemical species tomography,” in Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, T. Dyakowski, A. Kantzas, eds. (University of Leeds, 2003), pp. 80–85.

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. C. Murray, T. J. Litt, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, H. McCann, “First optical attenuation measurements across the cylinder of a production IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, A. de Jong, M. Takei, R. A. Williams, M. Zeidan, eds. (University of Leeds, 2005), pp. 165–170.

Pan, T. S.

T. S. Pan, A. E. Yagle, “Acceleration of Landweber-type algorithms by suppression of projection on the maximum singular vector,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 11, 479–487 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pegrum, S.

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. C. Murray, T. J. Litt, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, H. McCann, “First optical attenuation measurements across the cylinder of a production IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, A. de Jong, M. Takei, R. A. Williams, M. Zeidan, eds. (University of Leeds, 2005), pp. 165–170.

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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H. Philipp, A. Plimon, G. Fernitz, A. Hirsch, G. Fraidl, E. Winklhofer, “A tomographic camera system for combustion diagnostics in SI engines,” (Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 1995).
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[CrossRef]

Polydorides, N.

C. A. Garcia-Stewart, N. Polydorides, K. B. Ozanyan, H. McCann, “Image reconstruction algorithms for high-speed chemical species tomography,” in Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, T. Dyakowski, A. Kantzas, eds. (University of Leeds, 2003), pp. 80–85.

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D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Harmonic detection with tuneable diode lasers — two-tone modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279–285 (1982).
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R. M. Richman, W. C. Reynolds, “The development of a transparent cylinder engine for piston engine fluid mechanics research,” (Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 1984).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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K. Salem, E. Tsotsas, D. Mewes, “Tomographic measurements of breakthrough in a packed bed adsorber,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 60, 517–522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, P. J. Emmerman, R. Goulard, “Optical tomography for flow field diagnostics,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 24, 1139–1150 (1981).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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B. S. Hoyle, H. McCann, D. M. Scott, “Process Tomography,” in Process Imaging for Automatic ControlD. M. Scott, H. McCann, eds. (CRC Press, 2005), chap. 4.

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R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, P. J. Emmerman, R. Goulard, “Optical tomography for flow field diagnostics,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 24, 1139–1150 (1981).
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S. Singh, K. Muralidhar, P. Munshi, “Image reconstruction from incomplete projection data using combined ARTCBP algorithm,” Def. Sci. J. 52, 303–316 (2002).

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K. L. McNesby, R. T. Wainner, R. G. Daniel, R. R. Skaggs, J. B. Morris, A. W. Miziolek, W. M. Jackson, I. A. McLaren, “Detection and measurement of middle-distillate fuel vapors by use of tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 840–845 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Skippon, S. M.

S. M. Skippon, S. R. Nattrass, J. S. Kitching, L. Hardiman, H. Millar, “Effects of fuel composition on in-cylinder air/fuel ratio during fuelling transients in an SI engine, measured using differential infrared absorption,” (Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 1996).
[CrossRef]

Spink, D. M.

W. Q. Yang, D. M. Spink, T. A. York, H. McCann, “An image-reconstruction algorithm based on Landweber’s iteration method for electrical-capacitance tomography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1065–1069 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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G. Stewart, A. Mencaglia, W. Philp, W. Jin, “Interferometric signals in fiber optic methane sensors with wavelength modulation of the DFB laser source,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 43–53 (1998).
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B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, “Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection — from concept to system realization,” Sens. Actuators B 51, 25–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tandy, C.

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, “Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection — from concept to system realization,” Sens. Actuators B 51, 25–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsotsas, E.

K. Salem, E. Tsotsas, D. Mewes, “Tomographic measurements of breakthrough in a packed bed adsorber,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 60, 517–522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verhoeven, D.

Wainner, R. T.

K. L. McNesby, R. T. Wainner, R. G. Daniel, R. R. Skaggs, J. B. Morris, A. W. Miziolek, W. M. Jackson, I. A. McLaren, “Detection and measurement of middle-distillate fuel vapors by use of tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 840–845 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wattsin, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Winklhofer, E.

H. Philipp, A. Plimon, G. Fernitz, A. Hirsch, G. Fraidl, E. Winklhofer, “A tomographic camera system for combustion diagnostics in SI engines,” (Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 1995).
[CrossRef]

Winterbone, D. E.

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Near infra-red chemical species tomography of sprays of volatile hydrocarbons,” Tech. Mess. 69, 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Measurement of gaseous hydrocarbon distribution by a near-infrared absorption tomography system,” J. Electron. Imaging 10, 593–600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Carey, H. McCann, F. P. Hindle, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, “Chemical species tomography by near infra-red absorption,” Chem. Eng. J. 77, 111–118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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S. H. Wong, S. F. Yau, “A linear sinogram extrapolator for limited angle tomography,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Signal Processing (IEEE, 1996), pp. 386–389.

