Abstract

A UV Rayleigh–Mie scattering lidar system at 355 nm has been upgraded for more-accurate temperature profiling of the troposphere by use of a new multicavity Fabry–Perot etalon (MCFPE) filter. The MCFPE filter, which was designed to improve the stability and operational characteristics of the lidar system, has three filter bandpass functions and separates one Mie scattering and two Rayleigh scattering signals from the lidar return signal and simultaneously acts as a laser frequency discriminator to lock the laser frequency. Moreover, a high-resolution grating is employed to block signal interference from Raman scattering and the solar background. A practical lidar system, which features strong system stabilization and high measurement accuracy, has been built, and the performance of the lidar system has been verified by comparison of temperature profiling between the lidar and a radiosonde. Good agreement between the two instrument measurements was obtained in terms of lapse rate and inversion layer height. Statistical temperature errors of less than 1 K up to a height of 3 km are obtainable with 5 min observation time for daytime measurements.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurement,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661–1670 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baumgrat, R.

Behrendt, A.

Caldwell, L. M.

Demoz, B. B.

R. Marchese, P. Di Girolamo, B. B. Demoz, D. N. Whiteman, “UV Raman lidar measurement of atmospheric temperature/relative humidity during IHOP: measurements in presence of clouds,” In Proceedings of the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, B. Warmbein, eds. (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 455–458.

Di Girolamo, P.

R. Marchese, P. Di Girolamo, B. B. Demoz, D. N. Whiteman, “UV Raman lidar measurement of atmospheric temperature/relative humidity during IHOP: measurements in presence of clouds,” In Proceedings of the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, B. Warmbein, eds. (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 455–458.

Hair, J. W.

Hua, D.

Kobayashi, T.

Krueger, D. A.

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurement,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661–1670 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marchese, R.

R. Marchese, P. Di Girolamo, B. B. Demoz, D. N. Whiteman, “UV Raman lidar measurement of atmospheric temperature/relative humidity during IHOP: measurements in presence of clouds,” In Proceedings of the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, B. Warmbein, eds. (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 455–458.

Matsui, I.

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurement,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661–1670 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

Onishi, M.

She, C. Y.

Sugimoto, N.

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurement,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661–1670 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, T.

Uchida, M.

Whiteman, D. N.

R. Marchese, P. Di Girolamo, B. B. Demoz, D. N. Whiteman, “UV Raman lidar measurement of atmospheric temperature/relative humidity during IHOP: measurements in presence of clouds,” In Proceedings of the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, B. Warmbein, eds. (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 455–458.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Opt. Eng. (1)

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurement,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661–1670 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

R. Marchese, P. Di Girolamo, B. B. Demoz, D. N. Whiteman, “UV Raman lidar measurement of atmospheric temperature/relative humidity during IHOP: measurements in presence of clouds,” In Proceedings of the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004), G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, B. Warmbein, eds. (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 455–458.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral profiles of the Mie and the Rayleigh–Brillouin scattering and transmission of Rayleigh filters centered at ν1 and ν2 and a Mie filter at ν0. [1 mbar (mb) = 100 Pa.]

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the spectroscopic filter box for the upgraded UV Rayleigh–Mie lidar.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Configuration of light beams and the bandpass of each cavity of the MCFPE filter: IN, incident beam; OUT, outgoing beam; CH, channel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission of three cavities of the MCFPE measured by scanning the laser frequency across the bandpass of each cavity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulsed-laser frequency stability and feedback loop signal versus time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Range-corrected lidar signals and backscatter ratio βam taken at 21:00 JST on 21 February 2005 with 5 min observation time and 180 mJ laser energy. Dashed curves, Mie-corrected Rayleigh signals.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the temperature profiles of lidar and radiosonde measurements. The lidar temperature was derived from the Mie-corrected Rayleigh signals in Fig. 6. The curve at the right shows the statistical temperature error of the lidar that is due to signal shot noise.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temperature profiles taken by the lidar and the radiosonde at 11:30 JST on 23 February 2005 when the solar elevation angle was ~43.5°. The temperature statistical error is due to signal shot noise. The measurement conditions for the lidar and the radiosonde were the same as those for Fig. 6.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of the MCFPE Filter and the Grating

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