Wright, P.

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. J. Carey, H. McCann, “Design of high-performance photodiode receivers for optical tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 281–288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. C. Murray, T. J. Litt, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, H. McCann, “First optical attenuation measurements across the cylinder of a production IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, A. de Jong, M. Takei, R. A. Williams, M. Zeidan, eds. (University of Leeds, 2005), pp. 165–170.

Yagle, A. E.

T. S. Pan, A. E. Yagle, “Acceleration of Landweber-type algorithms by suppression of projection on the maximum singular vector,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 11, 479–487 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, W. Q.

W. Q. Yang, D. M. Spink, T. A. York, H. McCann, “An image-reconstruction algorithm based on Landweber’s iteration method for electrical-capacitance tomography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1065–1069 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yau, S. F.

S. H. Wong, S. F. Yau, “A linear sinogram extrapolator for limited angle tomography,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Signal Processing (IEEE, 1996), pp. 386–389.

York, T. A.

W. Q. Yang, D. M. Spink, T. A. York, H. McCann, “An image-reconstruction algorithm based on Landweber’s iteration method for electrical-capacitance tomography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1065–1069 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

K. L. McNesby, R. T. Wainner, R. G. Daniel, R. R. Skaggs, J. B. Morris, A. W. Miziolek, W. M. Jackson, I. A. McLaren, “Detection and measurement of middle-distillate fuel vapors by use of tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 840–845 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Verhoeven, “Limited data computed tomography algorithms for physical sciences,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3736–3754 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, “Harmonic detection with tuneable diode lasers — two-tone modulation,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 279–285 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Eng. J. (1)

S. J. Carey, H. McCann, F. P. Hindle, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, “Chemical species tomography by near infra-red absorption,” Chem. Eng. J. 77, 111–118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Eng. Sci. (1)

K. Salem, E. Tsotsas, D. Mewes, “Tomographic measurements of breakthrough in a packed bed adsorber,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 60, 517–522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

P. A. Martin, “Near-infrared diode laser spectroscopy in chemical process and environmental air monitoring,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 31, 201–210 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Def. Sci. J. (1)

S. Singh, K. Muralidhar, P. Munshi, “Image reconstruction from incomplete projection data using combined ARTCBP algorithm,” Def. Sci. J. 52, 303–316 (2002).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. J. Carey, H. McCann, “Design of high-performance photodiode receivers for optical tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 281–288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (2)

T. S. Pan, A. E. Yagle, “Acceleration of Landweber-type algorithms by suppression of projection on the maximum singular vector,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 11, 479–487 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Andersen, “Algebraic reconstruction in CT from limited views,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 8, 50–55 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (1)

R. J. Santoro, H. G. Semerjian, P. J. Emmerman, R. Goulard, “Optical tomography for flow field diagnostics,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 24, 1139–1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Measurement of gaseous hydrocarbon distribution by a near-infrared absorption tomography system,” J. Electron. Imaging 10, 593–600 (2001).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

C. K. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, “Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing,” J. Phys. D 37, R197–R216 (2004).
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Carny-Perrey, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattsin, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Juck, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchechin, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

W. Q. Yang, D. M. Spink, T. A. York, H. McCann, “An image-reconstruction algorithm based on Landweber’s iteration method for electrical-capacitance tomography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1065–1069 (1999).
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M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
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Sens. Actuators B (1)

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, “Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection — from concept to system realization,” Sens. Actuators B 51, 25–37 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tech. Mess. (1)

F. P. Hindle, S. J. Carey, K. B. Ozanyan, D. E. Winterbone, E. Clough, H. McCann, “Near infra-red chemical species tomography of sprays of volatile hydrocarbons,” Tech. Mess. 69, 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

M. Bertero, P. Boccacci, Introduction to Inverse Problems in Imaging (IOP, Bristol, 1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. C. Murray, T. J. Litt, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, H. McCann, “First optical attenuation measurements across the cylinder of a production IC engine,” in Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, A. de Jong, M. Takei, R. A. Williams, M. Zeidan, eds. (University of Leeds, 2005), pp. 165–170.

R. M. Richman, W. C. Reynolds, “The development of a transparent cylinder engine for piston engine fluid mechanics research,” (Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 1984).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Hoyle, H. McCann, D. M. Scott, “Process Tomography,” in Process Imaging for Automatic ControlD. M. Scott, H. McCann, eds. (CRC Press, 2005), chap. 4.

F. Natterer, The Mathematics of Computerised Tomography (Wiley, 1986).

J. Feng, “Reconstruction in tomography from severe incomplete projection data using multiresolution analysis and optimization,” in Proceedings of 7th IEEE Digital Signal Processing Workshop (IEEE, 1996), pp. 133–136.

S. H. Wong, S. F. Yau, “A linear sinogram extrapolator for limited angle tomography,” in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Signal Processing (IEEE, 1996), pp. 386–389.

C. A. Garcia-Stewart, N. Polydorides, K. B. Ozanyan, H. McCann, “Image reconstruction algorithms for high-speed chemical species tomography,” in Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, T. Dyakowski, A. Kantzas, eds. (University of Leeds, 2003), pp. 80–85.

S. M. Skippon, S. R. Nattrass, J. S. Kitching, L. Hardiman, H. Millar, “Effects of fuel composition on in-cylinder air/fuel ratio during fuelling transients in an SI engine, measured using differential infrared absorption,” (Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 1996).
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A. E. M. Barrag, B. Lawton, “Computer optical tomography in the study of internal combustion engine soot concentration,” in 26th International Symposium, Automotive Technology and Automation, Vol. The Motor Vehicle and the Environment — Demands of the Nineties and Beyond (ISATA, 1993), pp. 423–480.

H. Philipp, A. Plimon, G. Fernitz, A. Hirsch, G. Fraidl, E. Winklhofer, “A tomographic camera system for combustion diagnostics in SI engines,” (Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 1995).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Carey, “Chemical species tomography by near infrared absorption,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, 2001).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Effect of pressure on iso-octane transmission at a constant temperature of 150 °C. Concentration 0.0073 mol/l; source bandwidth 5 nm. (b) Difference in absorption coefficient as measured with lasers (1700 nm compared with 1550 nm) and a monochromator (1700 nm compared with 1650 nm) with changing pressure (at a constant 150 °C) and changing temperature (at 1.2 bar)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic overview of first-generation chemical species tomography system. For clarity, fibers are shown for only two (of four) eight-beam projections. SM, single-mode; MM, multimode; GRIN, gradient-index.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laboratory implementation of simulated in-cylinder conditions. The silica-walled pressure vessel (center of picture) is shown configured for liquid fuel injection. Inlet and outlet hoses allow for purging and pressurization of the chamber with air or nitrogen. A heating element in the base of the chamber controls the temperature. The outer support ring is used for mounting and alignment of the 64 fiber optic elements, in 4 projections of 8 beams each.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reconstruction of 1550 nm data from 0.0 to 2.35 ms (darker regions correspond to higher levels of attenuation). The fuel injections used in this test were generated with the assistance of G. Wigley (Loughborough University) and Lotus Engineering.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Reconstructed images of a 10 ms low-pressure propane injection into air in a cylindrical engine simulator. The images shown correspond to times 30.6, 51.2, 98.5, and 145.0 ms after the start of the pulse to activate the injection. The center of the injection pipe is shown by a dot. The units of propane concentration are arbitrary, but the color bar represents a linear scale. (b) Reconstructed images of two sequential 10 ms low-pressure propane injections into air in a cylindrical engine simulator, with a 100 ms delay between injections. The images shown correspond to times 28.8, 98.8, 136.5, and 145.0 ms after the start of the pulse to activate the first injection. The center of each injection pipe is shown by a dot. The units of propane concentration are arbitrary, but the color bar represents a linear scale.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Candidate 32-beam array used in simulation studies. The absence of beams in the region at the bottom-center of the array is due to the proximity of the adjacent cylinder.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Illustrations of aspects of the performance of the irregular measurement array in Fig. 6, using the reconstruction technique given in the text. (a) Simulated phantom distribution consisting of two circular high-concentration clouds. (b) Reconstructed distribution for that phantom. (c) Phantom distribution following a 45° rotation. (d) Corresponding reconstructed distribution.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Three-channel optical access layer (OPAL).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effect of fiber vibration on noise levels. The upper panel shows the noise level achieved in the ratio by using standard 3 mm jacketed patchcords for optical interconnects (excluding those on the engine itself) exposed to the engine test cell environment. The lower panel (same scale) shows laboratory performance using the same optical setup. The SNR degradation is around 20 dB, highlighting the importance of effective environmental protection of the fibers.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Example results from an engine running on ISOPAR™ C fuel under four levels of load.

Equations (4)

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I r ( λ ) = I O ( λ ) exp ( - k ( λ ) L c d l ) ,
L c d l = 1 k ( λ 1 ) - k ( λ 2 ) ln [ I r ( λ 2 ) I r ( λ 1 ) I O ( λ 1 ) I O ( λ 2 ) ] .
g k + 1 = f [ g k + α S T ( p - Sg k ) ] ,
I T I IN β [ ( 1 - γ ) + 2 β r 1 r 2 cos ( 2 π ν τ ) ] ,

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